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Milesische Geschichten

(528 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florenz)
[English version] (Μιλησιακά, Milēsiaká). Titel des Werkes eines Aristeides [2] mit dem Beinamen “von Milet” (seine tatsächliche Heimat ist unbekannt). Der Text ist nicht erh.; man weiß nur mit Sicherheit, daß es obszönen Charakter hatte. Die ant. Zeugnisse sind schwer interpretierbar und lassen eine genaue Bestimmung nicht zu: Es kann sich um einen Roman gehandelt haben [1] oder, wie mehrheitlich angenommen, um eine Novellen-Slg., die evtl. in eine Rahmenhandlung eingebunden war. In der mod. Lit.-Wiss. wird die zweite, von E. Rohde [3; 4] nachdrücklich vertretene …

Herpyllis-Roman

(158 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florenz)
[English version] Mit diesem Namen wird ein durch ein Papyrusfragment (PDubl. inv. C 3; Anf. 2. Jh. n.Chr.) bekanntes Werk bezeichnet, in dem fast [3] alle Gelehrten einen Roman erkennen. Ein Erzähler schildert, wie er selbst und eine Frau nach einer schmerzlichen Trennung an Bord zweier verschiedener Schiffe gehen. Es folgt die ausführliche, rhet. virtuose Beschreibung eines Sturmes (ein typisches Romanmotiv); mit dem Erscheinen des Elmsfeuers bricht der Text ab. Der Name der Frau wird meist als …

Chariton

(913 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
(Χαρίτων). [English version] A. Leben Über den Autor des frühesten vollständig erh. Romans haben wir keine direkten Angaben, abgesehen von jenen, die er selbst zu Beginn des Werkes macht; dort stellt er sich als aus Aphrodisias in Karien stammender Sekretär des Redners Athenagoras vor. Man hat gemeint, daß all diese Angaben einschließlich des Namens Chariton erfunden worden seien, um eine symbolische Verbindung zum Thema Liebe und zum

Antonios

(1,356 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[English version] [1] Thallos Epigrammatiker aus Milet, 2. H. 1. Jh. v. Chr. Epigrammdichter aus Milet (nach [2] hat er durch das Patronat der Antonia Minor die röm. Bürgerschaft erh.), lebte in der 2. H. des 1. Jh. v. Chr. (in Anth. Pal. 6,235 wird die Geburt eines Καῖσαρ begrüßt, der entweder mit C. Iulius Caesar, dem Enkel des Augustus, oder mit Germanicus gleichzusetzen ist). Seine fünf aus dem “Kranz” des Philippos stammenden Epigramme sind in ihren Themen zwar konventionell (das Grabepigramm Anth. Pal.…

Roman

(5,526 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Hofmann, Heinz (Tübingen) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
[English version] I. Begriff “R.” ist kein ant., sondern ein ma. Begriff, wo

Chione-Roman

(210 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florenz)
[English version] (Χιόνη). Nach dem Namen der mutmaßlichen Protagonistin wird gewöhnlich ein griech. Roman genannt, von dem drei Fragmente erh. sind, die wir nur aus Wilckens summarischer Transkription eines später verlorengegangenen koptischen Palimpsestes, des sogenannten Cod. Thebanus, kennen. Die schwer zu interpretierenden, mageren Fragmente scheinen Chione als Protagonistin zu zeigen, die von vielen Freiern umworben und dann gegen ihren Willen zur Heirat gezwungen wurde und nun mit ihrem Geliebten überlegt, wie sie aus dem Leben scheiden soll. Deutliche Ähnlichkeiten mit dem Roman des Chariton (der auch im

Pseudo-Clementine Literature

(419 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
[German version] Term for a group of writings traditionally attributed to Clement of Rome (Clemens [1]) (1st cent. AD): the Homilíai ('Homilies'; transmitted in the original Greek version) and the Recognitiones ('Scenes of recognition'; preserved only in the Latin translation by Rufinus [II 6] of Aquileia and in a Syrian translation); both works were probably written in Syria during the 4th cent. AD. Appended to them (in Greek) were Peter's letter to John, the record of John's reply and Clement's letter to John, which is prefixed to the beginning of the Homilíai in the MSS we know today. T…

