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Iulius

(18,763 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, probably connected with the name of the god  Jupiter [1. 281; 2. 729]. The gens was one of the so-called ‘Trojan families’, who were said to have moved from Alba Longa to Rome under king Tullus Hostilius [I 4] (see below). The Iulii were prominent in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. Their connection to the family branch of the Caesares, which rose to prominence from the 3rd cent. and whose outstanding member was the dictator  Caesar (with family tree), is unclear. Caesar's adoptive son,…

Pedius

(368 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name of a Roman gens, prominent from the 1st cent. BC; also attested in Delos. [German version] [1] P., Q. Consul suffectus 43 BC, son of Caesar's sister Julia C. 90-43 BC, son (not grandson as in Suet. Iul. 83,2) of Caesar's sister Iulia [1. 687] and a legate of Caesar in Gaul  58-55 (Caes. Gall. 2,2,1; 2,11,3). As praetor in 48, P. suppressed a revolt by T. Annius [I 14] Milo (Caes. Civ. 3,22). In 46/5, as a legate of Caesar, P. began the Spanish campaign with Q. Fabius [I 22] Maximus (Bell. Hisp. 2,2; Cass. Dio 43,31,1) and triumphed on 13 December 45 illegally ex Hispania (InscrIt 13,1,567; Ca…

Claudius

(10,704 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name of a Roman lineage (Sabine Clausus, with the vernacular variant of   Clodius , esp. in the 1st cent. BC). The Claudii supposedly immigrated to Rome from the Sabine city of Regillum at the beginning of the republic in 504 BC under their ancestor Att(i)us Clausus ( Appius) and were immediately accepted into the circle of patrician families (Liv. 2,16,4-6), which explains why the early members received the invented epithets of Inregillensis C. [I 5-6] and Sabinus C. [I 31-32], [1. 155f.]. The praenomen Appius came to signify the family. Named after them was the Tribus Claudi…

Aelius

(3,107 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian house (originally Ailius), verifiable from the 4th cent. BC until the late imperial era. The most important families are the Paeti (since the 4th cent. BC), Tuberones (since the 2nd cent. BC), and from the 1st cent. also the Galli and Lamiae. In the imperial era, especially since Hadrian, the most famous bearer of the name, the name Aelius is so widespread that it -- just like Flavius and Aurelius -- loses its character as nomen gentile. I. Republic [German version] [I 1] Ae. Unknown author of a lex Aelia, mid 2nd cent. BC unknown author of a lex Aelia (mostly mentioned t…

Papinianus, Aemilius

(532 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] This jurist, probably born in the mid second century AD in the eastern half of the province of Africa (cf. [7. 118]), seems to have been a student of Cervidius Scaevola (SHA Carac. 8,2). During the reign of Septimius Severus, with whom he was close friends, he became assessor to the Praetorian prefects (Dig. 22,1,3,3), from AD 194 to 202 he first became member and later head of the government department a libellis (Dig. 20,5,12 pr.; see [7. 118, 121]), thereafter from 205 to 211 he was Praetorian prefect (ILS 2187); his assessors were Iulius [IV 16] …

Arulenus

(141 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Caelius Sabinus, Cn. Suffect consul in AD 69. Very influential jurist at the time of Vespasian (Dig. 1,2,2,53); successor to  Cassius Longinus as head of the Sabinian law school, he wrote a commentary Ad edictum aedilium curulium. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography R. A. Bauman, Lawyers and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, 1989, 142ff. 2 PIR I2 1194. [German version] [2] Iunius A. Rusticus, Q. Cos. suff. 92 AD In AD 66 as tribunus plebis he wanted to intercede in the Senate on behalf of Thrasea (Tac. Ann. 16,26,4f.); 70 praetor, 92 suffect consul (AE 1…

