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Pandion

(379 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Πανδίων/ Pandíōn). [German version] [1] Attic King Mythical Attic king and eponymous hero of the Pandionis [2] phyle (with 11 demes [2. 370]). P. occupies the sixth place on the list of kings in Hellanicus [1 (FGrH 4, commentary, vol. 1, p. 449). this list was later expanded by duplications of P. and Cecrops, first detectable in the Marmor Parium (FGrH 239 A 1-17). Here, P. I occupies the fifth place, and P. II the eighth. Originally, the list probably only contained the kings Cecrops, P., Erechtheus and Aegeus, as only they were phyle heros while they were kings. P. is therefore one legendary …

Hippomenes

(246 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἱππομένης; Hippoménēs). [German version] [1] Victor in foot race against Atalante Boeotian from Onchestus, son of  Megareus (Hyg. Fab. 185) or Ares (schol. Theoc. 3,40) and Merope (Hyg. Fab. 185). The foot race between H. and  Atalante was already known to Hesiod (fr. 74 M.-W.). The most comprehensive account can be found in Ov. Met. 10,560-707 [1]: Upon his request, Venus gives him three apples which Atalante picks up during the race, causing her to lose. H. fails to perform the thanks-offering; Venus en…

Taurokathapsia

(140 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ταυροκαθαψία/ Taurokathapsía: CIG 3212, Smyrna). From taúros ('bull') and katháptein ('hang on to'). A form of bull-fighting at the Eleutheria in Larisa [3] (IG IX 531; 535; 536), in which a rider swung himself on to the bull grabbing its horns and tried to throw it to the ground (as in Heliod. 10,28-30; cf. Anth. Pal. 9,543); a relief from Smyrna and coin images from Larisa have been preserved [1. 221-224]. In inscriptions, taurokathapsia is suggested for cities of the Greek East (Aphrodisias: CIG 2759b; Ancyra: CIG 4039; Sinope: CIG 4157); it is c…

Neoptolemus

(2,308 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Νεοπτόλεμος; Neoptólemos). [German version] [1] Son of Achilles and Deidamia The son of Achilles [1] and Deidamia, the daughter of king Lycomedes [1] of Scyros. Rare but explainable variants of the mother's name are Pyrrha (Heliodorus 3,2 = Anth. Pal. 9,485,8) and Iphigenia (Duris of Samos FGrH 76 F 88; on this FGrH 2 C 130). Homer only knows the name N., and Pyrrhus probably only becomes more common in the 4th cent. (first Theopompus FGrH 115 F 355) because of dynastic considerations of the Epirote king…

Memnon

(1,680 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μέμνων; Mémnon). [German version] [1] Mythical King of the Ethiopians Mythical King of the Ethiopians, son of Tithonus and Eos, brother of Emathion (Hes. Theog. 984-5). His entry into Troy as an ally of the Trojans after the death of Penthesilea, his successful single combat with Antilochus, his death at the hands of Achilles and the immortality conferred upon him by Zeus at the behest of Eos were, as the summary of Proclus (Chrestomathia 172) shows, depicted in the lost Cyclic epic Aithiopís . Hom. Od. 4,187-8 and Pind. P. 6,28-39 also refer to his single combat with Antiloc…

Gorgophonus/-os

(93 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Epithet of Athena (‘killer of Gorgo’). Epithet of Athena in Orph. H. 32,8 (but see  Gorgophone [1]). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Epithet of Perseus Epithet of Perseus (Eur. fr. 985 Nauck; Nonnus, Dion. 18,305; 30,269; 31,12; 47,506; 47,536). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [3] Son of Electryon and Alcmene Son of  Electryon and Anaxo, Alcaeus' daughter, thus Perseus' grandson.  Alcmene is mentioned as his sister, his brothers' names are listed as Stratobates, Phylonomos, Celaeno, Amphimachus, Ly…