Italy

(29,662 words)

Author(s): Chiesa, Paolo (Milan) | Picone, Michelangelo (Zürich RWG) | Tichy, Susanne (Marburg/Lahn RWG) | Bertoni, Clotilde (Rome) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Et al.
Chiesa, Paolo (Milan) I. From Late Antiquity to the 12th Century (CT) [German version] A. Gothic Rule (CT) The fall of the Western Roman Empire in Italy (I.) did not result in any perceptible 'decline' in cultural level as compared to the previous decades. However, there was a decisive change in the public perception of the system of government and the role and function of the state. After a break in continuity during the reign of Odoacer (476-493), the Gothic kingdom of Theoderic followed late-antique tradition, which continued to …

Barlaam and Ioasaph

(801 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence)
[German version] (Βαρλάαμ, Ἰωάσαφ; Barláam, Iōásaph). Greek novel from Byzantine times; there is uncertainty regarding date and author, (see below). The story of I., an Indian prince, is told; his father, king Abenner, an enemy of Christianity, was worried because of prophecies that his son would take on the new religion and ordered him to live, locked away in a magnificent palace, without learning about human suffering. Despite surveillance, the monk B. succeeds in approaching I. and initiating him into the Christian teachings. When Abenner learns about the conversion of his son, he tries in vain to dissuade him; the wise men, whom he calls together in defence of the pagan religion, finally go over to Christianity as well. The king then decides to entrust his son with half of his kingdom and I. proves himself to be a just ruler, who distributes his personal wealth among the poor. Abenner also finally converts to Christianity and withdraws to a life of atonement. At the death of his father, I. leaves the throne in the hands of a trusted friend and carries out an old vow: he goes into the desert to fast, pray and live in great poverty as a hermit. He finally finds the beloved …

Chariton

(957 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
(Χαρίτων; Charítōn). [German version] A. Life We have no direct information about the author of the earliest complete surviving novel, beyond that given by him at the beginning of the book; there he presents himself as secretary to the orator Athenagoras, originating from Aphrodisias in Caria. It has been conjectured that all these details, including the name Chariton, were invented in order to establish a symbolic link to the theme of love and to the setting (on the Syracusan Athenagoras cf. Thuc. 6,35); but both personal names are epigrap…

Longus

(1,122 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Author of 'Daphnis and Chloe' (Λόγγος; Lóngos). We have no information about the person who wrote the most famous Greek novel, ‘Daphnis and Chloe’: the name L. in the MSS is typically Roman and frequently attested on Lesbos, the island where the action of the novel takes place, but Roman names were very common among Greeks in the Imperial period. Also as far as the dating of the work is concerned, we only have few indications which leave room for doubt. The refinement of the tale conjures up a mature phase of the novel genre, so it probably dates from the turn of the 2nd to the 3rd cent. AD. L. contaminates the love story with the tradition of bucolic poetry ( Bucolics), the model of which was established by Theocritus. From this a radical transformation of the typical pattern results. The adventures of the protagonists, a couple separated in time and space, which form the central frame of the Greek story (primarily in its first phase) are almost absent here, or reduced to short allusions and miniaturized episodes. In the first of the four books, Daphnis becomes the victim of abduc…

Ninus romance

(578 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence)
[German version] The discovery of the first fragments of the so-called ‘ Ninus Romance’ (NR) and their publication in 1893 by U. Wilcken mark a turning-point in the study of ancient narrative literature. The NR was the first of a large number of other Greek novels recovered from Egyptian papyri. Its early dating (not later than the 1st cent. AD) led to the rejection of  E. Rohde's thesis, widely accepted at that time, that the flowering of the Greek novel was connected with the Second Sophistic (2nd cent. AD) [1].…