Caecilius

(6,633 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Et al.
Name of a plebeian gens (probably derived from Caeculus, older form is Caicilios, Greek Καικίλιος, Κεκίλιος [ Kaikílios, Kekílios]; ThlL, Onom. 12-14), whose existence is documented since the 5th cent. (since C. [I 1]), but who only gained importance in the 2nd cent.; their most famous branch were the C. Metelli (I 10-32). A later explanation related the name back to Caeculus, the legendary founder of Praeneste, or Caecas, a companion of Aeneas (Fest. p. 38). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., Q. Supposedly people's tribune in 439 BC Supposedly people's tribune in 439 BC …

Proculus

(644 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Et al.
Roman praenomen ( P. Iulius, a contemporary of Romulus [1]), and secondarily a cognomen. Depending on the form, a diminutive (older * prokelo-) of the stem * proko- (~ classical procus 'wooer, suitor'), it originally perhaps meant 'the one who demands or claims (the inheritance?)'. Proca (King of Alba Longa) can also be regarded as etymologically connected. The praenomen, which had already become rare at an early time, survived in derivatives, the gentilician names Procilius and Proculeius. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Roman jurist, 1st cent. The jurist fro…

Cratinus

(1,123 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
(Κρατῖνος; Kratînos). [German version] [1] Poet of the Attic Old Comedy, 5th cent. BC Son of Callimedes, important poet of the Attic Old  Comedy. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [German version] A. Biographical information The first appearance of C. is documented for the late 450s BC [1. test. 4ab; cf. test. 5]; his death probably occurred between 423 ( Terminus post quem: his last piece, the Pytínē/‘The Bottle’; cf. [1. test. 3]) and 421 (in Aristoph. Pax 700-703, he is allegedly dead [1. test. 10]); he allegedly lived to be 94 years old [1. test. 3].…

Rutilius

(2,145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Et al.
Name of a widely-branched Roman plebeian family who became well known from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC on, but only achieved the consulate for the first time at the end of the cent. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] R. Lupus, P. Consul in 90 BC Praetor no later than 93 BC; consul in 90. During the Social War [3], he received the command of the northern army; against the advice of his legate C. Marius [I 1], he was lured into an ambush by the Marsi and was killed in the valley of the Tolnus (modern Turano; Liv. Per. 73; App. B Civ. 1,191-194; Oros. 5,18,11 f.). MRR 2,25. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig…

Cascellius

(132 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (C. Aulus Cascellius). Jurist, pupil of Volcatius, who in turn was taught by Q.  Mucius Pontifex (Dig. 1,2,2,45; Plin. HN 8,144); evident in documents of 73 BC as a senator, he held no further office after his quaestorship, but dedicated himself to practical jurisprudence [2]. The iudicium Cascellianum (Gai. Inst. 4,166a), which he had drafted, allowed the winner of a sponsio trial to claim for material restitution within the framework of prohibitory interdicts on property (a form of interim order for the protection of property) [1] (  restitutio )…

Theodorus

(7,286 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Baumhauer, Otto A. (Bremen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Θεόδωρος; Theódōros). [German version] [I 1] Of Samos, Greek architect, bronze sculptor and inventor, Archaic period Multitalented Greek inventor, architect, bronze sculptor and metal worker ( toreutḗs; Toreutics) of the Archaic period from Samos (for the occupational image cf. architect). His father was Telecles (Hdt. 3,41; Paus. 8,14,8; 10,38,6) or according to other sources (Diog. Laert. 2,103; Diod. Sic. 1,98) Rhoecus [3]; his name is so frequently mentioned in conjunction with the latter that …

Cyrillus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Κύριλλος; Kýrillos) [German version] [1] C. of Jerusalem Bishop Born c. AD 313, he was a member of the Jerusalem clergy (Jer. Chron. 2365 [GCS Eus. 7,236,7f. Helm/Treu]), and from 348 to 386 served as bishop of Jerusalem; he came to this office rather as a follower of the Homoeans (cf. Jer. loc. cit., Socr. 2,38,2 and Sozom. Hist. eccl. 4,20,1) than as a Nicaean (cf. Theod. Hist. eccl. 2,26,6). In 358 he was relieved of his office by  Acacius [2] of Caesarea and banished to Tarsus, rehabilitated in 359 a…

