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Lauro

(211 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City between Saguntum and Valentia Iberian [1] city between Saguntum and Valentia on the hill of La Pedrera [2; 3]; the settlement from the Roman period lies somewhat to its west on the site of modern Puig. L. was destroyed in the battles between Pompey and Sertorius (Plut. Sertorius 18, Plut. Pompey 18; App. B Civ. 1,109; Frontin. Str. 2,5,31; Oros. 5,23,6f.). Mentioned by Plin. HN 14,71 because of its excellent wine. Coins [4], inscription CIL II 3875, XV 4577f. Viticulture Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2, 163 2 C. Konrad, Plutarch's Sertorius. A H…

Munigua

(173 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town in southern Spain (Sierra Morena) near modern Villanueva de las Minas in the province of Seville (the form of the name has been deduced from municipium [ Flavium] Muniguense, CIL II 1049-1051 [2]), modern Castillo de Mulva. Probably an Iberian [1] place name. Under Vespasian (AD 69-79) municipium; M. had a special official to apply municipal rights, known as the promotor (?) iuris Latini (CIL II 1052). In the 2nd cent., M. became a prosperous mining town with a large terraced sanctuary (emperor cult?) [3; 4]. Around AD 300, M. was abandon…

Hispania, Iberia

(5,486 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Untermann, Jürgen (Pulheim/Köln) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
I. Geography and history [German version] A. Name Since the 1st cent. AD, H. has referred more and more to the entire Iberian Peninsula. Although the name Hispania is only attested since the time of the 2nd Punic War (218-201 BC; Liv. 21,2; Enn. Ann. 503), it is the oldest of all, because it is derived from Phoenician í-shephanním, ‘rabbit coast’ (according to a new interpretation ‘land of metal plates’). A further name was Ophioussa (‘land of the snakes’; Avien. 148; 152; 172; 196), which was probably coined by the Phocaeans when they came into contact with some reg…

Arbucale

(106 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Described in Pol. 3,14,1 (cf. Liv. 21,5,6) as a city of the  Vaccaei (in the provinces of Segovia and Salamanca) [1. 98]. Further references in [2]. Its location is unknown: Toro and Alba de Tormes are considered as possibilities [1. 323]. In 220 BC, after putting up a strong resistance, the city had to surrender to  Hannibal. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Tovar 3, 1989 2 E. Hübner, s. v. A., RE 2,1, 420-421. R. Martin Valls, G. Delibes de Castro, Toro ciudad celtibérica, in: Boletín del Seminario de Estudios de Arte y Arqueologia 43, 1977, 306 ff. F. Wattemb…

Segobriga

(102 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Ibero-Roman city Ibero-Roman city (Str. 3,4,13: Σεγοβρίγα/ Segobríga; Ptol. 2,6,56: Σεγουβία/ Segoubía; Plin. HN 3,25), Ruins - including an amphitheatre - on the Cabeza del Griego hill, 2 Roman miles to the south of Saelices (province of Cuenca). S. was a member of the  conventus of Carthago Nova (CIL II 4252). …

Complutum

(106 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Celtiberian town, whose location near Alcalá de Henares was determined from ruins and inscriptions (CIL II p. 410; Suppl. p. 941). The name of C. is probably Iberian according to Holder [1. 1087] but Roman according to Hübner [2. 795] (‘City of Rain’). Its inhabitants belonged to the  Carpetani (Ptol. Geog. 2,6…

Durius

(178 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] …

Oretani

(147 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtic Iberian tribe in the area of the middle and upper Guadiana and on the northern slope of the Sierra Morena ( Oretana iuga, Plin. HN 3,6), with their centre in Oretum, 33 km west of Valdepeñas on the Jabalón [1; 2]. They were first mentioned as troops sent to Africa by Hannibal [4] in 219 BC to secure Metagonia and Carthage (Ὀρῆτες Ἴβηρες/

Limia

(125 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Coastal river south of Miño, modern Lima. According to [1], the name is Celtic. Ancient references: ‘Millia and Oblivio’, Mela 3,10; ‘Lethe’, Sil. Pun. 1,236; 16,476; ‘Oblivio’, Flor. Epit. 1,33,48; ‘L., Limaea a…

