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Lampon

(420 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Maharam, Wolfram-Aslan (Gilching) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Λάμπων; Lámpōn). [German version] [1] Son of Pytheas of Aegina, 5th cent. BC Son of Pytheas of Aegina; after the victory at Plataeae (479 BC), he suggested to Pausanias that the body of Mardonius be defiled just like the latter had dishonoured the body of Leonidas [1] at Thermopylae (Hdt. 9,78f.). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Seer, co-founders of Thurii L. the Seer. He participated in the founding of Thurii (Diod. Sic. 12,10,3; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 332; Phot. s.v. Θουριομάντις; Plut. Mor. 812d). By interpreting an omen (σημείον /sēmeíon: one-horned ram) in…

Thibron

(355 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Θίβρων/ Thíbrōn). [German version] [1] Spartan commander, around 400 BC Spartan, who inaugurated Sparta’s war against the Persians in the autumn of 400 BC, but only had command of a small force (Isoc. Or. 4,144), He had some successes only after he had taken on Cyrus’ [3] former mercenaries (about 5000-6000 men) (Xen. An. 7,6,1; 7,8,24; Xen. Hell. 3,1,4-6; Diod. Sic. 14,36,1-37,4). He then went to Caria on the instructions of the éphoroi (Xen. Hell. 3,1,6-7), but was replaced in Ephesus by Dercylidas and punished in Sparta by being exiled be…

Court titles

(3,061 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Gizewski, Christian (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] A. Antecedents in the ancient Orient …

Anchwennefer

(143 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Greek Chaonnophris, name with mythological reference. Successor of Harwennefer as anti-king in southern Egypt (201/0 - 27.8.186 BC). After the death of Harwennefer, Ptolemy V ruled again for a short while in the Thebais and in Elephantine, but was pushed back again by A.; from 190 battles with varying success, until A. was finally defeated by Komannos. Because of the conquest, the second Philae decree and the Philanthropa decree C. Ord. Ptol. 34 were passed. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Clarysse, Hurgonaphor et Chaonnophris, les derniers pharaons indigènes, in: CE 53, 1978, 243-253 W. Huss, Die in ptolemäischer Zeit verfaßten synodalen Dekrete der ägypt. Priester, in: ZPE 88, 1991, 189-208 …

Asclepiodotus

(391 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
(Ἀσκληπιόδοτος; Asklepiódotos). [German version] [1] Ptolemaean governor of Caria after 305 BC After 305 BC Ptolemaean governor (?) of Caria. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. Bagnall, The administration of the Ptolemaic possessions outside Egypt, 1976, 90f. [German version] [2] Military theoretician (1st cent. BC) Author of a treatise in 12 chapters on military theory (Ἀσκληπιοδότου φιλοσόφου τακτικὰ κεφάλαια; transmitted in the cod. Laur. LV-4 (F) and 11 other MSS dependent from it) and identified with a listener of Poseidonius mentioned in Seneca (Sen. Q Nat. 2,26,6; 30,1; 5,15,1; 6,17,3; 22,2). Accordingly, his work should be dated to the 1st cent. BC. His relationship to the lost treatise of Poseidonius on tactics, which is mentioned in Aelianus 1,2, cannot be elucidated. However, mention of battle chariots and elephants, which were no longer used in the 1st cent. BC (Ἀσκληπιοδότου φιλοσόφου τακτικὰ κεφάλαια 8; 9), indicates that Hellenistic armies were used as a model or that it was based on a text of that period. The work is theoretical in orientation and of almost no practical use. It describes the phalanx, its divisions and positioning in strongly schematized form but also discusses other categories of troops such as the peltasts and the cavalry. Terse i…