Thalelaeus

(109 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Professor of law ( antecessor) under Iustinianus [1] I, presumably in Berytus, one of the eight addresses of the Const. Omnem (ordinances for study brought into force with the conclusion of the Digesta in AD 533), who wrote a Greek paraphrase of the Codex (II.) Iustinianus. The work, preserved in the Basilika and their scholia (Byzantium I. B.3.), contains useful information on T.' teachings on the Codex. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography D. Simon, Aus dem Kodexunterricht des T., in: ZRG 86, 1969, 334-383; RIDA 16, 1969, 283-308; ZRG 87, 1…

Urseius Ferox

(94 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Roman jurist of the early Principate (1st cent. AD), reviewed in at least ten books (Coll. 12,7,9) the opinions of the founders of law schools, on the one hand Sabinus [II 5] and Cassius [II 14], on the other  Proculus [1]. Other than five citations in Ulpian and in Iulius [IV 16] Paulus, the work is known only from the commentary Ad Urseium Ferocem by Iulianus [1]. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography O. Lenel, Palingenesia Iuris Civilis, vol. 2, 1889, 1201-1224  Kunkel, 145 f.  D. Liebs, Rechtsschulen und Rechtsunterricht im Prinzipat, in: ANRW II …

Scaevola

(303 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Probably originally a Roman family name, recorded as a cognomen ('left-handed'), in the Republican period in the Mucii family (Mucius [I 2; 4-10; II 2]); for the legend of origin see Mucius [I 2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Q. Cervidius S. Roman lawyer, 2nd cent. Roman lawyer, who under Marcus [2] Aurelius (AD 161-180) was a member of his consilium (SHA Aur. 11,10) and from AD 175 was praef. vigilum (CIL XIV 4502); he also remained active under Commodus and Septimius Severus (until c. AD 200) [5. 113 f.]. As a respondent with a practical bent he wrote Digesta

Furius

(3,311 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name of an ancient Roman patrician lineage (on inscriptions also Fourios), derived from the praenomen Fusus and also occurring occasionally in the original form Fusius in the literary tradition; the family perhaps came from Tusculum (cf. the family grave of the Furii ILLRP 895-903). The numerous members of the gens from the early Republic in the 5th/4th cents. BC are scarcely tangible as historical persons, and their history is in part later annalistic invention. Most well known is the ‘Saviour of Rome’ after the catas…

Aemilius

(4,870 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Nomen gentile Name of a very old patrician line (more often written Aimilius), after which the tribus Aemilia, one of the oldest rustic tribes, is also named. Republican pseudo-genealogy traced the gens back to Mamercus, said to be the son of Pythagoras or of Numa, or to Trojan ancestors: Aemilia, a daughter of Aeneas; Aimylos, a son of Ascanius; or to King Amulius himself (Plut. Aemilius 2; Numa 8; Romulus 2; Fest. 22 L; Sil. Pun. 8,294-296) [1]. The Aemilii belonged to one of the most respected lines in the R…

Fulvius

(3,286 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Roman plebeian gentes name, derived from fulvus (‘reddish yellow, brownish yellow’ [1. 1,561], probably named after hair colour); further evidence: [2. 170], inscriptions also Folvius (ILLRP 124 et passim). The Roman gens probably came from Tusculum (Cic. Planc. 20; cf. Cic. Phil. 3,16; Plin. HN 7,136), where F. [I 15] also had put up works of art from the spoils of war. The most important branches are initially the Centumali, Curvi and Paetini, since the 3rd cent. BC the Flacci and Nobiliores. Genealogical tree: [3. 231f.]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] F. Bambalio…

