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Epictetus

(1,123 words)

Author(s): Oakley, John H. (Williamsburg, VA) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Ἐπίκτητος; Epíktētos). [German version] [1] Attic red-figured vase painter, c. 520-490 BC Early Attic red-figured vase painter ( c. 520-490 BC); signed many of his vases as painter and collaborated with various potters (early on with Andocides,  Nicosthenes, Pamphaeus and Hischylos, later with Python and Pistoxenus). Possibly a pupil of  Psiax, E. mainly decorated bowls but also several plates, some of which rank with his best works. E. signed one of these plates as painter and potter. Amongst his early works are bilingual eyecups ( Bilingual vases), which are red-figured on the outside and black-figured on the inside; in …

Cleanthes

(515 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κλεάνθης; Kleánthēs). [German version] [1] Painter from Corinth One of the earliest painters from Corinth, mentioned in Plin. HN 35,15f.; his name stands for the origin of the genera (

Boethus

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Βόηθος; Bóēthos). I. Political figures [German version] [1] Ptolemaean civil servant, 136/5 BC Son of Nicostratus from Caria; in the service of the Ptolemies well before 149 BC, he occupied various administrative positions before becoming epistrategos of Thebes. Founded two cities in Lower Nubia. Ameling, Walte…

Lucius [I]

(732 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Et al.
(Λούκιος; Loúkios) [German version] [1] L. Kathegetes Author of pharmacological texts, 1st cent. AD Author of pharmacological texts, active in the middle to the end of the 1st cent. AD. Galen (De compositione medicamentum secundum genera 13,295 K.), quoting from Andromachus [5] the Younger, records a remedy against diarrhoea by L. of Tarsus, a city with a long pharmacological tradition (cf. also 13,292 K., where the name of the city is not mentioned). He is almost certainly to be identified with the more fa…

Zeno

(6,572 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Ameling | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζήνων/ Zḗnōn.) [German version] [1] Z. of Elea Eleatic philosopher, 5th cent. BC (Son of Teleutagoras). Eleatic philosopher of the 5th cent. BC; a pupil and intimate friend of Parmenides who became famous for his paradoxes. According to the Suda (29 A 2 DK), Z. wrote many books; but his Λόγοι ( Lógoi, 'Arguments', 40 according to Proclus…

Musonius

(364 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] [1] C. M. Rufus Stoic philosopher, c. AD 30-100 Stoic philosopher, who influenced Epictetus [2]. Born into the equestrian class in Etruria before AD 30. He taught in Greek. Exiled by Nero for his links to Stoic senators, he was recalled after Nero's death, but exiled and recalled again under the Flavians. By his death (c. AD…

Blossius

(172 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
Italian-Oscan gentilicium (Schulze 423 ThIL 2,2054f.). Cicero mentions a respected B. family from Campania (Leg. agr. 2,93), whose members in Capua are known to have been opponents of Rome in 216 and 210 BC (Liv. 23,7,8f.;27,3,4f.). [German version] [1] Latin poet and advocate, 5th cent. AD see Dracontius.…

Hierocles

(1,246 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
(Ἱεροκλῆς; Hieroklês). [German version] [1] Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC. In 287/6 together with Heraclides he foiled the attempt of Athenian democrats to take the Piraeus and the Munychia (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,17). Under  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, H. held the position of a Macedonian phroúrarchos (‘commandant of a garrison’) in Piraeus and repeatedly was host to the king. He was a friend of the leader of the Academy, Arcesilaus [5] (Diog. Laert. 4,39f.) and acquainted with Menedemus (Diog. Laert. 2,127).  Demetrius [2] Engels, Joh…

Hecaton

(222 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)