Agathocles

(1,543 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Ἀγαθοκλῆς; Agathoklês) [German version] [1] of Athens Archon 357/56 BC Archon 357/56 BC (Dem. Or. 47,44; Diod. Sic. 16,9). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Tyrant King of Syracuse (316-288 BC) Later king of Syracuse, born 361/0 BC in Thermae in Sicily. Son of Carcinus, who had been banned from Rhegium, and who under  Timoleon had received citizenship in Syracuse and had a pottery manufactory. A. had an adventurous youth, participated in several martial undertakings and early on fostered broad-reaching politica…

Achillas

(75 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Ἀχιλλᾶς; Achillâs). Egyptian, praef. regius, but probably not Ptolemaeus XIII's guardian. He carried out the murder of Pompey and was made high comman…

Lichas

(502 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Λίχας; Líchas). [German version] [1] Messenger of Hercules Herald of Hercules [1]; he brings Hercules the garment which Deianira, jealous of Iole, had painted with the blood of the centaur Nessus (Hes. Cat. fr. 25,20-25 M-W; Soph. Trach.; Bacchyl. 16; for possible precursors and variants, see [1]). The supposed love charm causes the death of Hercules, who, in his agony, smashes the innocent L. against a rock in the sea (Soph. Trach. 772ff.; Apollod. 2,7,7? corrupt text). Later sources (Ov. Met. 9,2…

Cleaenete

(34 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Κλεαινέτη; Kleinainétē). The daughter of  Numenius, sister of Agathoclea [3]. in 166/5 BC priestess of Arsinoë [II 4] Philopator. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography Chr. Habicht, Athen in hell. Zeit, 1994, 109.

Cleobulus

(335 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κλεόβουλος; Kleóboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Lindus, fl. 7th-6th cent. BC, poet Tyrant of Lindus (Rhodes), flourished in the 7th-6th cent. BC, considered to be one of the  seven wise men [1]. He composed ‘songs and riddles in about 3,000 verses’ (Diog. Laert. 1,89). Apart from 20 sayings (I6 p. 63, 1-12 DK), a short letter to Solon (Epist. p. 207 Hercher), a fragment of a scolion in a moralizing tone (SH 526). Preserved is only a funerary epigram in hexameter for king  Midas (Anth. Pal. 7,153 = GVI 1171a), quoted by Plato (Phaedr. …

Diophanes

(155 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Διοφάνης; Diophánēs). [German version] [1] Strategos of the Arsinoites 224-218 BC Strategos of the Arsinoites 224-18 BC; most of the P. Enteuxeis texts date to his time in office. PP 1,247. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography N. Lewis, Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1986, 56ff. [German version] [2] Greek rhetor from Mytilene, 2nd cent. BC 2nd-cent. BC Greek rhetor from Mytilene; exiled from his homeland for political reasons, he went to Rome and became the teacher and friend of Tib.  Gracchus. Together with C.  Blossius [2] from Cumae, he is suppose…

Sarapion

(118 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Σαραπίων/ Sarapíōn). [German version] [1] Priest of Horus, 2nd cent. BC Priest of Horus and in c. 160 BC the first Egyptian to hold the office of the eponymous priest of Alexander. Possibly identical with PP I/VIII 914. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Der makedonische König und die ägyptischen Priester, 1994, 45 f. [German version] [2] Dioiketes, 2nd cent. BC Dioikētḗs, in office after 145 and 142 BC, of the same rank as the 'friends of the first class' (PKöln V 223; PTebt III I732,1; Court titles B. 2.). Perhaps identical with a minor administrator documented 163-155 BC ( hypod…

Ophellas

(399 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Οφέλλας/ Ophéllas). [German version] [1] Official in the Hellenistic period O. of Olynthus, presumably a subordinate of Cleomenes [7] in the administration of Egypt ( epimelētḗs in Athribis; see epimelētaí ). He is said to have blackmailed the nomárchai subordinate to him ([Aristot.] 1353a 5ff.). Agathocles [2] Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 599. [German version] [2] Friend and official of Alexander [4] the Great Son of Silenus, Macedonian from Pella, phílos of Alexander [4] the Great and his (liturgical)…

