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Tauriscus

(252 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ταυρίσκος/ Taurískos). [German version] [1] Grammarian, 2nd cent. BC Grammarian of the 2nd cent. BC and pupil of Crates [5] from Mallus, to whom his definition of philological scholarship (κριτικὴ τέχνη, kritikḕ téchnē) can be traced [1. 56]. According to Sext. Emp. adv. math. 248-249, T. distinguished three sub-disciplines: grammar (λογικόν, logikón), dialectology and stylistic criticism (τριβικόν, tribikón) and commentary (ἱστορικόν, historikón) on content needing explanation. For T.' position within the classification of the grammatical discourse o…

Obelus

(132 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (ὀβελός/ obelós). Text-critical sign of Alexandrian philology in the shape of a line (- -) in the left margin [2. 204]. Its use goes back to Zenodotus of Ephesus [3. 9f.]. The obelus - originating in the textual criticism of Homer - was used primarily for marking poetic passages that were regarded as inauthentic or corrupted [4. 115; 5. 9]. In connection with the asterískos the obelus marks a versus iteratus (‘repeated verse’) regarded as interpolated. Correction marks; Critical marks; Emendation of texts; Text, corruption of the Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) Bibliogr…

Menippus

(1,763 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Μένιππος; Ménippos). [German version] [1] According to Plutarch sub-commander of Pericles In Plut. Pericles 13,10 (cf. Plut Mor. 812d) mentioned as a friend and sub-commander of Pericles (probably between 443 and 430 BC). Like the latter, he was mocked in the comedies. It is uncertain if M. really was a strategos. Plutarch's term for him ( hypostratēgṓn) is the Greek equivalent of the Latin term legatus (Develin, 103). Aristoph. Av. 1294 mentions a M., whom the scholias identify as a horse dealer. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography PA 10033 Traill, PAA 646185 (vgl. 646190 und 646195). …

Timolaus

(536 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Τιμόλαος/ Timólaos). [German version] [1] From Corinth, politician, c. 400 BC Leading politician of Corinth. At first on the side of the Spartans, he managed to convince Thasos in 411/10 BC to secede from Athens [1. 216-231]. Later, he changed course for personal reasons [2. 83 against 3. 73 f.]: in 395 BC, he advocated an alliance with Argos and due to his expertise [4. 411] became a moving force in the Corinthian Alliance (Stv 2, 225), for which he is claimed to have received plenty of funds from Timocr…

Protos heuretes

(768 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (πρῶτος εὑρετής/ prôtos heuretḗs, Lat. primus inventor). Term widely used as a topos from the 5th cent. BC on for one or more 'inventors' ( heuretḗs, pl. heuretaí) of particular objects or techniques, considered, by the connection of heurḗmata ('inventions') with his name , as their first ( prôtos) originator. The earliest witness to this usage can be found in the 7th-6th cent. BC Phoronis (fr. 2 Bernabé): οἳ πρῶτοι τέχνην πολυμήτιος Ἡφαίστοιο εὗρον ( hoì prôtoi téchn ēn polymḗtios Hēphaístoio heûron ("they <the Idaean Dactyls> were the first to invent the art…

Tyrannion

(277 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Τυραννίων/ Tyranníōn). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian, 1st cent. BC T. of Amisus, Greek grammarian of the 1st cent. BC (d. c. 25 BC). After training with Hestiaeus and Dionysius [17] Thrax, he probably worked at Rome from c. 68 BC [1. 29], where he came into contact with Caesar, Atticus and Cicero [2. 94]. Among his pupils was Strabo. T., with other grammarians (e.g. Tryphon [3]), marked the beginnings of normative grammar [3. 27]. On his role in the establishment of the grammatical quadripartite model, s. [4. 31-32]. Of …

Lysanias

(197 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Λυσανίας; Lysanías). [German version] [1] Tetrarch of Abilene, 1st half of the 1st cent. AD Tetrarch of Abilene who was introduced by the evangelist Luke (Lc 3:1) for the purpose of synchronization, in the 15th year of the emperor Tiberius = October 27 - September AD 28. He must have died before 37, since Caligula gave his territory to Herodes [8] Agrippa I at that time. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography L. Boffo, Iscrizioni Greche e Latine per lo studio della Bibbia, 1994, 171ff. PIR2 L 467. [German version] [2] Greek Grammarian, 3rd cent. BC Greek grammarian from Cyrene who lived in …