Achilles Tatius

(1,012 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
(Ἀχιλλεὺς Τάτιος; Achilleùs Tátios). [German version] [1] Of Alexandria of Alexandria, 2nd cent. AD Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) [German version] A. Life As well as the novel ‘Leucippe and Cleitophon’ (in eight books), he wrote a treatise on the sphere of heaven, a treatise on etymology and a polygraphic work. According to the Suda lexicon (α 4695 Adler) he is said to have converted to Christianity -- a fiction like that circulating about  Heliodorus. It notes that on the whole his style is similar to that of other authors of romantic novels [1. 1710]. Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) …

Aristides

(3,776 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ἀριστείδης; Aristeídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician and srategos (beginning of the 5th cent. BC) Of Athens, son of Lysimachus. He was one of the most prominent politicians and strategoi of Athens at the time of the Persian Wars. In the battle of Marathon, he probably served as a strategos. In 489/488 BC, he was the eponymous archon (Plut. Aristides 1,2, cf. IG I3 1031). In 482 BC, he was ostrazised ( Ostraka) (Hdt. 8,79; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 22,7; Plut. Aristides 7,1 ff.). His r…

Lucius [I]

(732 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Et al.
(Λούκιος; Loúkios) [German version] [1] L. Kathegetes Author of pharmacological texts, 1st cent. AD Author of pharmacological texts, active in the middle to the end of the 1st cent. AD. Galen (De compositione medicamentum secundum genera 13,295 K.), quoting from Andromachus [5] the Younger, records a remedy against diarrhoea by L. of Tarsus, a city with a long pharmacological tradition (cf. also 13,292 K., where the name of the city is not mentioned). He is almost certainly to be identified with the more fa…

Xenophon

(5,032 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Ξενοφῶν; Xenophôn). [German version] [1] Of Athens, strategos, 5th cent. BC Athenian. Initially commander of the cavalry ( hippárchēs; IG I3 511); then participated in the campaign against Samos in 441/40 BC as stratēgós (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38), was also stratēgós the following years and operated as such in Thrace in 430/429. He was treated with hostility due to his unauthorized acceptance of the capitulation of Potidaea (Thuc. 2,70), but remained in office and fell as stratēgós at Spartolus in the summer of 429 during a campaign against the Chalcidians and Bottians (…

Iolaus fragment

(158 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence)
[German version] The name given to a work known only through a single papyrus fragment (POxy. 3010, beginning of the 2nd cent. AD). In it someone journeys to a certain Iolaus and delivers a speech in sotadic verses, claiming that he became a Gallus, i.e. a castrated adherent of Cybele [1. 57], and is omniscient. The papyrus breaks off with an Euripidean quotation (Eur. Or. 1155-7) about the value of friendship. The fragment's significance lies in its use of the  prosimetrum (the distinction betwee…

Sesonchosis Romance

(102 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
[German version] Conventional title for a Greek prose work, known to us from a number of papyrus fragments (POxy. 1826, end of the 3rd or beginning of the 4th century AD; POxy. 2466 and 3319, 3rd century AD). The main character was Sesonchosis (Sesostris); the legend ascribed to him acts of pharaohs of various dynasties. The narrative exhibits analogies to the Ninus Romance, but the style of the fragments places it close to the New Testament and Apocryphal acts of the Apostles (New Testament Apocrypha).…

Heliodorus

(2,533 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
(Ἡλιόδωρος; Heliódōros). [German version] [1] Chancellor under Seleucus IV, 2nd cent. BC Son of Aeschylus of Antioch on the Orontes, was educated with Seleucus IV and was a courtier (τῶν περὶ τὴν αὐλήν) and well-respected chancellor (ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν πραγμάτων τεταγμένος) under him in 187-175 BC (IG XI 4,1112-1114, or OGIS 247; App. Syr. 45). When financial difficulties after the defeat of Seleucus' father Antiochus III against the Romans (190/188), in conjunction with internal Jewish intrigues, had led to special tax demands on the Jews and H. had met with opposition when collecting them …

Epistolary novel

(355 words)

Author(s): Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila)
[German version] The epistolary novel is a literary sub-genre, almost exclusively familiar in numerous modern examples dating from the 18th and 19th cents. (Richardson, …
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