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Marinos

(1,801 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Saffrey, Henri D. (Paris)
(Μαρῖνος). [English version] [1] M. aus Tyros griech. Geograph, 2. Jh. Griech. Geograph, bekannt nur durch seinen unmittelbaren Nachfolger Klaudios Ptolemaios, der ihn als Quelle nennt in seiner ‘Einführung in die Darstellung der Erde (γεωγραφικὴ ὑφήγησις/ geōgraphikḗ hyphḗgēsis, = G.). Arab. Texte, die M. erwähnen, gehen sämtlich auf die ‘G. zurück [8. 189]. Das Werk des M. läßt sich mit Hilfe der von ihm verwendeten ON als zw. 107 und 114/5 n.Chr. entstanden datieren; denn erwähnt werden dort Städte mit dem Namen des Traianus, die auf seine Dak…

Dositheos

(748 words)

Author(s): Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen) | Folkerts, Menso (München) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Δωσίθεος). [English version] [1] jüd. Apostat Sohn des Drimylos, jüd. Apostat. Soll Ptolemaios IV. Philopator vor der Schlacht bei Raphia (217 v.Chr.) das Leben gerettet haben (3 Makk 1,3). Um 240 v.Chr. einer der beiden Leiter des königlichen Sekretariats, begleitete 225/4 Ptolemaios III. auf einer Reise in Ägypten, hatte um 222 als Priester Alexandros' [4] d.Gr. und der vergöttlichten Ptolemaier das höchste priesterliche Amt im hell. Ägypten inne. PP 1/8,8; 3/9,5100. Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen) Bibliography V. Tcherikover, A. Fuks, Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum I, …

Iustinus

(1,495 words)

Author(s): Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] I. I Eastern Roman general AD 518-527 (AD 518-527), emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, born a farmer's son around 450 in Bederiana (like  Iustinianus [1] I.), he came to Constantinople with  Leo I and was soon a member of the palace guard; under  Anastasius I he was comes rei militaris and from 515 comes excubitorum. In the dispute over the succession to Anastasius, who died without an heir, a majority in the Senate supported his candidacy and eventually he was also acclaimed by the army and the people, and was crowned on 10 Jul…

Methodius

(918 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Duridanov, Ludmil (Freiburg)
(Μεθόδιος; Methódios). [German version] [1] Bishop of Olympus, 3rd-4th cent. AD Bishop of Olympus (late 3rd - early 4th cent. BC). Little about his life is known for certain. According to Jer. Vir. ill. 83 he was bishop of Olympus in Lycia, but Tyre, Patara, Myra and Philippi are also mentioned as his see. His martyrdom, also reported by Jerome, is equally disputed. M., who preferred the dialogue form in imitation of Plato, wrote numerous works (CPG 1810-1830) in an elegant style. His main work Sympósion ē Perí hagneías (Συμπόσιον ἢ Περὶ ἁγνείας [2]) celebrates virginity as an anti…

Didymus

(1,946 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Δίδυμος; Dídymos). [1] of Alexandria Important Greek grammarian of the latter half of the 1st cent. BC [German version] A. Philological activity The most important Greek grammarian of the latter half of the 1st cent. BC. The biographical entry in the Suda (δ 872) tells us that he was still alive in the reign of Augustus, and mentions a nickname ‘Chalkenteros’ (Χαλκέντερος, ‘Brazen-guts’, cf. the Suda ι 399, χ 29). To his strong constitution he attributed an untiring assiduity that extended to different branches of p…

Titus

(1,331 words)

Author(s): Wick, Peter (Basle) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] I Greek (Τίτος/ Títos). [German version] [I 1] Companion of Paul Important 'assistant' and 'partner' of Paul (Paulus [II 2]; 2 Cor 8,23), of unknown origin. Taken by Paul to the Apostles' Convent in Jerusalem as a 'Gentile Christian', he was not compelled to be circumcised there, in spite of the demands of the Judaists (Gal 2:1-3). Paul sent T. to Corinth on several occasions as his negotiator (2 Cor 7:6 f.; 7:13 f.; he also appeared as an independent co-organizer of the collects: 8:6; 8:16 …

Dositheus

(947 words)

Author(s): Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento)
(Δωσίθεος; Dōsítheos). [German version] [1] Jewish apostate Son of Drimylos, Jewish apostate. He is supposed to have saved the life of Ptolemy IV Philopator before the battle at Raphia (217 BC)(3 Macc. 1,3). Around 240 BC he was one of the two leaders of the royal secretariat and accompanied Ptolemy III in 225-24 on a trip in Egypt; he held the highest priestly office in Hellenistic Egypt around 222 as the priest of Alexander [4] the Great and the deified Ptolemies. PP 1/8,8; 3/9,5100. Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen) Bibliography V. Tcherikover, A. Fuks, Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum…

