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Volusianus

(331 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor AD 251-253 Imp. Caes. C. Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumnianus V. P. F. Invictus Aug. (RIC 4,3, 173-189). Roman emperor from the middle of AD 251 until the middle of 253. Born c. 230 in Perusia (?), the son of Trebonianus Gallus and Afinia Gemina Baebiana. After the battle of Abritus against the Goths and the death of Decius [II 1], the legions proclaimed him and his father emperor in June 251 (Eutr. 9,5; Zon. 12,21 D.); at the same time, he was appointed Caesar by his father (Aur. Vict. Caes. 30)…

Magnentius

(353 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Flavius Magnus M., usurper, Roman emperor, AD 350-353. Born in Amiens c. 303, of non-Roman origin, not Christian. M. entered a military career and made it to the rank of comes . The comes rerum privatarum Marcellinus [5] incited him to conspire against Constans [1]: On 18 January 350, M. revolted in Autun (Aur. Vict. 42; Zos. 2,42); Constans was killed. By the end of February, M. was recognized as emperor in northern Italy, and thereafter in the entire West and in Africa as well. In the Danube reg…

Marcellinus

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκελλῖνος; Markellînos). [German version] [I 1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses, 2nd cent. AD?, [1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses. His reference to followers of Archigenes suggests the late 1st or 2nd cent. AD as the earliest date of its composition. A more precise dating would be possible if he were the author of a recipe quoted by Galen (De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 7,5 = 13,90 K.) from Andromachus [5] the Younger, but the identification is uncertain. M.'s …

Galla

(598 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] First wife of Julius Constantinus [4] 1st half 4th cent. AD First wife of Julius Constantius [4], a son of emperor Constantius [5] I. She was mother of Constantius Gallus, Caesar from AD 351-354 (Amm. Marc. 14,11,27). PLRE 1, 382 (G. 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Valentinianus I Youngest daughter of  Valentinianus I, sister of Valentinianus II. In AD 387 she fled, together with him and her mother Iustina, from the usurper Maximus to Constantinople, where she married Theodosius I (their da…

Faustina

(799 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Annia Galeria Aurelia F. Daughter of Marcus Arelius, born after AD 151 Daughter of Marcus Aurelius and F. [3]. Born probably AD 151 [1. 108, 247; 2. 161], married to Cn. Claudius [II 62] Severus, cos. II 173. Her son was Ti. Claudius [II 65] Severus Proculus, cos. ord. 200. PIR2 C 1028. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius, 21988 2 W. Ameling, Die Kinder des Marc Aurel..., in: ZPE 90, 1992, 147-166. [German version] [2] Annia Galeria F. Wife of Antoninus Pius Wife of Emperor  Antoninus [1] Pius. Daughter of  Annius [II 15] Verus, cos. III A…

Vir clarissimus

(273 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (or clarissimus vir = c.v., literally approximately a 'highly regarded man'; Greek lamprótatos, attested from c. AD 160; until the 3rd cent. AD also krátistos). In the (late) Republican Period a general senatorial honorary attribute; in the Imperial Period VC developed into a title of rank for members of the senatorial class (Senatus). Up to the early 2nd cent. AD it became a fixed title for senators (until the 4th cent. it was c.v.) which from the 2nd cent. was also transferred to their relatives ( clarissima femina, c. iuvenis, c. puer, c. puella). As a rule women lost …

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Mercurinus

(117 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (better known as Auxentius of Durostorum in Moesia). Student of the Gothic bishop Ulfila, perhaps a Goth himself. M. had to give up his bishopric in AD 380 after the edict of Theodosius I with regard to the return of the churches to the Orthodox. Shortly afterwards he was consecrated as Arian bishop of Milan ( Arianism). He was an opponent of Ambrosius; he exerted great influence on the court of Valentinian II. His ‘On the Life and Death of Ulfila ( De vita et obitu Ulfilae). (PL Suppl. 1, 703-707) has come down to us. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography K. G…

Montius Magnus

(65 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Came from Africa, proconsul of Constantinople around AD 350, quaestor sacri palatii of Constantius [5] Gallus AD 351-353; while seeking to gain influence with the life guards during Gallus' struggle with the praef. praet. Domitianus [3], he was murdered by soldiers incited by Gallus (Amm. Marc. 14,7,12-14; 9,4; 11,17; Philostorgius 3,28; PLRE 1, 535-536, 11; 1, 608). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)

Nicentius

(135 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Official under Hermogenes, AD 358 In AD 358, after occupying other, unknown offices, he became consularis Syriae. He was fined and dismissed by the praef. praet. Hermogenes [10] for failings in the supply of the army in Callinicum. He may have received a new office in 360 from the comes Orientis Modestus [2]. N. was highly regarded by Libanius (Lib. Ep. 122; 193). PLRE 1, 628 no. 1. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Official, 4th cent. AD Tribunus et notarius, lived in Mediolanum/Milan, where he was said to be miraculously he…

Symmachus

(1,389 words)

Author(s): Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf) | Lehnardt, Andreas | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] I. Greek (Σύμμαχος/ Sýmmachos). [German version] [I 1] Author of a commentary on Aristophanes, 1st half of the 2nd cent. No later than the first half of the 2nd cent. AD (citation in Herodian. 2,945-946 Lentz); author of a commentary on Aristophanes [3], frequently used in Late Antiquity and Byzantine scholia literature ( subscriptio Schol. Aristoph. Av.; Nub.; Pax). It remains unclear whether S. also commented on comedies which do not survive [2. 1138 f.]. Of the 41 (factual) explanations attributed to S. by name in the Aristophane…

