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Liber linteus

(91 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan book type in the form of a written linen cloth folded according to a fixed pattern. The so-called ‘Mummy-wrapping of Agram’ ( liber linteus Zagrabiensis) is preserved in the original with c. 40 cm height and 340 cm preserved length containing a ritual text in calendric form ( Calendar; no earlier than the 3rd cent. BC). There are also pictorial and sculpted copies of libri lintei in Etruscan graves, on sarcophagi and urns. Divination Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography F. Roncalli (ed.), Scrivere etrusco. Exhibition catalogue Perugia, 1985.

Lasa

(73 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Young Etruscan goddess or demon mostly represented as winged; on Hellenistic mirrors she appears together with goddesses, heroes or nymphs. Her name appears frequently with epithets that indicate different functions that are still not clarified in detail. It is also not clear how she is distinguished from Etruscan Vanth. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. L., Dizionario della civiltà etrusca, 1985, 148 R. Lambrechts, s.v. L., LIMC 6, 217-225.

Arimnestus

(60 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan king who, according to  Pausanias (5,12,5), made a votive offering at Olympia as the first foreigner: a throne that was placed in the temple of Zeus. Cf. the throne of the Phrygian king Midas as the oldest votive offering in Delphi made by an outsider. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography M. Cristofani (ed.), Dizionario della civiltà etrusca, 1985.

Town, city

(4,219 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Kolb, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Definition 'Town' and 'city' in modern parlance have become general terms to describe settlements of a particular size, with a particular complement of buildings and administrative and legal structure. Owing, however, to the manifold forms assumed by towns and cities, we lack a specific, all-embracing definition: criteria such as a closed built environment, a highly evolved division of labour, and central administrative and economic functions for the surrounding territory, have p…

Templum

(270 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Term in Roman augural theory for an augural temple (Fest. 157) and for the field of observation marked out by the  augur for collecting auspices (cf. Varro Ling. 7,6-10; Liv. 1,18,6-8); everything outside it is described as tescum. In general the term templum referred primarily to sacred buildings (Temple), but also to other locations “in quibus auspicato et publice res administrarentur et senatus haberi posset” (' in which public affairs were regulated by auspices and a meeting of the Senate could be held', Serv. Aen. 1,466) [1]. Because of the spatial divisio…

Funerary architecture

(5,482 words)

Author(s): Kammerer-Grothaus, Helke (Bremen) | Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Hauser, Stefan R. (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Definition Funerary architecture (FA) refers to architectonically designed structures built above the contemporary ground level for the purpose of  burial, as opposed to underground hypogea, which have rooms for the cult of the dead and hero cult. Columbaria can combine both types. Hypogea with a ground level cult room influenced the early Christian martyria above the graves. Regarding further aspects of FA, cf.  Hypogaeum;  Maussolleum;  Necropoleis. Kammerer-Grothaus, Helke (Bremen) II. Egypt and the Near East [German version] A. Egypt The Egyptian buria…

Wall paintings

(3,970 words)

Author(s): A.NU. | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Numerous Ancient Oriental temples, palaces and private residences were painted inside, but due to the a secco-technique, only traces of the paintings still remain. Each colour has its own symbolism. Red, the colour of life and strength, was used as early as the 10th millennium BC for painting the walls and floors of houses (e.g. Ain Mallaha, Israel). Clay or lime plaster served as the base [1; 2]. The oldest and best-preserved figural wall paintings (WP) are found in the houses of…

Fibula

(55 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] (Lat. fibula, from figibula; figere, ‘tack’, ‘pin’), a multi-part clasp used in clothing. Because of the wide range of types and decor, fibulae provide one of the most important guides for the differentiation and chronology of prehistoric and primitive cultures. For the various types and cultures, see  Needle. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)

Etruscans: later reception

(1,351 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) In contrast to the reception of Greek and Roman cultures, the reception of Etruscan culture can be considered peripheral and largely indirect. However, during the Renaissance and in the 18th cent. (as a result of a 'misinterpretation', particularly in the field of architecture) it was of some importance, as well as in the modern era.  Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) [German version] B. From the Renaissance to the 17th Century (CT) Even though individual monuments and literary reports of the Etruscans were k…

Tarchna

(80 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Etruscan name for the city of Tarquinia Etruscan name for the city of Tarquinia (Tarquinii) from the 5th cent. BC (Early Etruscan: * tarchuna). Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Etruscan nomen gentile Etruscan nomen gentile, especially in the 'Tomb of Inscriptions' in Caere/Cerveteri. The names of more than seven generations are inscribed there, of which the two last are in the Latinized form Tarquitius. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography M. Cristofani, La Tomba delle Iscrizioni a Cerveteri, 1965.