Florentinus

(324 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Gaulish correspondent of Symmachus Came from a Gaulish family; correspondent of Symmachus (Epist. 4,50-57), probably a pagan. In AD 379 he probably held the notary's office. It is doubtful whether he is identical with the homonymous comes sacrarum largitionum [1. 100-103]; in 395 quaestor sacri cubiculi; from 395 to 397, thus for an unusually long time, attested as praefectus urbi Romae, proved successful during a famine. Claudian [2] dedicated the second book of De raptu Proserpinae to him (praef. 50). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography 1 Delmaire. PLRE…

Law schools

(1,249 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] I. Principal considerations Schools of law, in the two senses of the training of future legal practitioners and the adherence to particular legal trains of thought can only exist in cultures that have given rise to a legal profession. In antiquity, this is true only of the Roman world. Only for Rome, therefore, as in the post-antique period for the Byzantine empire and the culture of Islam, can the phenomenon of law schools (LS) be discussed sensibly. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] II. Roman Republic and Principate A properly institutionalized syste…

Tryphoninus

(88 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The Roman jurist Claudius T. ( c. 200 AD), presumably of oriental origin [3], pupil of Cervidius Scaevola [1] (Dig. 49,17,19 pr.) and consiliarius of Septimius [II 7] Severus (Dig. 49,14,50). He wrote discussions of controversial legal cases ( Disputationes, 21 B.) and Notae ('notes') on the Digesta and Responsa of his teacher [1; 2]. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography 1 H. T. Klami, Entscheidung und Begründung in den Kommentaren Tryphonins zu Scaevolas Responsen, 1975 2 M. Sixto, Las anotaciones de Trifonino, vol. 1, 1989; vol. 2, 1991 3 D. Liebs, J…

Vindius Verus

(66 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Roman jurist, suffect consul in 138 AD (CIL XVI 84) and consiliarius of Antoninus [1] Pius (SHA Pius 12,1), represented in Iustinianus's [1] Digesta (6th century AD) with only five indirect citations. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography O. Lenel, Palingenesia Iuris Civilis, vol. 2, 1889, 1223 f.  R. A. Bauman, Lawyers and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, 1989, 248 f.  D. Liebs, Jurisprudenz, in: HLL 4, 1997, 106.

Dorotheus

(861 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Selzer, Christoph (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
(Δωρόθεος; Dōrótheos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Argos, 5th cent. BC Sculptor of bronze from Argos. Known by two signatures from the middle of the 5th cent. BC on bases in Delphi and in Hermione (Crete), with traces of an inlet for a horse or rider statue. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures des sculptures grecques, 1, 1953, no. 30-31 P. Orlandini, I donari firmati da Kresilas e Dorotheos a Hermione, in: ArchCl 3, 1951, 94-98. [German version] [2] Painter, from the mid 1st cent. AD Painter from the middle of the 1st cent. AD. Co…

Vivianus

(59 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] A Roman lawyer, active probably at the end of the 1st cent. AD, who wrote a single work [1], often cited by Ulpianus and  Iulius [IV 16] Paulus, either a commentary on edicts [2] or Digesta [3. 34 ff.]. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography 1 O. Lenel, Palingenesia Iuris Civilis, vol. 2, 1889, 1225 ff. 2 Schulz, 235; 270 3 C. Russo Ruggeri, Viviano giurista minore?, 1997.

Iunius

(8,102 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Roman surname, derived from the name of the goddess Iuno [1. 470; 2. 731]. The gens was plebeian; the idea that this family originated from the patrician founder of the Republic L. I. [I 4] Brutus (Cic. Att. 13,40,1), which was particularly propagated by the murderers of Caesar, M. and D. I. Brutus [I 10 and 12], was already a matter of controversy in ancient times (Plut. Brutus 1,6-8). T.  Pomponius Atticus (Nep. Att. 18,3) composed a family history at the request of M. Brutus. This gens became politically im…