Georgius

(817 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Vassis, Ioannis (Athens)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Laodicea Bishop of  Laodicea (died c. AD 360). The Alexandrine presbyter G., dismissed by his local bishop Alexander in c. 320 because of his radical  Arianism, became bishop of Syrian Laodicea c. 330 following his stay in Antioch. In persistent animosity to  Athanasius, he and Basilius of Ancyra gathered the Trinitarian Church Party of the Homoeousians (slogan: ‘The father resembles the son in essence’ ὅμοιος κατ' οὐσίαν) in 358/9. Also, he played a role in drafting the 4th Sirman Creed (22 May 359)…

Sextus

(2,046 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
I Greek [German version] [I 1] Author of a collection of 'gnomes' The name 'Sextus' is associated with a Greek collection of 610 maxims (Gnome) in all, known from two Greek MSS (Patm. 263, Vat. Gr. 742; Pap. Palau Rib. 225v, c. AD 400 offers 21 'gnomes'); they probably originated c. AD 200. Origenes [2] is the first to mention the title Σέξτου γνῶμαι ( Séxtou gnômai), remarking among other things that 'most Christians read them' (Orig. Contra Celsum 8,30). In about 399, Rufinus [II 6] Tyrannius translated a collection of 451 maxims into Latin, naming as author…

Serapion

(769 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Σεραπίων; Serapíōn). [German version] [1] S. of Antioch Mathematical geographer, 1st cent. BC Mathematical geographer to whom Plin. HN 1,2 referred to as gnomonicus ('measurer of shadows'). In 59 BC, Cicero (who was his contemporary) received S.'s geographical treatise from Atticus as the newest source for his planned Geographica but was hardly able to understand the content (Cic. Att. 2,4,1). In the treatise, Cicero encountered S.'s fierce criticism of Eratosthenes [2] (ibid. 2,6,1). S. estimated the circumference of the sun to be 18 times t…

Eustathius

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Vassis, Ioannis (Athens) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Εὐστάθιος; Eustáthios). [German version] [1] from Caria Rhetor of the 4th cent. AD, imperial administrator, consularis Syriae Rhetor of the 4th cent. AD; studied in Athens and later settled in Tyre. He held many offices in the imperial administration, and used them to enrich himself (i.a.: rationalis summarum per orientem), in 388 he was consularis Syriae. He was at first a friend of  Libanius (panegyric: Lib. Or. 44), later his enemy (diatribe: Or. 54, cf. also Or. 1,271-275). There is no other witness apart from Libanius. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] [2] Neop…

Diognetus

(335 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Διόγνητος; Diógnētos). [German version] [1] Athenian, victor at the Dionysia in 415 BC Athenian, son of Niceratus, from Cyantidae; brother of Nicias and Eucrates [2], father of Diomnestus. Winner at the Dionysia in 415 BC (Pl. Grg. 472a), afterwards exiled; in Athens in 404-03. Intervened in 403 with Pausanias on behalf of Nicias' sons. Died c. 396 (Lys. 18,4; 9f.; 21; And. 1,47). Perhaps identical with the person named by Traill (PAA 327535, 327540). Traill, PAA 327820; Davies 10808. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) [German version] [2] Nauarch of Antiochus III c. 220 BC As nauarch of An…

Paulos

(1,510 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Heimgartner, Martin (Basel) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid)
(Παῦλος). [English version] [1] Bf. von Antiocheia [1], gest. nach 272 Bischof von Antiocheia [1] († nach 272 n.Chr.). Der wohl in Samosata geb., aus einfachen Verhältnissen stammende P., der 260/1 Demetrianos als Bischof nachfolgte, machte sich rasch durch Lehre und Amtsführung bei einflußreichen Teilen der Gemeinde Antiocheias mißliebig. Lokaler Exponent der gegen die Lehre des Bischofs, seine äußere Selbstdarstellung (Errichtung eines hohen Thrones; Bezeichnung als ducenarius) sowie liturgische und disziplinäre Vorstellungen aufbegehrenden Opposition war na…