Tractatores

(121 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (Greek τρακτευταί/ trakteutaí). Accounting official, primarily in the financial administration, which came under the praefectus praetorio , first attested in a 468 AD law of the emperor Leo [4] I (Cod.  Just. Epit. 10,23,3,3). In the provinces they were responsible for the annual notification of the amount and use of taxes, supervised the collection and passing on of all tax demands and saw to the recovery of financial arrears; for this they also received armed assistance when needed. They were selected by the heads of the office. Negligence by tractatores attracted …

Serena

(127 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Born c. AD 365 in Spain, daughter of Honorius [2], niece of Theodosius I, who held in great esteem the highly educated S., adopted her after the death of her father in 379(?) and in 384 married her to Stilicho. Children of this marriage were Maria [I 3], Eucherius [2] and Thermantia. S. gained significant influence at the court of Honorius [3], who she had cared for when he was a child. In 408 she came into opposition with Stilicho but nevertheless fell into disgrace when he was ki…

Iovinus

(274 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius I. 361 AD magister equitum of Iulianus [11] In AD 361 Magister Equitum of  Iulianus [11] (Amm. Marc. 21,8,3; 22,3,1), in 363 Mag. Mil. per Gallias (Amm. Marc. 25,8,11; 10,6-17; 26,5,1-3). I. continued to hold these offices under Valentinianus and Valens. In 366 victory over the Alamanni on the upper Mosel (Amm. Marc. 27,2). He was consul in 367, and remained active in Gaul and Britain until 369. He was a Christian and built the church of Saint Agricola in Reims (CIL XIII 3256). PLRE 1, 462f. (F.I. 6). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) …

Spectabilis

(163 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (or vir spectabilis, Greek períbleptos, also spektabílios). Senatorial title, coined in Late Antiquity, for officials ranking second to the illustres (Illustris vir), originally used in the sense of admirabilis ('admirable'), from the middle of the 2nd cent. also to describe prominent persons. The title is first recorded in AD 365 (Cod. Theod. 7,6,1); the usage initially fluctuated considerably between illustres, spectabiles and clarissimi (Vir clarissimus) and seems not to have been unequivocally fixed until c. 400. The first to be given the title were the p rocon…

Rusticus

(528 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
Roman cognomen; Antistius [II 4], Fabius [II 19], Iunius [II 27-28]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Theologian from Rome, from 547 in Constantinople and Egypt Deacon of the city of Rome, resided at Constantinople with his uncle Pope Vigilius from AD 547. Became a ferocious defender of the 'Three Chapters' (Synodos), for which reason Vigilius excommunicated him in 550. Banished after the 5th Ecumenical Synod (553), initially to Egyptian Thebes, he wrote Contra Acephalos against the Monophysites (Monophysitism). Subsequently in exile in the Akoimet…

Pompeianus

(219 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Consul ord. in AD 209 Cos. ord. in AD 209. Identical with L. Aurellius Commodus P. (AE 1978, 733 = 1979, 560; RMD 1, 73; SEG 32, 1149). PIR2 P 568. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Consul suff. in an unknown year Cos. suff. on 13 May of an unknown year (CIL XVI 127); it is possible that there is a connection with the P. who is mentioned in CIL VI 40646 as consul in about AD 212. PIR2 P 567; 569. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] Clodius P. (PIR2 P 570) see Clodius [II 12] Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [4] C. Gabinius Barbarus P. (PIR2 P 566) see Gabinius […

Oclatinius

(169 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] M. O. Adventus. Born before AD 160, he came from very humble circumstances and according to Cassius Dio could not read (79,14,1). Under Septimius Severus, O. rose through lowly military positions to the position of princeps peregrinorum and then transferred to the administrative service. In 205-207 p rocurator of Britain under L. Alfen(i)us [2] Senecio [1. no. 1234]. Under Caracalla he was praefectus praetorio together with M. Opellius Macrinus (Herodian. 4,14,2; Cod. Just. Epit. 9,51,1). He went to Mesopotamia with Caracal…

Macedonius

(746 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Writer of a paean, c. 300 BC? Author of a paean to Apollo and Asclepius passed down to us in inscriptions (1st cent. BC) in Delphi, created perhaps already around 300 BC [1; 2], in dactylic metre [3]. Probably not identical with M. [2] (thus still [4]). The content and structure of the paean closely follow the Erythraean paean and Isyllus; cf. Ariphron. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 W. Peek, Att. Versinschr. (Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wiss. Leipzig, Philol.-histor. Klasse 69/2), 1980, 45f. (Text) 2 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992, 200-206, 383f. (text…

Marina

(126 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] M. Severa Mother of the emperor Gratianus, around AD 370 First wife of Valentinianus I, mother of the emperor Gratianus [2], whose elevation to Augustus she helped effect; removed from the court and divorced before AD 370 because of some fraud, in 375 called back to the court by Gratianus. PLRE I, 828, 2. Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Arcadius and Eudoxia, AD 403-449 Youngest daughter of Arcadius and Eudoxia [1], born 403, died AD 449; built a palace in Constantinople; following the example…
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