Hispania Baetica, Hispania Ulterior

(134 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The beginnings of the province Hispania Baetica (HB) are linked to Augustus' restructuring of the provinces in 27 BC (Cass. Dio 80,2). The earliest document naming HB is an inscription in the Forum Augustum in Rome (ILS 103). From the 2nd cent. AD, HB was named Baetica Provincia

Norba

(197 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Latin colony in the territory of the Volsci This item can be found on the following maps: Tribus | Coloniae | Latini, Latium Latin colony in the territory of the Volsci, modern Norma. Possibly founded in 492 BC (Liv. 2,34,6; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 7,13,5), but more likely in the 4th cent.; laid waste by the Privernates in 327 (Liv. 7,42,8). Loyal to Rome through the Punic Wars, destroyed by Sullan forces in 82/1 BC (App. B Civ. 1,94). Archaeology: Ring walls, adapted to the topography ( opus polygonale) from the 4th cent. BC, 2,662 m long, three gates; two acropoleis, rectangu…

Boletum

(45 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City known to us only through inscriptions (CIL II 5843; 5845), probably located near Barbastro/Hispania Tarraconensis. The place name Boletania lasted beyond the Middle Ages; Arab geographers wrote Bortana, which has survived as today's Boltaña. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 384f.

Rubricatum flumen

(50 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River flowing into the Mare Tyrrhenum  to the south of Barcino(na) in the territory of the Laietani (Mela 2,90; Plin. HN 3,21; Ptol. 2,6,18), modern Llobregat. Upstream is the city of Rhoubrikata (Ῥουβρικάτα; Ptol. 2,6,74), modern Rubí. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) …

Complega

(55 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian town, only mentioned in App. Hisp. 42f. in association with the Roman campaigns of 181-179 BC. A. Schulten [2. 136] identified C. with  Contrebia (C. a Celtic variant, not identical with  Complutum, as [1. 795]) still has. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1

Lutia

(124 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Possibly modern Cantalucia near Osma in the Spanish province of Soria [1]. The name is presumably Iberian [2]. When in 134/3 BC the position of the fortress Numantia was besieged by the Romans and became untenable, the youth of L. was inclined to provide help to the Numantians who were in dire straits. But the elders betrayed this to…

Germani, Germania

(3,987 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
G. is a collective noun attested in various regions of Europe and West Asia and was disseminated, at least in part, by the migrations of splinter groups. Linguistically, Germanic belongs to the Indo-European language family ( Germanic languages); the term ‘Germanic’ was attributed from outside. Countering popular, Romantically influenced ideas that assumed a parallelism of language and material culture, as well as a lasting ethnic constancy, and countering an inherently racist concept of the uni…

Pompaelo

(95 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City in the lands of the Vascones, modern Pamplona in Navarre, founded by Pompeius [I 3] (Str. 3,4,10: Πομπέλων ὡς ἂν Πομπηιόπολις/ Pompélōn hōs àn Pompēiópolis, 'Pompelon as if Pompeiopolis') in the winter of 75/4 BC during a war with Sertorius where the Tarraco-Oiasso (Str. l.c.) and Astorga-Roncevalles (It. Ant. 455,5) roads c…

Althia

(69 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)

Mentesa

(111 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Name, possibly Iberian [1. 549], of two towns. [German version] [1] M. Bastitanorum (CIL II 3377f.; 3380), modern La Guardia, south east of Castulo (Plin. HN 3,9; 19; 25; It. Ant. 402,4). Mint and bishopric in the Visigothic period. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Town beside modern Villanueva de la Fuente (Μέντισα; Méntisa). Probably near the modern Villanueva de la Fuente, close to the source of the Guadiana Menor, in the conventus of Carthago Nova (CIL II p. 434f.; Plin. HN 3,25; Ptol. 2,6,59; CIL XI 3281-3284). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2. A. Schulte…

Pollentia

(385 words)

Author(s): Mennella, Giovanni (Genoa) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Town in the region of the Ligures Bagienni This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre Town (present-day Pollenzo in the province of Cuneo) in the region of the Ligures Bagienni, close to where the Stura flows into the Tanarus on the southern section of the via Fulvia between the Appenninus and the upper course of the river Padus. It was probably founded at the time of the campaigns of Fulvius [I 9] (rather than Fulvius [I 12]) in 125-123 BC. The town was famous for producing wool and ceramics (Plin. HN. 8,191; 35,160). P. sided with Antony [I 9] in the war of Mutina (Mutina, war of) in 43 BC (Cic. Phil. 11,14; Cic. Fam. 11,14). P. was probably a municipium, tribus Pollia, regio IX (Ptol. 3,1,45; Plin. HN. 3,49). In the 5th cent. AD, P. was still documented as a flourishing town with numerous lati…