Matunas

(123 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan family name of an important gens from Caere (today Cerveteri; 4th/3rd century BC), known from the inscriptions of two chamber tombs in that place, the Tomba dei Tarquini and the Tomba dei Rilievi. The latter is the most elaborately furnished Etruscan chamber grave in the form of an Atrium with thirteen niches which represent cubicula. The names ascribed to the dead compose a genealogy of four generations, the name of the grave's donor Vel Matunas, son of Lars, being inscribed on a Cippus at the entrance to the grave. Funerary architecture (III. C. 1.) Prayon, Fried…

Alişar

(86 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Hill covered with settlements, located in northern Cappadocia to the south-east of  Boghazki. Excavations in 1930-32 under H. H. von der Osten. These revealed, for the first time in Chalcolithic central Anatolia, continuous settlement histories from into Byzantine times [2]. Chronologically of importance is the post-Hittite-‘Phrygian’ layer of Alişar IV with ceramics in the style of silhouette-like animals [1. 1-10; 3]. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 E. Akurgal, Phryg. Kunst, 1955 2 H. H. v. d. Osten, The Alishar Hüyük, OIP 29-30, 1937 3 G. …

Partunu

(67 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan name of a gens (small clan with a shared ancestor) from Tarquinia. It is found on an elaborately furnished family grave of the 4th/3rd cents. BC; the sarcophagi of the individual family members are identified by their names and offices. Tarquinii Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography H. Rix (Ed.), Etr. Texte, 1991, Ta 1.9, 1.13, 1.15  S. Steingräber, Etrurien. Städte, Heiligtümer, Nekropolen, 1981, 398.

Necropoleis

(7,045 words)

Author(s): Tsochos, Charalampos (Erfurt) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Genz, Hermann (Istanbul) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Introduction The Greek word νεκρόπολις/ nekrópolis, ‘city of the dead’, is attested in Antiquity only in Strabo (17,1,10,14) as the name of a suburb of Alexandria [1] (Necropolis). Modern scholarship transfers the term necropolis to cemeteries of various cultures and time periods. General definitions as to shape and size do not exist. In this article, necropolis refers only to sites of a certain size and usually lying outside the settlements themselves. The size of a necropolis, the …

Olla

(103 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Italian name ('pot') for Etruscan vessels: 1. in the form of clay cauldrons; 2. of round-bellied vessels with handles and base. 'Thina' inscriptions of the 7th/6th cents. BC from Cerveteri (Caere) bear witness not only to the Etruscan name of the vessel type, but also to its linguistic affinity to the dinos of the Hellenic world, whose shape was related. The inscription thina on an amphora of the 5th/4th cent. in Populonia suggests that the name was later also transferred to other restricted vessel shapes. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography G. Colonna, Nomi etru…

Temple

(5,554 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia The Sumerian term é and the Akkadian term bītu, meaning 'temple' or 'house (of the deity)', were not restricted to 'dwellings' of deities of a particular size or importance. They applied to sanctuaries from small neighbourhood shrines in residential areas to large, freestanding, tall buildings, from one-room cult sites to temple complexes with extensive auxiliary buildings, and they could be used for temples where one or many deities were worshipped. Prehistoric structures are often classified as temples only because apparently they nei…

Nortia

(156 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan and Roman goddess. According to Liv. 7,3,7, year nails were driven in her temple in Volsinii, in analogy to the custom at the temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline in Rome. The sanctuary has not been localised with certainty. Inscriptions in Bolsena attested to the continuation of the cult until the 3rd cent. AD (CIL VI 537,4: Nortia, te veneror, Lari cretus Vulsiniensi), and there is also an honorary inscription dedicated to a c[ uratori t] empli deae N[ ort] ia[ e] [1]. The Etruscan name of the goddess may have been * Nurti, from which gens names such as Nurtine are der…

Pins

(3,978 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Giesen, Katharina (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Steimle, Christopher (Erfurt) | Et al.
[German version] I. General Pins and needles (βελόνη/ belónē, περόνη/ perónē, ῥαφίς/ rhaphís, Latin acus) were put to a variety of uses in the ancient household: they were used for hair, garments and sewing. They were also a utensil, for example, in the work of doctors (Surgical instruments), sailmakers etc. Tattoos were also done using special needles. The shape of the pin, long and thin with one sharp end, has not changed since prehistoric times. In sewing needles, the head is generally unadorned and flat; …

Etrusci, Etruria

(9,491 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Naso, Alessandro (Udine) | Aigner-Foresti, Luciana (Vienna)
(Tusci), the Etruscans. I. History [German version] A. Name A people in Italy who, between the 9th and 1st cents. BC, created the highest form of civilization in the Western Mediterranean before Roman civilization prevailed over the same territory. Various popular names were applied to the E.: Rasna (or Graecized Rasenna) in Etruscan sources, Tyrrhenoi or Tyrsenoi in Greek sources, Turskus in Umbrian sources and Etrusci, Tusci or Lydii (according to Hdt. 1,94 because of their possible origin in Lydia) in Lat. sources. Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence) [German version] B. History…

Leinie

(47 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan nomen gentile from Volsinii/Orvieto, passed down epigraphically and pictorially over several generations in the Tomba Golini I (4th cent. BC) there. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography J. Heurgon, Un legatus à Volsinii, in: MEFRA 86, 1974, 707-721 S. Steingräber (ed.), Etr. Wandmalerei, 1985, 286.
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