Theodoretus

(442 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Θεοδώρητος; Theodṓrētos). [German version] [1] Bishop of Cyrrhus, 1st half of the 5th cent. Bishop of Cyrrhus (born in c. 393, bishop in 423, died in c. 466). T. received a solid classical education in the monastic milieu of Antioch [1]. A devoted pastor in his diocese, he fought against heretics (Heresy) and worked towards improving living conditions. In the Christological conflict between Cyrillus [2] of Alexandria and Nestorius he joined the latter without reservations. He was dismissed by the Synod of Ephesus in 449…

Zopyrus

(988 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζώπυρος; Zṓpyros). [German version] [1] Persian, took part in the capture of Babylon Prominent Persian, son of Megabyzus [1], who according to Hdt. 3,153ff. had the gates of rebelling Babylon opened to Darius [1] I by using a ruse (self-mutilation and pretending to be a victim of the Great King). For this deceptive manoeuvre (Polyaenus, Strat. 7,13; referring to King Cyrus: Frontin. Str. 3,3,4) Z. allegedly received from Darius the satrapy of Babylonia for life and tribute-free, but he was killed when the B…

Menogenes

(69 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Μενογένης; Menogénēs). Greek grammarian. In Eust. 2,494 (ad Hom. Il. 2,494) he is mentioned alongside Porphyry and Apollodorus [7] as a commentator on the Homeric Catalogue of Ships. Nothing is preserved of his work, which was said to have encompassed 23 books. His dates are likewise unknown: [1] places him between Apollodorus and Porphyry. Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) Bibliography 1 A. Gudeman, s.v. Menogenes, RE 15, 917.

Zopyrion

(198 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Ζωπυρίων; Zōpyríōn). [German version] [1] From Macedonia, governor of Thrace, second half of the 4th cent. BC Macedonian of unknown origin, who as governor of Thrace allegedly undertook a campaign with 30,000 men across the Danube c. 325 BC, advanced as far as the Borysthenes (modern Dnieper), besieged Olbia [1], but as his army was severely worn down by bad weather, was defeated by the Scythae and killed (Curt. 10,1,43-45; Iust. Epit. 2,3,4; 12,1,4; 12,2,16f. with incorrect dating; 37,3,2; Macr. Sat. 1,11,33). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography Berve, vol. 2, Nr. 340  A. B. Boswort…

Peplos

(543 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(πέπλος; péplos). [German version] [1] Blanket, cloth, or shroud Blanket, cloth, or shroud (Hom. Il. 24,796; Eur. Tro. 627, cf. Eur. Hec. 432); later, women's outer garment or coat (Hom. Il. 5,734; Hom. Od. 18,292, cf. Xen. Cyr. 5,1,6). In the myth, the Trojan women place a peplos on the knees of the cult image of seated Athena (Hom. Il. 6,303). Peplos is also the term used for esp. magnificent robes, above all for the dress of Hera of Olympia which was newly woven every four years by 16 women (Paus. 5,16) and for that of Athena Polias in Athens, which wa…

Zosimus

(1,744 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ζώσιμος; Zṓsimos). [German version] [1] Of Thasos, epigrammatist, probably between 150 BC and AD 50 Z. of Thasos. Greek epigrammatist, whose works are probably to be dated between 150 BC and AD 50: three (Anth. Pal 6,183-185; 6,15 is also ascribed to him, alternatively to Antipater [8] of Sidon) are variations on the theme of 'dedication to Pan' from the view of a hunter, a bird catcher and a fisherman (cf. Satyrius). Another deals with the unusual theme of a shield saving its owner who uses it as a raft (Anth. Pal. 9,40, cf. Diocles [10]). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 104-…

