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Porcius

(3,528 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Suerbaum, Werner (Munich) | Et al.
Name of a Plebeian family from Tusculum. In the belief that the family had been pig-breeders, in antiquity their name was derived from porcus  (Varro Rust. 2,1,10 etc.). From the middle of the 3rd century BC, the Catones and Licinii branches belonged to Rome's leading class and at the beginning of the 2nd century, they attained the consulship with  Cato [1] (Censorius) and P. [I 13]. The exact blood relationship between the most prominent bearer of the name, Cato [1], and his great-grandson, P. [I 7] Cato (Uticensis), is not completely clarified. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republic…

Naevius

(1,767 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italic personal name, perhaps derived from the praenomen Gnaivos ( Gnaeus, Cn.); popular etymology derives it from naevus, ‘birthmark’ (Arnob. 3,14). The antiquity of this name in Rome, which is also widely attested in inscriptions, is suggested by the name of porta Naevia in the Servian city wall (Varro, Ling. 5,163; cf. Liv. 2,11,8). However, the family emerged politically only in the 2nd cent. BC. The most important bearer of the name is the poet N. [I 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] N., Cn. Dramatist and epic poet, 3rd cent. BC Roman drama…

Licinius

(11,186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Et al.
Name of probably the most important Roman plebeian family. The similarity to the Etruscan name lecne and the links between the gens and Etruria in historical times (L. [I 7]) suggest an origin in that region [1. 108, n. 3]; the name may, however, also be of Latin origin ( Licinus). The spelling with a double ‘n’ occurs not only in the Greek form Λικίννιος ( Likínnios), but also in Latin inscriptions [1. 108, n. 1]. In the annalistic historical records dealing with the early Republic, members of the family appear among the earliest people's tribunes, reaching their polit…

Laelius

(1,467 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a family which probably came from Campania. The military successes of L. [I 1] in the Second Punic War (218-201 BC) and the connection to the elder Scipio probably gained them Roman citizenship and the ascent into the nobility. A younger line ( praenomen D.) became consuls under Augustus (L. [II 1-3]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L., C. Consul 190 BC, elder contemporary of Scipio Africanus Born around 235 BC, died around 160; L. owed his political ascent to the close (and what has become a proverbial) connection to P. …

Insteius

(401 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman gens, more frequently attested from the late Republic, though rooted in the early period of Rome as indicated by a street name, the vicus Instei(an)us on the southern peak of the Quirinal, the collis Latiaris (Varro, Ling. 5,52; Liv. 24,10,8). I. Republic [German version] [I 1] I., L. Fought in the Social War [3] in 89 BC, in 76 BC under Sertorius Served in the  Social War [3] in 89 BC under Cn. Pompeius Strabo outside Asculum (ILLRP 515); probably identical with the legate who fought on  Sertorius' side in Spain in 76 (Liv. 91, fr. 22: here also a C.I. as praefectus equitum, a broth…

Mevulanus, C.

(53 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] As military tribune of the consul C. Antonius [I 2] in 63 BC, he conspired with the Catilinarians ( Catilina) at Pisaurum (modern Pesaro). He was later attacked by the quaestor P. Sestius near Capua (Cic. Sest. 9; homonym: ILS 2994). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) Bibliography MRR 2,170 Schulze, 215.

Laronius, Q.

(55 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] From Bruttium; in 36 BC, sent to Sicily with three legions by M. Vipsanius Agrippa [1] during the fighting against Sex. Pompeius to support Octavian, and afterwards acclaimed as imperator (CIL X 8041,18). Suffect consul in 33 with L. Vicinius (CIL I2 p. 66 = Fasti Venusini). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)

Ligarius

(356 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
Roman gens, originally from the Sabine area, from which only a few individuals can be identified, all of those in the troubles of the Civil War. [German version] [1] L., P. Partisan of Pompey, taken prisoner in 49 BC near Ilerda and pardoned when he promised neutrality, executed in 46 AD near Thapsus as he had broken his word Partisan of Pompey. Taken prisoner in 49 BC near Ilerda as an officer in the army of L. Afranius [1] and pardoned when he promised future neutrality. Again among Caesar's adversaries in Thessalia and Africa: Caesar had him, who had…

Mucius

(2,116 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name of a Roman gens (in inscriptions also Muucius, CIL I2, 584, Greek Μούκιος/ Moúkios). Tradition tells us of the legendary C.M. [I 2] Cordus Scaevola; the great age of the family is perhaps demonstrated by the name Mucia Prata of a place to the east of the Tiber [1]. In the historical period (from the 3rd century BC) the family was plebeian and provided a series of significant lawyers (M. [I 5; I 8-9]). One of M. [I 4]'s sons was adopted by a P. Licinius Crassus and as P. Licinius [I 19] Crassus Dives Mucianus founded the reputation of this branch of the family of Licinii Crassi. I. Republican …

Munatius

(2,051 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne)
[German version] A. (Roman) Name of a Roman plebeian family, of which the branch of the Planci acquired political significance in the 1st century BC. Its most prominent member is M. [I 4], cos. in 42 BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] M. Flaccus, L. Took part in an attempt on the life of Cassius Longinus in 48 BC From Hispania Baetica; he escaped after a failed attempt on the life of the Q. Cassius [I 16] Longinus, a follower of Caesar's, in Corduba in 48 BC (Bell. Alex. 52,3f.). In 46/5 as a follower of the younger…