Aufidius

(820 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Plebeischer Gentilname ([1]; ThlL 2,1338f.). Seit dem 2.Jh. v.Chr. sind Namensträger in Rom bekannt und begegnen bes. in der Kaiserzeit in bedeutenden Stellungen. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] Au. 73 v. Chr. an der Ermordung des Q. Sertorius beteiligt beteiligte sich 73 v.Chr. an der Ermordung des Q. Sertorius (Plut. Sert. 26f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 2] Au., Cn. Volkstribun 170 v. Chr. Volkstribun 170 v.Chr. (MRR 1,420). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 3] Au., Cn. Praetor vor 100 v. Chr. praetor vor 100 v.Chr. (Syll.3 7…

Iulianus/-os

(4,346 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
Beinamen bei vielen Gentilicia [1]. Bekannte Personen: der Jurist Salvius I. [1], der Arzt I. [2], der Kaiser I. [11], gen. “Apostata”, die Bischöfe I. [16] von Aeclanum und I. [21] von Toledo. [English version] [1] L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius I. Aemilianus röm. Jurist, 2. Jh. Jurist, geb. um 100 n.Chr. in Nordafrika, gest. um 170 n.Chr., war ein Schüler des Iavolenus [2] Priscus (Dig. 40,2,5) und der letzte Vorsteher der sabinianischen Rechtsschule (Dig. 1,2,2,53). I., dessen Ämterfolge die Inschr. aus Pupput/Prov. Africa (CIL VIII 24…

Papirius

(2,916 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Römischer Gentilname, in älterer Form Papisius (Cic. fam. 9,21,3), nach dem eine der 16 alten Landtribus ( tribus ) benannt war. Die patrizische gens bildete schon früh mehrere Zweige (5./4. Jh.v.Chr.: Crassi, Cursores, Mugillani, 3. Jh.: Masones), die maßgeblich an den mil. Erfolgen der Republik beteiligt waren, jedoch spätestens im 2. Jh.v.Chr. ausstarben bzw. polit. unbedeutend wurden. Der jüngere plebeiische Zweig der Carbones stieg in der 2. H. des 2. Jh. auf und erlangte notorische Bekanntheit durch die gracchen…

Leontios

(851 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Tinnefeld, Franz (München) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Et al.
(Λεόντιος). [English version] [1] Ptolem. Kommandant von Seleukeia Pieria, Ende 3. Jh. v. Chr. Ptolem. Kommandant von Seleukeia Pieria; 219 v.Chr. übergab er die Stadt - nach anfänglichem Widerstand in aussichtsloser Position - an Antiochos [5] III. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [English version] [2] Peltastengeneral, 3. Jh. v. Chr. Makedone, von Antigonos [3] Doson testamentarisch zum Peltastengeneral berufen. L. widersetzte sich mit Megaleas der proachaiischen Politik Philippos' V. und dessen Mentor Aratos [2]; nach der Aufwiegelung der Elitetru…

Pegasus

(202 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
[English version] Der Jurist war Stadtpräfekt unter den Flaviern (E. 1. Jh.n.Chr.) [2. 111f.; 3. 146ff.]: schon unter Vespasianus (Dig. 1,2,2,53) oder erst unter Domitianus (Iuv. 4,77). Statthalter in mehreren consularen Prov., darunter in Dalmatia (AE 1967, 355), gehörte zum consilium des Domitianus (Iuv. 4,77). P., aufgrund seiner Gelehrsamkeit “das Buch” ( Liber) genannt, wurde in Nachfolge des Proculus das Schulhaupt der Prokulianer. Als Suffektconsul schlug er zw. 71 und 73 n.Chr. das SC Pegasianum vor, das dem mit einem Erbschaftsfideikommiß belasteten Erben …