Palma

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia City in Maiorica (modern Majorca), the largest of the Baliares Islands, founded in 122 BC after a victory over the local inhabitants by the consul Caecilius [I 19], subsequently Baliaricus, and named after the palm of victory (Str. 3,5,1; Mela 2,124; Plin. HN 3,77f.; Ptol. 2,6,78). It has the same name today. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 2,3, 1989, 277 …

Cartima

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Modern Cártama, province of Málaga. Iberian, according to [1. 1126] Celtiberian town; mainly epigraphically verified (CIL II 1949-1962; identical with Certima in Liv. 40,47,2?). In AD 53/54, it became a civitas libera (CIL II 1953: decemviri), under Vespasian a municipium civium Latinorum (CIL II 1956 and Suppl. 5488). According to inscriptions and extant remains (CIL II p. 248; Suppl. p. 876), C. also seems to have enjoyed prosperity later on. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 3. Tovar 1, 132.

Lagni

(93 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian town near Numantia; name possibly Iberian [1]. For coin evidence cf. [2; 3]. Allied to Numantia, L. was conquered and destroyed by the consul Q. Pompeius in 141 BC (Diod. Sic. 33,17). L. may be identical to Malia (App. Hisp. 329); on the contradictory reports in the sources cf. [4]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. L. 2 A. Vives, La moneda hispánica 2, 1924, 64 3 A. Hübner, Monumenta linguae Ibericae, s.v. lagne, 1893, 38 4 H. Simon, Roms Kriege in Spanien, 1962, 110. Tovar 3, 461.

Iberus

(162 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Hiberus). Name of two Spanish rivers, derived from the people of the same name, not - as ancient scholars (Plin.…

Gades

(981 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Wine | | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula (oldest Phoenician form of the name Gdr, ‘wall’, ‘citadel’, ‘fortress’, cf. Avien. 85, 267, 269, and [1. I 119; 3. 101f.], Greek Γάδειρα ( Gádeira

Numantia

(488 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia | Pyrenean peninsula City in northern central Spa…

Medobriga

(119 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)

Clunia

(220 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Coloniae The important ruins of C. lie c. 40 km north-west of Uxama Argaela (now Osma near Coruña del Conde; CIL II p. 382). On Augustan coins the name is spelled Clounioq, later C. [2. 111ff.) and is probably Celtic ([1. 131]; a different view in [3. 1048]). C. played a part in the revolt by  Sertorius (75 BC: Liv. Per. 92; 72 BC: Exsuperantius 8; Flor. 2,10,9), in that of 55 BC (Cass. Dio 39,54) and that of  Galba in AD 68 (Suet. Galba 9,2;…

Ilerda

(181 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Pyrenean peninsula Ancient Iberian city on the Sicoris (modern Segre), modern Lérida (loss of the Iberian prefix I). Remains are mostly found above the modern city. Ins…

Caesaraugusta

(154 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Commerce | Pilgrimage Modern Z…

Edetani

(198 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe on the Spanish east coast. The main city was Liria, today still known as Liria on the Guadalaviar (CIL II p. 509), and the tribal area corresponded roughly to the hinterland of Valencia and Saguntum ([1. 111]). Schulten [2. 326] refers to them as the inhabitants of the province of Teruel further to the north. The location can be deduced from that of the main city and from other sources (cf. also [3. 58]: Edeta[nia]). The E. are mentioned for the years of 209 and 141 BC: Pol. 10,34,2 (uncertain reading); App. Ib. 330f. (here, Sedetania should clearly be read as Edet…

Ilergetes

(86 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe around  Ilerda in the modern province of Huesca. The I. are often mentioned in the context of the Second Punic War. They initially supported the Carthaginians, were defeated by the Romans in 205 BC (Liv. 29,3) and later became

