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Ilorci

(78 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian town in the area of the upper  Baetis, with the tomb of one of the two Scipios who fell in 211 BC, probably Cn. Scipio (Plin. HN 3,25). The equation of I. with the modern Lorca (province of Murcia) is disputed. CIL II p. 476. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 91 J. B. Keune, s.v. I., RE Suppl. 3, 1229 G. Alföldy, Röm. Städtewesen auf der neukastilischen Hochebene, 1981, 38.

Baria

(161 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni | Pyrenean peninsula Today Vera near Villaricos (province of Almeria), city of the  Bastetani with strong Punic influences, at the mouth of the Almanzora. Possibly allied with the Carthaginians. Since the 6th cent. BC Punic main centre for the development of the important mining area (silver, copper, lead) of the Sierra Almagrera. More than 2,000 graves have been uncovered from the time between the 6th and 1st cent. BC, the typology and grave contents of which are stamped by Carthaginian-Punic influence. Sc…

Cantabri

(147 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Alongside the  Astures, the C. were the most important tribe of the Spanish Atlantic coastal region. The main income of this tribe, which was split up into various groups, was derived from breeding cattle in the mountainous regions of the modern districts of Asturia and Santander; arable farming was very much of secondary importance only. Food shortages in the mountains may have been the motivation for the C.'s raids on the  Vaccaei, who settled in the fertile Duero valley. The C.…

Suessetani

(76 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe (Liv. 25,34,6; 28,24,4; 34,20,1 on events in the years 210 to 184 BC; Plin. HN 3,24: 'Suessetania') between the Iberus [1] (Ebro) and the Pyrenees [2], between Vascones in the west, Sedetani in the south and Lacetani in the east; Corbio [2] (location unknown) was one of its settlement centres (Liv. 39,42,1). The S. may have been identical with the Cessetani. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 215.

Italica

(247 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Hispania, Iberia City near Santiponce in the vicinity of Seville. Founded in 206 BC by P. Cornelius Scipio and settled with veterans (App. Hisp. 38) as a vicus civium Romanorum (CIL II 1119). From the time of Caesar, I. appears as a municipium (Bell. Alex. 52,4; coins), from the time of Hadrian (AD 117-138) as a colonia (Gell. NA 16,13,4; CIL II 1135; XI 2699; XII 1856). I. was the home of the emperors Trajan and Hadrian, but probably not that of the poet Silius Italicus. The legio VII (CIL II 1125f.) and the cohors III Gallica

Augusta

(3,972 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Gaggero, Gianfranco (Genoa) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Walser, Gerold (Basle) | Et al.
(Αὐγούστα, Αὐγοῦστα; Augoústa, Augoûsta). [German version] [0] Title First to receive the name A. (‘the Sublime’) was  Livia [2], by the terms of the will of her husband  Augustus (Tac. Ann. 1,8,1; Vell. Pat. 2,75,3; Suet. Aug. 101,2), who at the same time adopted her into the Julian family (thus: Iulia Augusta). Hellenistic influence is disputed (in favour [1], against [2. 140-145]); the name Σεβαστή/ Sebastḗ with the same literal meaning was bestowed on the wives of Roman emperors in the Greek-speaking world independently of any conferring of the name of A…

Gerunda

(149 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Pyrenean peninsula (modern Gerona). The place name is probably Iberian (an almost complete collection of toponymical evidence in [1. 2015]). It is debatable whether the Iberian coins with Krsa (?) on it refer to G. [2. 81]. The place is frequently mentioned in inscriptions (CIL II p. 614; Suppl. p. 1145). According to Plin. HN 3,23, G. was an oppidum civium Latinorum. In the Christian period G. played a role as the city of the martyr Felix (died during the reign of Diocletian; Prudent. 4,2…

Il(l)urco

(74 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pyrenean peninsula Iberian town in the province of  Hispania Baetica, modern Pinos Puente near Illora la Vieja west of Granada (Plin. HN 3,10). Its location is certain from inscriptions (CIL II p. 284; Suppl. p. 1147). Coins [1. 107f.; 2. 1234]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Vives, La moneda hispánica 3, 1924 2 J. B. Keune, s.v. I., RE Suppl. 3, 1233-1235. Tovar 1, 136; 3, 163ff.

Berones

(41 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtic tribe on the middle Iberus in La Rioja. Their most important towns were Tricio, Oliba and  Vareia (Liv. fr. 91: validissima urbs). Sertorius occupied the tribe's territory in 76 BC. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 77-78.

Tagonius

(50 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River in the territory of the Carpetani (Plut. Sertorius 17,2), modern Tajuña. It rises in the extreme east of the Sierra de Guadalajara at Maranchón, flows past Caracca and into the Tagus (Tajo) on its right side. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 216.