Hermogenianus

(121 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[English version] Jurist aus dem hell. Osten des röm. Reiches, von 293 bis 295 n.Chr. magister libellorum (Leiter der Bittschriften-Kanzlei) Diocletians [1; 3], veröffentlichte 295 n.Chr. den Codex Hermogenianus, eine halbamtliche Sammlung von Reskripten Diocletians aus den Jahren 293 und 294. Die Sammlung wurde in den Fragmenta Vaticana , in der Collatio legum Mosaicarum et Romanarum und in der Consultatio exzerpiert und vom Codex Iustinianus ( Haec, pr.; Summa § 1) übernommen. H. verfaßte auch die wohl späteste in den Digesten Iustinians exzerpierte Juristensc…

Fulvius

(2,957 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
Röm. plebeischer Gentilname, abgeleitet von fulvus (“rotgelb, braungelb” [1. 1,561], wohl nach der Haarfarbe); weitere Belege [2. 170], inschr. auch Folvius (ILLRP 124 u.ö.). Die röm. gens stammte wahrscheinlich aus Tusculum (Cic. Planc. 20; vgl. Cic. Phil. 3,16; Plin. nat. 7,136), wo F. [I 15] auch Kunstwerke aus Kriegsbeute aufstellen ließ. Die bedeutendsten Zweige sind zunächst die Centumali, Curvi und Paetini, seit dem 3. Jh. v.Chr. die Flacci und Nobiliores. Stammbaum: [3. 231f.]. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] F. Bambalio, M. Vater der Fulvia [2] (“Sta…

Mucius

(2,232 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Römischer Gentilname (inschr. auch Muucius, CIL I2, 584, griech. Μούκιος). Die Überl. kennt den legendären C.M. [I 2] Cordus Scaevola; auf das hohe Alter der Familie weist vielleicht die Ortsbezeichnung der Mucia prata östlich des Tibers [1]. In histor. Zeit (ab dem 3. Jh.v.Chr.) war die Familie plebeisch und stellte eine Reihe von bed. Juristen (M. [I 5; I 8-9]). Ein Sohn von M. [I 4] wurde von einem P. Licinius Crassus adoptiert und begründete als P. Licinius [I 19] Crassus Dives Mucianus das Ansehen dieses Zweiges der Familie der Licinii Crassi. I. Republikanische Zeit …

Laelius

(1,266 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Name einer vielleicht aus Campanien stammenden Familie. Die mil. Erfolge von L. [I 1] im 2. Pun. Krieg (218-201 v.Chr.) und die Verbindung zum Älteren Scipio verschafften ihr wohl das röm. Bürgerrecht und den Aufstieg in die Noblität. Eine jüngere Linie (Praenomen D.) gelangte erst unter Augustus zum Konsulat (L. [II 1-3]. I. Republikanische Zeit [English version] [I 1] L., C. Cos. 190 v. Chr., Altersgenosse des Scipio Africanus Geb um 235 v.Chr., gest. um 160; den polit. Aufstieg verdankte L. der engen (und sprichwörtlich gewordenen…

Leontius

(1,073 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Et al.
(Λεόντιος; Leóntios). [German version] [1] Ptolemaic commander of Seleucid Pieria, late 3rd cent. BC Ptolemaic commander of Seleucea Pieria; in 219 BC, he surrendered the city to Antiochus [5] III after initial resistance in a hopeless position. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] General of peltasts, 3rd cent. BC Macedonian, named general of peltasts by Antigonus [3] Doson in his will. Together with Megaleas, L. opposed the pro-Achaean politics of Philippus V and his mentor Aratus [2]; after inciting the elite troops against the k…

Fabius

(6,346 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Scholz, Udo W. (Würzburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman patrician family name, probably derived from Etruscan fapi [1. 162]. According to ancient etymology, however, either from faba ‘(broad)bean’ (‘legume grower’: Plin. HN 18,10; [2]) or from the original ‘Fodius’, ‘Fovius’ (‘wolf pit hunter’: Plut. Fabius 1,2; Fest. 77 L.) because the Fabii with the Quinctii originally appointed the priesthood of the Luperci; the  Lupercalia were also the family celebration of the Fabii (Ov. Fast. 193ff.). Early Imperial pseudogenealogy, which perhaps arose in the literary ci…