Neoteles

(130 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Νεοτέλης; Neotélēs). Greek grammarian, probably a pupil of Aristarchus [4] [1. 78]. The author of a commentary on the Iliad (fragments in the Homeric scholia): Didymus [1] mentions him in connection with Hom. Il. 24,110, and Nicanor [10] of Cyrene tells us of N.'s comment on the Teucer scene (Hom. Il. 8,325) in which he observes that Teucer strung his bow in the manner of the Scythians [2. 31f.]. Based on this passage, Porphyrius (1,123,11ff. Sch.) attributed to N. an entire work (ὅλην βίβλον/ hólēn bíblon) on archery (Περὶ τῆς κατὰ τοὺς ἥρωας τοξείας/ Perì tês katà toù…

Pyres

(114 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Πύρης/ Pýrēs, Πύρρος/ Pýrros) from Miletus. According to Ath. 14,620e, he, Alexander [21] Aetolus and Alexas were precursors to Sotades and co-founders of ionicology or cinaedology ([1]; Suda Σ 871, s. v. Σωτάδης). In this type of solomimetic songs the performer recited what were known as  Ἰωνικὰ ποιήματα/ Iōnikà poiḗmata ('Ionic poems'), by which we have to imagine a connection between Ionic form and lascivious content. Of P.' works nothing survives, and we have no certainty on the dating (late 4th/early 3rd century BC). It ma…

Mythology

(11,788 words)

Author(s): Guthmüller, Bodo (Marburg/Lahn RWG) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
Guthmüller, Bodo (Marburg/Lahn RWG) I. Literature (CT) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) In the Encyclopédie of the French Enlightenment (1751-1780) we read in the entry 'mythology' ( mythologie, fable): "The study of mythology is indispensable for painters, sculptors and particularly for poets. Mythology is the foundation of their works and from it they draw their principal ornaments (...). Our theatre plays and operas, all genres of literature constantly make allusions to mythology; the engravings, paintings and stat…

Stesimbrotus

(584 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Στησίμβροτος; Stēsímbrotos) from Thasus, 5th cent. BC rhapsode and exegete of Homer (Homerus); fragments of three of his writings survive (FGrH 107). S. is considered one of the first allegorists and co-founder of the genre of biography. Niceratus [1] (Xen. Symp. 3,6) and Antimachus [3] (Suda s.v. Ἀντίμαχος) were his pupils. S. acquired significance through is allegorical interpretations of Homer; in Pl. Ion 530c-d he is invoked, alongside the allegorist Metrodorus of Lampsacus, a…

Seleucus

(2,908 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Et al.
(Σέλευκος/ Séleukos, Lat. Seleucus). [German version] [1] Co-regent in the Regnum Bosporanum, c.400 BC Co-regent with Satyrus [2] I in the Regnum Bosporanum, 433/2-393/2 BC (according to Diod. Sic. 12,36,1). As Satyrus is elsewhere (Diod. Sic, 14,93,1) described as a sole ruler, and other sources do not mention his name, his existence is not certain. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 231  E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks, 1913, 571  R. Werner, Die Dynastie der Spartokiden, in: Historia 4, 1955, 419-421. …

Salustius

(665 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
(Σαλούστιος; Saloústios). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian Greek grammarian (perhaps 4th/5th cents. AD [3. 31]); author of a commentary on Callimachus' [3] Hekale (fr. 9; 29; 179 Hollis), the use of which can still be detected in the Suda [4. 13-18]. The attribution of an edition of the hymns of Callimachus [5. 78] and of the hypothesis to Sophocles' Antigone and Oedipus in Colonus [6. 17-20] is probable. Likely identical to the S. mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Ἄζιλις. Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) Bibliography Editions: 1 A. S. Hollis, Callimachus. Hekale, 1990 2 R. P…

Simias

(348 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Σιμίας/ Simías) or Simmias (Σιμμίας/ Simmías) of Rhodes, Alexandrian poet and grammarian c. 300 BC (Suda s.v. Σ. Ῥόδιος). Among his most important works are the Γλῶσσαι/ Glôssai ('Glosses', 3 books) and a collection of poetry ( Ποιήματα διάφορα/Poiḗmata diáphora , 4 books), both surviving in only few fragments. S. is considered to be the inventor of technopaígnia and several lyric metres. For his explanations in his 'Glosses' of difficult poetic passages Str. 14,655 describes him as a grammatikós. The poetry collection shows S. as a typical Alexandrian sch…
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