Laberius

(821 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Plebeian nomen gentile of Etruscan origin, more frequent references only towards the end of the Republic. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] L. Military tribune 258 BC Military tribune during the First Punic War, in 258 BC he secured the retreat of consul A. Atilius [I 14] Calatinus (Claudius Quadrigarius fr. 42 HRR) near Camarina. All 400 legionaries of L. were killed, he himself survived badly wounded, but nevertheless was celebrated as ‘The Leonidas of Rome’ (Gell. NA 3,7,21). Other war heroes mentioned are: Q.…

Minucius

(2,367 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of a Roman gens. The patrician bearers of the name from the 5th and 4th cents. BC that have come down to us are of disputed historicity, in any case the early family history has been embellished in the late Republic.  It is these Minucii that later membesrs (from the 3rd century BC) trace themselves back to. A prominent cognomen is Augurinus (M. [I 1-3] and [I 5 and 6]), deriving from the first plebeian augur M. [I 7], applied only subsequently to the early Republican members. The political zen…

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [German version] [2] Tragic poet, 5th cent. BC Greek tragic poet, victor at the Great Dionysia in…

Marathon running

(402 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] The marathon as an agonistic discipline is an invention of the modern age. Longer foot races than the dólichos (max. 24 stadia = c. 4∙6 km) were not known to antiquity. Just as the dólichos was originally run in the context of the training of messengers ( hēmerodrómoi; dromokḗrykes), the marathon was ultimately part of (military) communication. The ancient tradition regarding the narration of the unique marathon after the Persian battle (490 BC) is scant: according to Plutarch (Mor. 347c) an Athenian hoplite in armour ( hoplitai ) ran from the bat…

Numerius

(564 words)

Author(s): Rix, Helmut (Freiburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
During the Republican era, the praenomen Numerius (abbr. N.) was used in Roman aristocracy only by the Fabii (Fabius). They are said to have borrowed it from Samnium around 470 BC (Fest. 174 et passim). In fact, this praenomen is found most frequently during the Republican period in Oscan inscriptions: Niumsis, Νυμψισ, Νο(μ)ψισ < * Numesis (the Latin N. as well is most frequent in the former Oscan region); in addition there is the Umbrian Numesier (= Latin Nomesi; bilingual inscription [3. 9]). In Latin the original Oscan-Umbrian name was affected by rhotacism and was ass…

Nasidienus Rufus

(57 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] Ridiculed by Horace (Hor. Sat. 2,8) as the nouveau riche host of a dinner for Maecenas [2] and his poet friends that, for all its opulence and refinement, ends in banal mishap. (The nomen gentile is attested in only one other place, on an inscription from Cologne: CIL XIII 8270). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)

Norbanus

(761 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman family name, probably derived from the Latin city of Norba [1] (‘man from Norba’). The family first attained Roman citizenship with N. [I 1], owing its advancement to Caesar and Augustus, and then disappeared. In the Imperial period N. was also a cognomen. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] N., C. Praetor 89 BC, homo novus Novus homo of non-Roman descent (the nomen gentile indicates origins from Norba [1]). As people's tribune in 103 BC and follower of L. Appuleius [I 11] Saturninus, he brought a case against C. Servilius Caepio ( cos. 106) over the defeat at Arausio in …

Hortensia

(75 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] Daughter of the famous orator Q. Hortensius [7] Hortalus. She is praised for having inherited the abilities of her father (Val. Max. 8,3,3; Quint. Inst. 1,1,6). In 42 BC, H. appeared successfully in the forum as a spokesman for prosperous Roman women against an exceptional war tax imposed by the triumvirs (App. B Civ. 4,135-146). Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) Bibliography M. H. Dettenhofer, Frauen in polit. Krisen, in: Id. (ed.), Reine Männersache?, 1994, 140f.

Pheidippides

(176 words)

Author(s): Frigo, Thomas (Bonn)
[German version] (Φειδιππίδης; Pheidippídēs). Courier ( hēmeródromos) from Athens, who after the Persians' landing at Marathon (490 BC) was sent to the Lacedaemonians with a request for support troops (Hdt. 6,105f.; Persian Wars); haunted by a vision of Pan on Mount Parthenium in Arcadia, he reached Sparta on the second day (Hdt. 6,105f.). P. is encountered in the later tradition as Latin Phidippus (Nep. Miltiades 4,3) or Philippides (as in poorer manuscripts of Hdt. [1]; Plin. HN 7,84; Plut. Mor. 862a-b; Paus. 1,28,4; 8,54,6; Poll. 3,148; Solin. 1, 98; Suda s.v. Ἱππίας/ Hippías) and u…

Memmius

(1,801 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman plebeian gens name, whose bearers may have originated from the territory of the Volscians and who rose to prominence (in several branches) during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. They rose to consular rank only with M. [I 4]. The descent of the gens from the Trojan Mnestheus (Verg. Aen. 5,117) is a late-Republican construction. An aedile called M. supposedly instituted the Cerealia (before 211 BC; RRC 427). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] M., C. Popular politician at the end of the 2nd cent. BC Popular politician at the end of the 2nd centur…
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