Carmo

(107 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pyrenean peninsula Settlement of the  Turdetani, modern Carmona (province of Sevilla in Spain). C. rose to importance during the conflicts between Rome and Carthage (3rd/2nd cents. BC; App. Ib. 25; Liv. 33,21,6ff.). Caes. B Civ. 2,19,4 and Str. 3,2,2 refer to C. as one of the most important towns of Baetica. The names of some of the officials of this   municipium civium Romanorum or Latinorum are known from coins [1. 199] and from inscriptions (CIL II 1378ff.; 5120). Barceló, Pedro (Pots…

Lancia

(300 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Town near modern Mansilla de las Mulas, northern Spain Town of the Astures near modern Mansilla de las Mulas, northern Spain, approximately 20 km from León (on the Celtic place name [1; 2], also [3; 4]). Conquered in 25 BC by P. Carisius, but spared (Cass. Dio 53,25,8; Flor. Epit. 2,33,37f.; Oros. 6,21,10; cf. also Plin. HN 3,28; Ptol. 2,6,28; It. Ant. 395,3; [5]). Substantial, almost exclusively Roman remains; Roman coins. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. L. 2 A. Schulten, Los Cántabros y Astures ..., 1943, 107, 151 3 F. Abbad Rios, F. Jordá Cerdá, Informe sobre las excavaciones ... en la antigua ciudad de L. (León), in: Boletín del Instituto de estudios Asturianos 12, 1958, 35-49 4 F. Jordá Cerdá, L. Servicio nacional de excavationes arqueologicas (Excavaciones arquelogicas en España 1), 1962 5 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 5, 1940, 186, 196. Tovar 3, 335f. [German version] [2] L. Oppidana The town is known from the boundary stone CIL II 460. Its territory bordered on that of the Igaeditani ( Egitan[ i] a = modern Idanha a velha, north of the middle reaches of the Tagus [1. 1203]). In inscr. ILS 287a (AD 105) on the Tagus bridge near Alcántara, the communities of northern Lusitania involved in the construction include the Lancienses Oppidani. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [3] L. Transcudana The town lay on the south bank of the Cuda, modern Coa, a tributary on the left side of t…

Bergistani, Bargusii

(68 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe in Hispania Tarraconensis (now Cataluña); the place name Berga (province of Barcelon…

Grac(c)urris

(125 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town in the upper Ebro valley; precise location unknown. In 179 BC founded as a Gracchuris by Tib. Sempronius Gracchus in place of the Iberian town of Ilurcis (Liv. Epitome 41; Festus p. 86,5). G. is mentioned later in the war against Sertorius in 76 BC (Liv. Epitome 41). Pliny (HN 3,24) names G. among the oppida Latii veteris of the conventus of Caesaraugusta. There are no in…

Cempsi

(70 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Only mentioned by Avien. 182ff. and by Dionys. Per. 338. They were probably a Celtic tribe (different in [1. 978]), who originally lived on the island of Cartare (probably in the  Baetis delta), later south of the Tagus and in the Anas valley. Possibly identical with the Celtici (cf. Str. 3,1,6). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)…

Callaici

(149 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtic tribe in north-western Hispania, giving its name to the modern region of Galicia. First mentioned in connection with the Celtiberian Wars (181-133 BC) (App. Ib. 300). The Roman governor Iunius Brutus, who crushed them between 138 and 136 BC, was given the cognomen Callaicus. Caesar, too, had dealings with them during his propraetorship in 60 B…

Cauca

(85 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian town, modern Coca (province of Segovia). First mentioned in the context of the brutal war conducted by  Lucullus in 151 BC (App. Ib. 51f.). Scipio, too, laid the town to ruins in the course of his battle against Numantia (App. Ib. 89). In the imperial age, the town belonged to the conventus of  Clunia (Plin. HN 3,26), and gained fa…

Bilbilis

(131 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Celtiberian settlement on the Cerro de Bámbola near Calatayd (province of Zaragoza); its name is possibly derived from the river Birbilis (Just. Epit. 44,38), an alternative name for the Salo, or the name of one of its tributaries. In Roman times, the road from Augusta [2] Emerita to Caesaraugusta passed through B. It is a matter of debate whether B. was a   colonia or a   municipium . It is the birthplace of Martial, who extolled the wealth of his homeland. The town fell into ruin in…

Baecula

(73 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars Settlement in the mining area on the upper  Baetis (modern Bailen). In 208 BC, it was the location of one of the decisive battles of the Second Punic War, in which Hasdrubal was defeated by P.C. Scipio Africanus. Hasdrubal subsequently departed from Spain (Pol. 10,38,7; 11,20,5; Liv. 27,18,1; 28,13,5; App. Ib. 24). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 153-154.