Pomponius

(5,501 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family probably deriving from the Italic praenomen Pompo, tracing back, like the Aemilii, Calpurnii and Pinarii, to one of the sons of Numa Pompilius (Plut. Numa 21,2; cf. Nep. Att. 1,1). In the 3rd century BC the Mathones (cf. P. [I 7-9]) achieved consulship, but later the family was insignificant. The most prominent member was a friend of Cicero, T. P. [I 5] Atticus. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Cn. People's tribune in 90 BC People's tribune in 90 BC, killed in the Civil War in 82; Cicero quite often heard him in his youth; his j…

Taruttienus Paternus

(94 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] The Roman jurist P. Taruttienus (Taruntenus) Paternus was the head of the chancellery ab epistulis Latinis in AD 171-173 and praetorian prefect under Marcus [II 2] Aurelius (Cass. Dio 71,12,3; 71,33,3) beginning in 177. After the latter's death, T. was relieved of his office about AD 182 and executed for high treason (SHA Comm. 4,7 f.). T. wrote the first legal work on the military ( De re militari, 4 books). Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography O. Lenel, Palingenesia iuris civilis, vol. 2, 1889, 335 f.  Kunkel, 219-222  D. Liebs, Jurisprudenz, in: HLL 4, …

Cassius

(5,432 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name of a plebeian gens (cf. Tac. Ann. 6,15,1), the representatives of whom have been known historically since the middle of the 3rd cent. BC. The most important family, especially in the 1st cent. BC, are the Cassii Longini. A patrician C. (around 500 BC, C. I 19) is rare. I. Republican age [German version] [I 1] C., C. Governor of Asia 89-88 BC Praetor 90 BC (?), in 89-88 governor of the province of Asia whence he, with M'. Aquillius [I 4], induced Nicomedes of Bithynia to attack  Mithridates (MRR 2,34). He then had to retreat from the victorious Mithridat…

Venuleius

(355 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name, variant of Venilius (Schulze, 378; 458). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] L. V. Apronianus Octavius Priscus Son of V. [4]. Cos. ord. in AD 123; procos. of Asia 138/9, SEG 36, 987. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography Scheid, Collège, 338-342. [German version] [2] L. V. Apronianus Octavius Priscus Senator. Son of V. [1]. Although a Patrician, after a praetorship he took on command of the Legio I Italica in Moesia Inferior. Cos. suff. under Antoninus [1] Pius; also a consular legate in Hispania Tarraconensis. Cos. ord. II in AD 168. Eck, Werner (Cologne) B…

Coruncanius, Ti.

(42 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] Consul in 280 BC, first plebeian pontifex maximus in 254, first issued responsa publicly and in association with legal instruction (Dig. 1,2,2,35), did not, however, produce any writings (Dig. 1,2,2,38). Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography Wieacker, RRG, 528, 535.

Ofilius, Aulus

(139 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (epigraphically also Ofellius). This Roman jurist was a friend as well as a political agent of Caesar. He was a member of the equites, but never held an office. Next to Alfenus [3] Varus he was the most notable student of Sulpicius Rufus (Dig. 1,2,2,44), in whose footsteps he wrote an extensive commentary Ad edictum, which was, however, soon ousted from the market by the Edict commentary of Antistius [II 3] Labeo. Little is known about his Actiones (Pleas, 16 bks.), Ius partitum ('The law and its parts', 5 bks.) and De legibus ad Atticum ('On the laws, to Atticus', 20 bks.…

Papirius

(3,269 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile, in its older form, Papisius (Cic. Fam. 9,21,3), from which one of the 16 old rural tribes ( tribus ) took its name. The patrician gens formed several branches at an early time (5th/4th cents. BC: Crassi, Cursores, Mugillani, 3rd cent.: Masones) who played a significant role in the military successes of the Republic, but became either extinct no later than the 2nd cent. BC or politically insignificant. The younger plebeian branch of the Carbones rose in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. and gained notoriety…