Markellos

(663 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Konstanz) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg)
(Μαρκέλλος). [English version] [1] aus Pergamon, Rhetor, 2. Jh. Allein durch eine kurze Notiz in der Suda bekannter Rhetor aus Pergamon, der ein Buch (oder mehrere B.) mit dem Titel Ἀδριανὸς ἢ περὶ βασιλείας/ Adrianós ē perí basileías (‘Hadrian oder über die Monarchie) geschrieben haben soll. Seine Lebenszeit dürfte demnach in die 1. H. des 2. Jh. fallen; ob Dions [I 3] an Traian gerichtete Reden perì basileías als Vorbild benutzt wurden, ist ungewiß. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [English version] [2] aus Side, Arzt und Dichter, 2. Jh. M. aus Side. Berühmter Arzt und Dich…

Kyrillos

(1,708 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
[English version] [1] K. von Jerusalem Bf. von Jerusalem, 4. Jh. Um 313 n.Chr. geb., gehörte zum Jerusalemer Klerus (Hier. chron. 2365 [GCS Eus. 7,236,7f. Helm/Treu]) und amtierte von 348 bis 386 als Bischof von Jerusalem; er kam eher als Parteigänger der Homöer (so Hier. l.c., Sokr. 2,38,2 und Soz. 4,20,1) denn als Nizäner (so Theod. hist. eccl. 2,26,6) in dieses Amt. 358 wurde er von Akakios [2] von Kaisareia des Amtes enthoben und nach Tarsos verbannt, 359 rehabilitiert, im folgenden Jahr erneut verbann…

Eusebios/-us

(2,005 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Heidelberg) | Gruber, Joachim (Erlangen) | Et al.
(Εὐυσέβιος). [English version] [1] Flavius Eusebius Consul 347 n. Chr. Im Gesetz Cod. Theod. 11,1,1 von 360 n.Chr. wird auf den ehemaligen cos. et mag. equitum et peditum Eusebius Bezug genommen. Es handelt sich hierbei wohl um den cos. E. von 347, der vielleicht mit dem Vater der Kaiserin Eusebia [1] identisch ist (vgl. Iul. or. 3,107d-110d). PLRE 1, 307f. Eusebius (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [English version] [2] Eusebius Röm. Amtsträger um 355 n. Chr. Sohn von E. [1]. Wie sein Bruder Hypatius wurde er durch seine Schwester Eusebia [1] (vgl. Iul. or. 3,116a) gefö…

Cyrillus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Κύριλλος; Kýrillos) [German version] [1] C. of Jerusalem Bishop Born c. AD 313, he was a member of the Jerusalem clergy (Jer. Chron. 2365 [GCS Eus. 7,236,7f. Helm/Treu]), and from 348 to 386 served as bishop of Jerusalem; he came to this office rather as a follower of the Homoeans (cf. Jer. loc. cit., Socr. 2,38,2 and Sozom. Hist. eccl. 4,20,1) than as a Nicaean (cf. Theod. Hist. eccl. 2,26,6). In 358 he was relieved of his office by  Acacius [2] of Caesarea and banished to Tarsus, rehabilitated in 359 a…

Marinus

(2,215 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Saffrey, Henri D. (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρῖνος; Marînos). [German version] [I 1] M. of Tyre Greek geographer, 2nd cent. AD Greek geographer, known only through his immediate successor Claudius Ptolemaeus, who mentions M. as a source in his ‘Introduction to the Representation of the Earth (γεωγραφικὴ ὑφήγησις/ geōgraphikḗ hyphḗgēsis, = ‘G.). Arabic texts which mention M. all trace back to the ‘G. [8. 189]. Place names used by M. allow his work to be dated to between AD 107 and 114/5; cities are mentioned with the name of Trajan refering to his Dacian Wars (ended AD 107…

Eusebius

(2,172 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Et al.
(Εὐσέβιος; Eusébios). [German version] [1] Flavius Eusebius Consul AD 347 Mention is made in the statute Cod. Theod. 11,1,1 of AD 360 of the former cos. et mag. equitum et peditum Eusebius. This probably refers to cos. E. of 347, who may perhaps be identified as the father of the empress Eusebia [1] (cf. Julian Or. 3,107d-110d). PLRE 1, 307f. Eusebius (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Eusebius Roman official about AD 355 Son of E. [1]. Like his brother Hypatius, he enjoyed the patronage of his sister  Eusebia [1] (cf. Julian Or. 3,116a). In AD 355 he was consularis Hellespon…

Petrus

(2,718 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Apostle (Πέτρος/ Pétros, literally 'the rock'). Apostle, leading figure in the group of disciples called by Jesus of Nazareth and in the original Christian community. Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) [German version] A. General comments Sources documenting his life include: (1) the NT writings: the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, Paul's letters (1 Corinthians, Galatians), the 1st and 2nd letter of P. (biographical analysis needs to take into account the special character of these writings); (2) early Church writi…
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