Tenerus

(113 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τήνερος; Tḗneros). Mythical seer ( Mántis : Pind.  Fr. 51d) in Thebes, son of Apollo and the ash-nymph Melia (Melia [1]; schol.  Lycoph. 1211), who gives birth to him in the Ismenion  (Pind. Fr. 52k), where his oracle also was (schol. Pind. Pyth. 11,5); brother of Ismenius (Paus. 9,10,6). Apollo bestows on him the gift of prophecy (schol.  Lycoph. 1211). The Tenerian Plain between Thebes and Lake Copais is named after T. (Str. 9,413; Paus. 9,26,1). Pindar's seventh p…

Nike

(1,060 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Νίκη; Níkē). [German version] I. Mythology N. is the Greek personification of victory. As early as in Hesiod she is an abstract concept: Nike is the daughter of Styx and Pallas and the sister of similar personifications: Zelos (zeal), Kratos (power) and Bia (force) (Hes. Theog. 384-385). Zeus commands these powers forever (ibid. 388), since, on the advise of Styx, they supported him in the Gigantomachy (ibid. 389-403; Serv. Aen. 6,134). Nonnus outlined N.'s participation in the battle (Nonnus, Dion. …

Memnonides

(174 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μεμνονίδες/ Memnonídes; Lat. Memnoniae aves).The legend of the birds of Memnon is closely associated with the grave of Memnon [1] on the river Aisepus. According to Paus. 10,31,6 Polygnotus had portrayed Memnon wearing a robe painted with birds in the picture of Hades on the Lesche of the Cnidians at Delphi. The extant versions probably date back to scholarly of Alexandrine poetry: according to Q. Smyrn. 2,642-655 it is the companions of Memnon who are turned into birds by Eos (simil…

Phallus

(672 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (φαλλός/ phallós, Latin phallus; from a Proto-Indo-European root * bhel-, 'blow up', 'swell up'). As bearer of the beneficent power of procreation, the male member played an important role in religion and cult. Its connection with Dionysus is particularly close: Phallus processions can be found in the rural Dionysia (Aristoph. Ach. 241-276), where the phallus is personified as Phales, to whom the cultic song is addressed (Aristoph. Ach. 263; 276), and at the great Dionysia, where the membe…

Zephyritis

(228 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ζεφυρίτις; Zephyrítis). Epithet of Arsinoe [II 3] II, the sister-wife of Ptolemaeus [3] II Philadelphus who was worshipped as Aphrodite Z. Her sanctuary, donated by the admiral of the fleet Callicrates [9] (Posidippus, Epigrammata 12 GA I. 3110-3119) was located on the cape of Zephyrion (from which the name Z. is derived) not far from Alexandria [1] (Str. 17,1,16; Posidippus, Epigrammata 13 GA 1, 3120-3125) according to Ath. 7,318d; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ζεφύριον), where she may have b…

Hellusii

(107 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] In Tac. Germ. 46,4, the name of a fantastic people with a human face and a body the shape of an animal. An etymology that goes back to an animal name is therefore assumed; a Germanic equivalent with Greek ἐλλός, Armenian eln, Lithuanian élnis ‘deer (fawn)’ [1. 534-537] has been suggested. Whether this fantastic people bears witness to Scandinavian peoples or rather to seals with a face resembling that of a human remains to be seen [1. 537]. They should certainly not be linked with the Helisii, part of a tribe of Lugians (Tac. Germ. 43,2). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Bibliogra…

Tolma

(137 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τόλμα/ Tólma, 'boldness, daring'). Notes on the ancient concept of T. as a deity, although scanty and late, are unquestionable [1. 1681]: Schol. Aesch. PV 12c Harington mentions an (unidentified) sanctuary to T. and Anaideia in Athens; in App. Lib. 21 Scipio (Cornelius [I 71]) prays to T. and Phobos; Anth. Pal. 9,29,1-4 (Antiphilus [3] of Byzantium) addresses T. as the fateful inventor of sea travel (ambivalent: Anth. Pal. 7,529,1). Claudianus [2] presents the corresponding Latin …