Arx Gerontis

(130 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Place name, originating from Geron/Theron, a king of  Tartessus ( fani est prominens et ... Gerontis arx est eminens: Avien. Ora maritima 261; 263; 304). The sanctuary was supposedly located within the delta area of the  Baetis [1. 237], the Arx Gerontis to the south of it, possibly on the Salmedina peninsula, of which these days only a few cliffs remain, washed over by the sea [2. 39, 41, map 1; 1. 236f.]. According to a later source (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,767), the place was also called ἄκρα Γλαύκου ( ákra Glaúkou), showing the identification of King Geron with the…

Laeetani

(134 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe ( laiescon [1. 19]) on the Spanish east coast between Barcelona and Blanes; regarding the various spellings and misspellings of the name ( Laietani, Leetani, Lacetani, Laletani, Lasetani) cf. [2. vol. 6, 235; 3; 4]; Plin. HN 3,21; Str. 3,4,8; Ptol. 2,6,18; 72; ILS 2714a; CIL II Suppl. 6171. Wine of inferior quality was cultivated there in large amounts (Plin. HN 14,71; Mart. 1,26; [2. vol. 1, 136, vol. 3, 51, vol. 6, 235f.; 5. vol. 8, 184, 195, 292]). Viticulture Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Hübner, Monumenta Linguae Ibericae, 1893 2 A. Schulten (…

Nertobriga

(148 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City in northern Spain City in northern Spain (Celtic place name: narto, ‘strength’, briga, ‘fortress’ [1]), modern Calatorao in the Jalón valley, 30 km to the northeast of Bilbilis. The consul M. Claudius [I 13] Marcellus conquered N. in 152 BC. The city was finally subjugated in 143 BC (App. Ib. 48; 50; Flor. Epit. 1,33,10). Itin. Anton. 437,4; 439,2; coins. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1, 533; 2, 723. Tovar 2, 414  TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 158f. [German version] [2] City in central Spain City in central Spain, as a Roman colony N. Concordia Iulia (Pli…

Cortona

(282 words)

Author(s): Cataudella, Michele (Florence) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Κρότων; Krótōn, (ἡ) Κυρτώνιος; (hē) Kyrtṓnios, Κόρτωνα; Kórtōna, Γορτυναία; Gortynaia; Corythos, Etruscan curthute). [German version] [1] Etruscan city This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria | Etrusci, Etruria Etruscan city on a hill north of the lacus Trasumenus, modern Cortona. In connection with the legend of  Dardanus, the son of Corythus, C. aroused particular interest among Hellenistic scholars (cf. Verg. Aen. 3,167ff.; 7,206ff.; Serv. Aen. 1,380; Plin. HN 3,63). Its origin is recorded…

Iliberis

(242 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] I., Iliberri This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Pyrenean peninsula Iberian town, probably near Granada in the Sierra de Elvira. Mentioned in Plin. HN 3,10 and Ptol. 2,4,9. Diocese in the Christian era, site of the concilium Eliberitanum (AD 306 ?) [1]. Often mentioned on coins and in inscriptions, here several times as municipium Florentinum (e.g. CIL II 1572; 2070). After the Arab invasion, the town appears to have steadily declined and the population to have moved to Garnatha, modern Granada. Inscriptions: CIL II p. 285ff., Suppl. p. 1146. Ba…

Mago

(1,896 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ruffing, Kai (Münster) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(* Mgn = ‘(god's) gift’; Greek Μάγων; Mágōn). [German version] [1] Carthaginian king (?), 2nd half 6th cent. BC Carthaginian, leading figure (king?) in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC; successor of Malchus [1], efficient promoter of Carthaginian power (Iust. 18,7,19; 19,1,1; [1. 173f.; 2. 475f.]), to whom a great army reform with the goal of the deployment of mercenaries is erroneously attributed [3. 184-187]. As father (?) of Hamilcar [1] and Hasdrubal (Iust. 19,1,2), M. is considered the ancestor of the Magonid…

Lacetani

(88 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe (not to be confused with the Iaccetani; e.g. Ptol. 2,6,71; [1]), who settled the southern foothills of the eastern Pyrenees, west of Llobregat, east of Segre, south of Noya and Cervera (Liv. 21,61,8; 28,24,4; 34,20,1; Plin. HN 3,21). They were one of the earliest tribes to be subjugated by the Romans (Plut. Cato Maior 11,2; cf. Cass. Dio 45,10; Sall. Hist. 2,98,5; [2. 50f.]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. iaccos 2 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935. Tovar 3, 35ff.

Asturia

(108 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Region on the Atlantic coast of northern Spain. It corresponds with the modern provinces of Asturias, Leon and Valladolid. The Astures split up into tribal groups ( populi), first reported by Posidonius (in Str. 3,3,7). Like the  Cantabri, they were subjugated by Augustus. The gold reserves of the country were legendary. In the town of Astorga, there was a military unit under the command of the procurator metallorum (Flor. Epit. 2,33,60; ILS 9125ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography F. J. Lomas Salmonte, Asturias preromana y altoimperial, 1989 N. Santos Yang…

Castulo

(287 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Blech, Michael (Madrid)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Pyrenean peninsula Iberian settlement 7 km south of Linares (possibly the modern Cazlona, province of Jaén) above the right bank of the Guadalimar. Lead and silver mines, communication links with the Iberian east coast and the Atlantic ( via Augusta and Guadalquivir) and the fertile surrounding countryside governed the history of C. The first settlement (La Muela) is i.a. verified by a metallurgical workshop (8th cent. BC), as well as a sanctuary, which was later built on top. Nec…

Ebora

(236 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Whether the name E. is Iberian, Ligurian or Celtic, remains unclear [1. vol. 1, 1394; vol. 2, 205; 2. 68; 3. 150]. [German version] [1] Town of the Carpetani, modern Montalba Town of the Carpetani, today Montalba on the Tajo. The town Aebura referred to in Livy (40,30; 32f.) is probably identical with Libora (Ptol. 2,6,56; Geogr. Rav. 4,44, Lebura; but cf. CIL II p. 111 s. Caesarobriga). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Modern Évora in Portugal Today Évora in Portugal (Alentejo); its identity is confirmed by inscriptions and archaeological remains (fort, …
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