Pyrene

(485 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City in the easternmost Pyrenees near Rhode (Πυρήνη; Pyrḗnē). City of Iberian or Phocaean origin in the region between the Sordi and the Ceretes peoples (Avien. 559), therefore in the easternmost Pyrenees (P. [2]) near Rhode. Here, according to Hdt. 2,33, was the source of the Istrus [2] (Danube); P. was a rich city, seven days' journey from Pylae [1] Gadeirides (Avien. 5…

Cerretani

(69 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe of the southern Pyrenees, province of Cerona (Str. 3,4,11). Earliest mention in Avien. Or. mar. 550 ( Ceretes). Steph. Byz. knows of a city called Brachyle in the land of the C. They were famous for the quality of their ham (Mart. 13,54). In the imperial age, the tribe divided into Iuliani and Augustani (Plin. HN 3,23). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 44f., 447.

Hasta

(1,030 words)

Author(s): Campbell, J. Brian (Belfast) | Paulus, Christoph Georg (Berlin) | Siebert, Anne Viola (Hannover) | Salomone Gaggero, Eleonora (Genoa) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Hasta, hastati In the Roman army of the middle Republic, the hasta served primarily as a thrust lance for close combat although it could also be thrown; it had a wooden shaft and an iron point. The hasta was adapted to the fighting style of the  phalanx, but it remained in use when, in the 4th cent. BC, the Romans adopted a more flexible set-up in maniples (  manipulus ). According to Livy (Liv. 8,8,5-13), whose account, however, is not without its problems, in 340 BC the Roman army consisted of three battle rows, the hastati, the principes and the triarii. The triarii were a…

Ocelum

(181 words)

Author(s): Walser, Gerold (Basle) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Celtic place name from Spain to Britain Celtic place name from Spain to Britain, such as the station on the Turin - Mont Genèvre pass (Alpes Cottiae), located by [1] near Chiusa di San Michele on the Dora Riparia (cf. [2]). In the spring of 58 BC, Caesar passed through O., as a border point of Gallia Cisalpina, with five legions (Caes. B. Gall. 1,10). On the alleged battles with the Ceutrones [2] cf. [3. 57]. Walser, Gerold (Basle) Bibliography 1 TIR Mediolanum, 1966 2 L. Banti, s.v. O., in: RE 17, 1766 3 G. Walser, Bellum Helveticum, 1998. [German version] [2] City of th…

Maesesses

(63 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Tribe of the Bastetani (Liv. 28,3,3) in eastern Andalusia in a fertile region with silver mines. In 207 BC their region was conquered by P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio [1]. Orongis (probably identical with Aurgi, modern Jaén [2]) was situated here. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 131 2 Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 84.

Calagurris

(168 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Fibularia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity A settlement of the  Vascones, probably the modern Loarre in the Spanish province of Huesca in Spain. Bishop Ianuarius, one of the participants in the Council of Iliberis, may have come from C. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 381-382. [German version] [2] Nasica This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Iberian town on the Iberus in the Spanish province of Zaragoza, modern Calahorra. It played a part in the Celtiberian Wars (181-133 BC) and i…

Sicoris

(49 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Left-hand tributary of the Iberus [2] (Ebro) in Hispania Tarraconensis (Caes. Civ. 1,40,1; 48,3; 61,1; 63,1; Plin.  HN 3,24), modern Segre. It rises in the territory of the Cerretani and in its course passes through Ilerda (Lérida). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K/J 31 Tarraco 146 f.

Egelasta

(85 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This Iberian [1. 58] settlement was located near the salines of Men Baca between  Castulo and Linares and Vilches (CIL II 5091, p. 710) and belonged to the conventus of  Carthago Nova (Plin. HN 3,25). The identification with Iniesta in [2. 175] is mistaken. Pliny praised the salt of Egelasta because of its unique medicinal effect (HN 31,80). Otherwise only rarely mentioned (Str. 3,4,9; Ptol. 2,6,56, Egelésta). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten, Numantia 1, 1914 2 Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada 19. Tovar, 3, 1989, 155f., 234.
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