Victoria

(690 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Roman goddess and personification of victory Roman goddess and personification of victory, etymologically derived from vincere, "to be victorious" [5. 2501]. In contrast to Nike, her Greek counterpart whom she followed closely in her personification and iconography (as winged goddess, often with cornucopia, wreath and palm leaf: [4. 239-269]), V. was worshipped early and independently in her cult as the symbol of victory achieved (mostly militarily, therefore the close connection to Mars, according to CIL III 4412; VII 220; V. in the pompa circensis: Cic. A…

Zenoposeidon

(168 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ζηνοποσειδών/ Zēnoposeidṓn). Ζηνο-/ Zēno- is the Doric form of Zeus, Z. is the interpretating Greek translation of Zeus Osogo(a) worshipped in the Carian city of Mylasa [2. nos. 319-327, 361-376; 4. 109-117] who, according to depictions on coins [3. vol. 2, 576-582], exhibited attributes and traits of Zeus (eagle, double axe) and Poseidon (crab, trident) [4. 117-126]; this is documented in the double name (with a humorous anecdote in Machon fr. 8 GA = Ath. 8,337c). The sanctuary which can be located close to (Ath. loc.cit.) or inside (Str. 14,2,23) the city (f…

Taraxippus

(146 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ταράξιππος/ taráxippos, 'confuser of horses', from híppos and the aorist stem of taráttein). The monument in the form of a round altar, which was associated with T. (v.i.), stood on the (long) eastern side of the Hippodrome in Olympia, near the nýssa (turning post); the horses often shied there, which may have been due to preparing to round the turning post, but was explained by divine action. Paus. 6,20,15-18 offers several identifications for T. and his monument and himself considers an altar to Poseidon Hippios likel…

Gelonus

(147 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Γελωνός; Gelōnós). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and the snake maiden Echidna Son of Hercules and the snake maiden  Echidna, brother of Agathyrsus and of  Scythes, eponym of the Graeco-Scythian Geloni (Hdt. 4,10). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] City of the Butini City of the Budini, mentioned only by Hdt. 4,108, according to the context of the highly contested passage, north of the Melanchlaeni on the upper Donec. Herodotus describes a city built of wood with Greek architecture and a Greek life-style. The inhabit…

Protesilaus

(380 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πρωτεσίλαος/ Prōtesílaos, Latin Protesilaus; approx. 'First Among the People', cf. Hom. Il. 2,702; [2. 938]; mythological interpretation of the name from his death before Troy in Eust. Hom. Il. 2,700 p. 325; in Hdt. 9,116 Πρωτεσίλεως). Son of Iphicles (Hom. Il. 2,704-707) or Actor (Hes. fr. 199,6 M.-W.); Astyoche (Eust. Il. 2,698 p. 323) and Diomedea (Hyg. Fab. 103) are named as his mother. Like his brother Podarces [1] (Hom. ibid.), he courted Helen (Helena I [1]) (Hes. fr. 199,5 M…

Myrmex

(177 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Μύρμηξ; Mýrmēx). [German version] [1] Father of the eponymous heroine of the Attican deme of Melite According to Philochorus FGrH 328 F 27 and Hes. fr. 225 M.-W. (= Harpocr. 202,7 Dindorf) he was the father of the eponymous heroine of the Attican deme of Melite. The legend of the Athenians' futile war against the máchimoi mýrmēkes (‘embattled ants’; Eubulus, Glaucus PCG V fr. 20) who guarded the gold dust on Mt. Hymettus, is likewise set in Attica and probably related to this myth. It became proverbial (Pl. Plt. 450b; Harpocr. 308,6 Dindorf). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2]…

Hipponous

(100 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἱππόνοος; Hippónoos). [German version] [1] Name of Bellerophontes According to schol. Hom. Il. 6,155 Dindorf, the old name of  Bellerophontes; schol. Hom. Il. 6,155 Erbse offers the name of Leophontes (Λεωφόντης). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Adrastus Son of Adrastus [1] who deliberately threw himself on the pyre with him (Hyg. Fab. 242). The same motif can be found in the story about Capaneus' and Evadne's fate. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [3] Father of Capaneus With Astynome, H. fathered  Capaneus (Apollod. 3,63 Wagner; Hyg. F…
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