Dion

(2,219 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Et al.
[German version] I. Persons (Δίων; Díōn) Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [I 1] Close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy Son of Hipparinus, brother-in-law and son-in-law of Dionysius I of Syracuse, b. 409 BC, close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy since Plato's first visit to Syracuse in 388. He gained prestige and wealth as Dionysius' I' trusted friend and advisor and also remained an influential person under Dionysius II. In 366, he arbitrated the peace with Carthage and called Pl…

Aristonicus

(1,329 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόνικος; Aristónikos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (2nd half 4th cent. BC) of Marathon, a wealthy man whose political allegiances lay with  Lycurgus and  Demosthenes (Plut. Mor. 846a); in 336/335 BC, he proposed the act about the  Panathenaea (LSCG no. 33), in 335/334 BC, together with Lycurgus, the psephisma for the deployment of the Athenian fleet against pirates (IG II2 1623, B 276-285), and prior to 322 BC, several laws to the   nomothetai (Alexis PCG 2, fr. 131,2). In 324/323 BC, A. faced prosecution in the trials of Harpa…

Tlepolemus

(811 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Τληπόλεμος/ Tlēpólemos, Doric Τλαπόλεμος/ Tlāpólemos). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and Astyochia Son of Heracles [1] and Astyochia. After the Heraclidae retreated from the Peloponnese, T. settled in Argos along with Licymnius [1] and killed him there in the midst of an argument (Diod. 4,58,5-8; in Tiryns: Pind. Ol. 7,20-38; unintentionally: Zenon of Rhodos FGrH 523 F 1). As a result, T. fled to Rhodos, where he followed the Doric tradition and "settled three times according to phyle " (Hom. Il. 2,668), that is, he created a new political fo…

Polemaeus

(352 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Πολεμαῖος/ Polemaîos). [German version] [1] Macedonian commander, c. 300 BC (also called Ptolemaeus and Polemon in MSS, but correctly P ., IG II2 469 and IK 28,2). Son of one P., Macedonian, nephew of Antigonus [1]. P. was probably already an officer in the Macedonian army under Alexander [4] the Great, possibly sōmatophýlax (Court titles B) of Philippus Arridaeus [4] (Arr. Succ. 1,38). In 319, he went to Eumenes [1] as a hostage of Antigonus (Plut. Eumenes 10); in 314 he was sent as general to Cappadocia and to secure the Hellespont (Diod. Sic.…

Straton

(1,134 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Wildberg, Christian (Princeton) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Στράτων; Strátōn). [German version] [1] Attic comedy writer, 4th cent. BC Attic comedy writer of the 4th cent. BC, according to the Suda belonging to the Middle Comedy [1. test. 1], but on the basis of fr. 1,43 (mentioning Philitas [1] of Cos) certainly to the New Comedy [2.62 f.]. At the Dionysia of 302, S. attained the fourth place [1. test. 2]. Of the comedy Phoinikídes (fr. 1 PCG) a rhesis survives on papyrus (fr. 1,4-8; 11; 13-15; 17-21; 23-25; 34-50; cf. [3]) and in a divergent version in Athenaeus (fr. 1,1-47; cf. [1.621 f.]); the spe…

Dioscorides

(1,511 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Διοσκουρίδης; Dioskourídēs). [German version] [1] Son of Polemaeus, naval commander in 314-313 BC Son of Polemaeus, nephew of  Antigonus [1] Monophthalmus. Led the fleet to a few victories as naval commander in 314-13 BC. Nothing further is known about his life. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography R. A. Billows, Antigonus the One-Eyed, 1990, 381f. [German version] [2] Polyhistor of the 4th and 3rd cents. BC Polyhistor of the 4th and 3rd cents. BC, pupil of Isocrates (Ath. 1,18,11 A). Of his works, the following titles are known (cf. FGrH 3 B 594): 1. Apomnēmoneúmata (‘Memorabil…
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