Chaeremon

(358 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Χαιρήμων; Chairḗmōn). [German version] [1] Tragedian, middle of the 4th cent. BC Tragedian; mentioned by the comedy writers Eubulus (Ath. 2,43c) and Ephippus (Juv. fr. 9 Kock in Ath. 11,482b), which locates him in the middle of the 4th cent. BC. Performed again 276-19 at the Naïa in Dodona (DID B 11,13); titles: Alphesiboea, ‘Achilles killer of Thersites (Apulian vase, Boston 03.804 [1. 166]), Dionysus, Thyestes, Io, The Centaur, The Minyae, Odysseus, Oeneus and more than 40 fragments. Aristot. Rhet. 3,12,1413b8) counts him among those writers whose plays are fully effective only when read ( Anagnostikoi; cf. fr. 14b Acrostichon) [2. 188-90]. Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 T. B. L. Webster, Monuments illustrating Tragedy and Satyr Play, 21967 2 G. A. Seec…

Medius

(333 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] [1] Dynast of Larisa, conqueror of Pharsalus 395 BC (Μήδιος/ Mḗdios in MSS; better Μήδειος/ Mḗdeios, in epigraphy). Dynast of Larisa [3], of the Aleuadae family, successor of Aristippus; in 395 BC he joined the newly formed anti-Spartan alliance in the fight against the tyrant Lycophron [2] of Pherae and captured Pharsalus, which housed a Spartan garrison (Diod. Sic. 14,82,5f.; cf. Aristot. Hist. an. 618b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography H.-J. Gehrke, Stasis, 1985, 191. [German version] [2] Hetairos of Alexander the Great and author of a work about him Son of Oxyth…

Papirius

(3,269 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile, in its older form, Papisius (Cic. Fam. 9,21,3), from which one of the 16 old rural tribes ( tribus ) took its name. The patrician gens formed several branches at an early time (5th/4th cents. BC: Crassi, Cursores, Mugillani, 3rd cent.: Masones) who played a significant role in the military successes of the Republic, but became either extinct no later than the 2nd cent. BC or politically insignif…

Herillus

(236 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] (Ἥριλλος; Hḗrillos) of Carthage (Calchedon). Stoic philosopher of the 3rd cent. BC, a student of  Zeno of Citium. He developed a form of  Stoicism that resembled that of Ariston of Chios because of its emphasis on ethics. After the tendency represented by Cleanthes and Chrysippus had prevailed in this school, H.'s approach w…

Crinis

(62 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] (Κρῖνις). Stoic logician, author of an ‘Art of the Dialectic’ (Διαλεκτικὴ τέχνη; cf. Diog. Laert. 7,62; 68; 71; 76). An allusion in the Epict. Dissertationes 3,2,15 dates his active phase to the period after  Archedemus [2] of Tarsus (late 2nd cent. BC) and his death before the philosophical career of Epictetus (early 2nd cent. AD).…

Ethics

(1,482 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] A. Background In antiquity ethics was the concern to establish what disposition of character is best for mankind. That consideration began with the Homeric ideal of ‘being a speaker of words and a doer of deeds’ (Hom. Il. 9,443). Critical thought about character made progress in the 5th cent. BC, often embedded deeply in a political context. The earliest research on man's character concentrated most of all on his role as a citizen. Democritus' work ‘On rest’ seems by contrast to have focussed on the private and personal aspect. Inwood, Brad (Toronto) [German version] B. Th…

Diogenes

(4,653 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης; Diogénēs). Known personalities: the Cynic D. [14] of Sinope, the philosophical historian D. [17] Laertius. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC Athenian (?) [1. 341,1], Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC, who is supposed to have demanded Corinth from the Achaeans (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63] at the rumour of the death of  Aratus [2]; after the death of  Demetrius [3] II in 229, he facilitated the liberation of Athens from Maced…

Euphrates

(1,366 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
[German version] [1] Stoic philosopher from Syrian Tyre Stoic philosopher from Syrian Tyre (born c. AD 40). He married into the family of Pompeius Iulianus, moved to Rome and was perhaps under the patronage of the emperor. Under Hadrian he commit…
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