Charisius

(459 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
(Χαρίσιος; Charísios). [German version] [I] Attic orator, late 4th cent. BC Attic orator at the end of the 4th cent. BC; contemporary of Demetrius of Phalerum, Demochares and Menander. He was active as a  logographer, and imitated  Lysias (Cic. Brut. 286). Speeches by him were still extant at the time of Quintilian, at that time being ascribed by many to  Menander (Quint. Inst. 10,1,70). Only three passages have survived, in Latin translation in Rutilius Lupus (1,10; 2,6; 2,16). Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) Bibliography Blass, 3,2, 351f. [II] [German version] [1] C., Aurelius…

Tuscianus

(84 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] According to Dig. 1,2,2,53, T. and Fulvius [II 2] Aburnius Valens followed Iavolenus [2] and preceded Iulianus [1] as heads of the Sabine law school at the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD. Confusion with Iavolenus, who bore the cognomen Tossianus, is unlikely. Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) Bibliography D. Liebs, Nicht-literarische röm. Juristen der Kaiserzeit, in: K. Luig, D. Liebs (eds.), Das Profil des Juristen in der europäischen Tradition. Symp. F. Wieacker, 1980, 149-153  R. A. Bauman, Lawyers and Politics in the Early Roman Empire, 1989, 231-234.

Patricius

(421 words)

Author(s): Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] British saint, 5th cent. (St. Patrick). P., a Briton, was abducted and taken to Ireland when he was 16; he was sold as a slave and fled six years later. Following a "voice of the Irish" (Confessio 23), he returned to Ireland (in AD 432?) as a bishop. He died on the 17th of March (461? or 491?). His charisma is attested by his autobiography, entitled Confessio [1. vol. 1, 56-91; 2; 4], and the prophetic, threatening Epistola ad milites Corotici [1. vol. 1, 91-102; 2; 4]. P. is marginal to Latin literature. His difficult Latin [6] was nourished by the Bible, whose …

Iulianus

(4,648 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
Epithet of many gentilicia [1]. Famous persons: the jurist Salvius I. [1]; the doctor I. [2]; the emperor I. [11], called ‘Apostata’; the bishops I. [16] of Aeclanum and I. [21] of Toledo. [German version] [1] L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius I. Aemilianus Roman jurist, 2nd cent. AD Jurist, born about AD 100 in North Africa, died about AD 170; he was a student of  Iavolenus [2] Priscus (Dig. 40,2,5) and the last head of the Sabinian law school (Dig. 1,2,2,53). I., whose succession of offices is preserved in the inscription from Pupput, provi…

Ulpius

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [0] C. U. Antoninus Proconsul of Lycia-Pamphylia (communication from M. Waelkens). Whether he is identical with the senator U. Antoninus who participated in the secular games of AD 204 [1] must remain an open question. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography W. Eck, s. v. U. (25), RE Supplementum 14, 935. [German version] [1] M. U. Arabianus Senator from Amastris [4] in Pontus; cos. suff.; consular governor of Syria Palaestina (Syria) between AD 187 and 190 (IGR III 85 = [1. 163, no. 16]); procos. of Africa around 200 (CIL VIII 15876). His son was M. U. Domitius…

Modestinus Herennius

(378 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] (also: Herennius M.). Roman jurist, pupil of Ulpianus (cf. Dig. 47,2,52,20), from the Hellenistic east. It is likely that from AD 223 to 225 he was secretary a libellis to Alexander Severus, and in about 228 praefectus vigilum [4. 195f.]. A rescript of Gordianus [3] III (Cod. Iust. 3,42,5) of the year 239 follows his  ‘not-to-be-despised’ auctoritas as a respondent [3. 25f.]. It is doubtful that he gave the son of Maximinus [2] Thrax instruction in law (SHA Maximinus 27,5) [3. 118f.]. Apart from the Responsa (‘Expert Opinions’, 19 volumes) M. wrote Pandectae, linked t…
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