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Athenion

(484 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀθηνίων; Athēníōn). [German version] [1] Peripatetic rhetorician in Athens Peripatetic rhetorician in Athens (different from  Aristion [1. 341-343]), only known from the polemic party of  Posidonius (FGrH 87 fr. 36). Sent from Athens to  Mithridates VI in 88 BC, taken up by him among his φίλοι ( phíloi, friends), he won the support of the people with Mithridates' support and had as στρατηγὸς ἐπὶ τὰ ὅπλα ( strategòs epì tà hópla) a decisive influence on Athenian politics (‘tyrant’). A failed raid on Delos seems to have ended his political career. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliogra…

Boethus

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Βόηθος; Bóēthos). I. Political figures [German version] [1] Ptolemaean civil servant, 136/5 BC Son of Nicostratus from Caria; in the service of the Ptolemies well before 149 BC, he occupied various administrative positions before becoming epistrategos of Thebes. Founded two cities in Lower Nubia. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography K. Vandorpe, Der früheste Beleg eines Strategen der Thebais als Epistrategen, in: ZPE 73, 1988, 47-50. II. Philosophers and writers [German version] [2] Of Sidon Stoic Philosopher, 2nd cent. BC Stoic philosopher of the 2nd cent. BC; he wrote…

Onesas

(157 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] (Ὀνέσας; Onésas). Hellenistic gem-cutter who signed a sard intaglio with an altered image of Athena Lemnia (London, BM; [1. 203, n. 56, pl. 53,5]). The latter also appears repeatedly like a replica on a more coarsely worked glass paste (Berlin, SM; [1. 206, n. 78, pl. 47,1; 2. 95, pl. 46, 219]). His signature can also be found on a yellow glass paste depicting a Muse playing the lyre (Florence, MA), which is regarded as a prime example of Hellenistic glyptics…

Protarchus

(265 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Πρώταρχος/ Prṓtarchos). [German version] [1] Comic poet from Thespiae, 1st cent. BC Comic poet from Thespiae, victorious on one occasion in the 1st cent. BC at the Soteria of Acraephia, and son or father of the epic poet Protogenes; otherwise, nothing is known of him. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 583. [German version] [2] Epicurean from Bargilia, 2nd cent. BC P. of Bargilia. Teacher of Demetrius [21] Lacon (Str. 14,20; 2nd cent. BC), perhaps in Miletus. I…

Pergamus

(166 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)

Sostratus

(572 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Σώστρατος/ Sṓstratos). [German version] [1] Of Cnidus, Greek architect, 1st half of 3rd cent. BC Son of Dexiphanes of Cnidus; architect of the early Hellenistic period (1st half of 3rd cent. BC), mentioned several times in ancient literature (Plin. HN 36,83; Lucian, Amores 11; Lucian, Hippias 2). He was also diplomatically active, as one of the philoi of Ptolemaeus [3] II (Str. 17,1,6). As well as with various canal constructions linked to the conquest of the Egyptian city of Memphis and buildings at Cnidus and Delphi (FdD III/1 nos. 198 and 299), h…

Sphragis

(481 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Fitschen, Klaus (Kiel)
(σφραγίς/ sphragís, literally  Seal). [German version] [1] Seal (stone) Seal (stone): precious or decorative stone with intaglio engraving, signet ring, seal (impression). On 2nd-4th cent. AD magical amulet gems from Roman Egypt there is often mention of the demon-averting seal of Solomon and, connected with Solomon motifs, the Seal of God ( sphragìs theoû). Gem-cutting Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography S. Michel, Die magischen Gemmen im Britischen Museum, 2001, 268 ff., pls. 64-66; 430-450. …

Cleon

(1,003 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Κλέων; Kléōn). [German version] [1] The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC, as the operator of a tannery was the first important demagogue from the circle of tradesmen who were rising to political leadership. Sources paint a picture of a man who put his loyalty to the people ( dḗmos) before that to his friends, who cleverly exploited the moods prevalent among the people and procured a following for himself by promising material gains. C. opposed  Pericles at the beginning of the Pelo…

Thamyras

(97 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] (Θαμύρας; Thamýras). Name on five gems. Only the 18th century paste on a reliquary in the Vienna treasury is verifiably a copy of a missing gem with a Nereid from the period of Augustus. T. is deemed to be the signature of a gem-cutter from the circle of Dioscorides [8]. The other four 'signatures' are modern additions to ancient stones or elements of forgeries, probably following the Viennese model. Gem-cutting Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography E. Zwierlein-Diehl, T.-Gemmen, in: H.-U. Cain et al. (eds.), Beiträge zur Ikonographie und Hermeneutik, Festschrift N. Himmelmann, 1989, 425-431, plate 67 f.

Alexas

(55 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] Father of  Aulus [2] and Quintus, probably a Campanian stone carvers' family during the Roman Republican period with their preferred subjects being of Aphrodisian-Dionysian character. A.'s signature is on only one cameo fragment with a marine animal (London, BM).  Gem and cameo cutters Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 286 annotation 113.

Aulos

(109 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] see Musical instruments Aulos, see  Musical instruments Michel, Simone (Hamburg) [German version] [2] Stonemason of the 1st cent. BC Stonemason of the 1st cent. BC, son of  Alexas, brother of Quintus. Signed works: Eros bound to tropaion (amethyst, London, BM), nailing down butterfly (hyacinth, The Hague, MK), bound (cameo, lost), with Aphrodite (carnelian, London, BM); satyr head (intaglio, lost); Maenad busts (hyacinth, erstwhile Collection Ludovisi); athlete (carnelian, Paris, CM); Poseidon and Amymone (white …

Callias

(1,877 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Καλλίας; Kallías, Ion. Καλλίης; Kallíēs). Common Attic name from the 6th -- 4th cent. BC, especially in the rich priestly family (several dadouchoi) of the Ceryces, which was associated with the cult of Eleusis. C. appears there in alternation with  Hipponicus. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Mythical son of the Heraclid Temenos Mythical son of the Heraclid  Temenus, king of Argos, and the brother of Agelaus, Eurypylus and  Hyrnetho. Since the king preferred Hyrnetho and her husband  Deiphontes to his sons, they had Temenus murder…

Eutyches

(362 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Εὐτύχης; Eutýchēs). [German version] [1] Gem-cutter of the 1st cent. AD Gem-cutter of the 1st cent. AD, signed as ‘son of  Dioscorides of Aegeae’ the rock crystal with a bust of Athena (Berlin, SM), in the style of the Athena of Velletri. Athena of  Velitrae;  Intaglio;  Gem and cameo cutters Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 31770, 331 pl. 92,3 AGD II, Berlin 169 pl. 80 and 81 no. 456. [German version] [2] Lat. grammarian of the 4th cent. AD (Eutyc(h)ius, MSS), Latin grammarian of the 4th cent. AD, a pupil of  Priscianus and author of an Ars de verbo, probably identical with…

Scopas

(1,000 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Σκόπας/ Skópas). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Paros, mid 4th cent. BC Sculptor from Paros, active in the mid 4th cent. BC, working mostly in marble and very occasionally in bronze. In the opinion of the ancient world, S. was one of the most important masters of Greek sculpture. Written records ascribe to him approximately 25-30 individual works and major projects, which should probably be allotted to several sculptors with the same name of different generations. The extant pediment sculptures from th…

Hyperechius

(48 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] Gem-cutter of the Imperial Roman period (Antonine/1st cent.). Signed red jasper with Socrates bust (Berlin, SM) and yellow jasper (a variety of stone typical of the late Imperial period) with a lion (Boston, MFA).  Gem-cutting Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 322, n. 106, pl. 96,4;5.

Pyrgoteles

(222 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] (Πυργοτέλης; Pyrgotélēs). 4th- cent. BC gem cutter, known from Pliny (Plin. HN 37,8) and Apuleius (Apul. Flor. 7), who is supposed to have worked for Alexander [4] the Great and, according to ancient sources, was equal in fame and ability to Apelles and to Lysippus (Apelles [4]; Lysippus [2]) (Plin. HN 7,125). In modern times this famous name has been engraved as a forged signature on ancient gems; the gem cutter Allessandro Cesari (16th century) adopted the name of his famous predecessor and signed his works accordingly. The name inscription  P. can be found, small a…

Felix

(619 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen) | Et al.
Roman cognomen (‘The Fortunate One’), in the Republican period initially an epithet of the dictator L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla and his descendants (Cornelius [II 59-61]); in the Imperial period, as a name invoking luck, one of the most common cognomina and the most common slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period, probably a contemporary of  Dioscurides [8], named together with  Anteros in an inscription as a gemari de sacra via [1. 44 and note 40]. He signed the famous sard…

Dexamenus

(359 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Δεξαμενός; Dexamenós). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Olenus in Achaea Mythical king of  Olenus in Achaea, host of  Hercules; his name indicates that hospitality is his main function in the narrative. Hercules repaid his hospitality by saving D.'s daughter who was being pursued by the centaur Eurytion. There are various versions of the story: either D. was forced to betroth his daughter Mnesimache to Eurytion who was, however, killed by Hercules (Apollod. 2,91); or Eurytion tried to rape D.'s daugh…

Pergamos

(141 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[English version] Gemmenschneider der klass. Zeit, dessen Signatur ΠΕΡΓΑ (PERGA) entsprechend der in klass. Zeit meist im Nom. auftretenden Meistersignaturen zu Pergamos ergänzt wird. Der von ihm so signierte, durch Brand beschädigte Karneol-Skarabäus mit einem Jünglingskopf unter phrygischer Mütze (St. Petersburg, ER) wurde zusammen mit Mz. des Lysimachos [2] in einem Grab bei Kertsch auf der Krim gefunden [1. 134, 198f., Taf. 8,5; 3. 13126, 138f.56, Abb. 41c, Taf. 32,9], ist jedoch aufgrund der Buchstabenformen der Signatur auf der Lasche der Mütze sowie …

Aspasios

(550 words)

Author(s): Sharples, Robert (London) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[English version] [1] Aristoteleskommentator, 2. Jh. Aristoteleskommentator, 1. Hälfte des 2. Jh. n.Chr., Lehrer des Herminos. Seine Werke wurden in Plotins Schule gelesen (Porph. Vita Plotini 14). A.' Komm. über die ‘Nikomachische Ethik [1] ist der früheste durchgehende Komm. zu einer aristotelische Abhandlung, der erh. ist, und beeinflußte die Behandlung der “gemeinen Bücher” 5-7 als nikomacheisch, obwohl die These von [2. 29-36], daß er verantwortlich war für den Transfer dieser Bücher, von der ‘Eu…
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