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Sabīl

(232 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, a way, road, or path, is used in the Ḳurʾān (1) literally, e. g. man istaṭāʿa ilaihi sabīlan (Sūra iii. 91 etc.) “he who is able to journey thither”; (2) figuratively, as in the expression sabīl-Allāh, for which see d̲j̲ihād; (3) figuratively, in the sense of the true way, the Apostle’s way, as in the passage yā laitanī ittak̲h̲ad̲h̲tu maʿa ’l-rasūl sabīlan (Sūra xxv. 29) “Oh! would that I had taken with the Apostle a path!” i. e. his ¶ path, or the true path; (4) figuratively, in the sense of a means of attaining or acquiring an object, or a way out of a difficulty or trouble, as in the passage aw yad̲j…

Sepoy

(496 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
is the English corruption of sipāhī, the adjective formed from the Persian word sipāh, “army”. Sipāhī is used substantially for “member of an army, soldier”, and occurs in literary Persian, though it is no longer current in the modern language. The Turks and the French have borrowed the word, the latter in the form spahi, and in these languages as well as in Persian it invariably means a horse-soldier, in which sense it is used by the English traveller Hedges ( Diary, ed. Hakluyt Society, i. 55) in 1682. In India both the French and the British adopted the word, which seems …

Sahāranpūr

(372 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, a city of northern India, situated in 29° 57′ N. and 77° 33′ E., was founded about 1340, in the reign of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲laḳ, and was named after a local Muḥammadan saint, S̲h̲āh Haran Čis̲h̲tī. The city and district suffered severely during the invasion of Tīmūr; and in 1526 Bābur traversed them on his way to Pānīpat, and some local Mug̲h̲al colonies trace their origin to his followers. Muslim influence gained much by the proselytizing zeal of ʿAbd al-Ḳuddūs, who ruled the district until th…

Ḏj̲ahāndār S̲h̲āh

(273 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, Muḥammad Muʿizz al-Dīn, the thirteenth emperor of Dihlī of the house of Tīmūr, eldest son of S̲h̲āh ʿĀlam Bahādur S̲h̲āh, was born in May, 1661. Before his accession he was governor of the province of Multān, and on his father’s death in Lāhor, in 1712, was raised to the throne by Ḏh̲u ’l-Fiḳār Ḵh̲ān, who was instrumental in overthrowing his three brothers, ʿAẓīm al-S̲h̲aʾn, Rafīʿ al-Ḳadr, and Ḏj̲ahān S̲h̲āh. Ḏj̲ahāndār S̲h̲āh was vicious, feeble, and pusillanimous, and scandalized all classes of…

Ṣaffārids

(400 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, a dynasty founded by Yaʿḳūb b. Lait̲h̲ al-Ṣaffār which originated in Sad̲j̲istān and reigned in Persia for thirty-three years. Yaʿḳūb, who was a coppersmith ( ṣaffār) by trade abandoned his handicraft and became a brigand, but his chivalrous conduct in his predatory calling, attracted the favourable attention of Ṣāliḥ b. Naṣr (or Naḍr), and he gave him the command of his troops. Yaʿḳūb rebelled against Dirham b. Naṣr. In 253 (867) he was master of the whole of Sīstān. Having thus established himself in Sīstān he captur…

Makrān

(415 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, the coastal region of Balūčistān, extending from about 59° to 65° 35′ E. and inland from the coast to the Siyāhān Range, a little beyond 27° north. This tract was known to the Greeks as Gedrosia, and was inhabited by the Ichthyophagi, or fish-eaters, the Persian translation ( Māhī-Ḵh̲urān) of whose name supplies a fanciful derivation for its present name, which is traced, with more probability, to a Dravidian source. In Persian legend Kaik̲h̲usraw of Īrān captured the country from Afrāsiyāb of Tūrān, and both Cyrus and Semiramis marched through it. In 325 b. c. it was traversed by Alexa…

Sammā

(633 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, the name of a Rād̲j̲pūt clan in Sind. As the hold of the G̲h̲aznawid kings on Sind relaxed, the Sumrās, a Rād̲j̲pūt tribe converted to Islām, established their rule in that country in 1053, and made Tūr their capital. They persecuted the Sammās, a rival Rād̲j̲pūt tribe which adhered to Hinduism, and drove many of them to take refuge in Kaččh, where, in 1320, they ousted the Čāvada prince who had protected them and seized his throne. This branch of the Sammās, known as Ḏj̲āded̲j̲a or the childr…

Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Mubārak

(471 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, the fifth and last king of the Ḵh̲ald̲j̲ī dynasty of Dihlī, was the third son of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad. When his father died, on Jan. 2, 1316, the minister Malik Nāʾib raised to the throne Mubārak’s youngest brother, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn ʿUmar, a child of six, blinded his two elder brothers, Ḵh̲iḍr Ḵh̲ān and S̲h̲ādī Ḵh̲ān, and would have blinded Mubārak, had he not persuaded the soldiers sent to perform the task to put Malik Nāʾib to death. He assumed the regency, but on April 1, 1316, blinded his …

K̲h̲airpūr

(277 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, a state in Sind, laying between 26° 10′ and 27° 46′ N. and 68° 20′ and 70° 14′ E. The state has no separate history until the fall of the Kalhora dynasty of Sind in 1783, when Mīr Fatḥ ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān Tālpur, a Balūč chief, established himself as ruler of Sind. Subsequently his nephew, Mīr Suhrāb Ḵh̲ān Tālpur founded the Ḵh̲aipūr branch of the family. His dominions at first consisted of the town of Ḵh̲airpūr and its environs, but he enlarged them by conquest and intrigue until they extended to Sabz…

Maḥmūd I

(163 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, Nāṣir al-Dīn, was Sulṭān of Bengal from 1446 to 1460. When the ferocious tyranny of S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Aḥmad S̲h̲āh, grandson of the usurper, Rād̲j̲ā Kāns, or Ganes̲h̲, could no longer be borne, he was put to death, and Nāṣir Ḵh̲ān, one of his amīrs, seized the throne, but after a reign of one week was slain by his amīrs, who would not submit to one of their own number. Their choice fell on Maḥmūd, who was a descendant of Ilyās, the founder of the old royal house, and he was raised to the throne. He…

Vid̲j̲ayanagar

(531 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
, a city of Southern India, now in ruins, situated in 15° 20′ N. and 76° 28′ N., on the southern bank of the Tungabhadra. It was founded about 1336 a. d., either by Vīra Ballāla III of Dvāravatīpūra, or by three Hindū chiefs variously described as being wardens of the northern marches of his kingdom and as officers of the Kākatīya kingdom of Warangal or of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ [q. v.] of Dihlī. Two of these chiefs, Harihara and Bukka, established themselves in Vid̲j̲ayanagar while the Muslims, of ¶ the Deccan were in rebellion against Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ, and later, while ʿAlāʾ a…

K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī

(646 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
or Ḵh̲ild̲j̲ī, the dynasty of Dihlī, was founded by Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Fīrūz (see fīrūz s̲h̲āh k̲h̲ild̲j̲ī) of the G̲h̲ilzāʾī or G̲h̲ild̲j̲āʾī tribe of Afg̲h̲ānistān. A Turkī descent has been claimed for this tribe but they had long been domiciled in Afg̲h̲ānistān and were regarded as Afg̲h̲āns. ¶ Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn Ftrūz ascended the throne in Kīlokhrī on June 13, 1290, and was murdered at Karra by his nephew and son-in-law, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Muḥammad, on July 19, 1296. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ascended the throne in Dihlī on Oct. 3, 1296, and captured the two son…

Sahāranpūr

(518 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a city of northern India in the uppermost part of the Ganges-D̲j̲amnā Doʾāb (lat. 29° 57′ N., long. 77° 33′ E.), now in the extreme northwestern tip of the Uttar Pradesh State of the Indian Union. It was founded in ca. 740/1340, in the reign of Muḥammad b. Tug̲h̲luḳ [ q.v.] and was named after a local Muslim saint, S̲h̲āh Haran Čis̲h̲tī. The city and district suffered severely during the invasion of Tīmūr; in 932/1526 Bābur traversed them on his way to Pānīpat, and some local Mug̲h̲al colonies trace their origin to his followers. Muslim influe…

Sālār Ḏj̲ang

(484 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W.
(Sir), the title by which Mīr Turāb ʿAlī, a Sayyid of Persian descent and one of the greatest of modern Indian statesmen, was best known. He was born at Ḥaydarābād, Deccan, on 2 January, 1829, and, his father having died not long after his birth, was educated by his uncle, Nawwāb Sirād̲j̲ al-Mulk, Minister of the Ḥaydarābād State. He received an administrative appointment in 1848, at the age of 19, and on his uncle’s death in 1853 succeeded him as Minister of the State. He was engaged in reforming the administration unt…

Kart

(599 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W. | Spuler, B.
(possibly kurt), the name of a dynasty which ruled Herāt from 643/1245 to 791/1389. It was founded by S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad I Kart, who was descended from the S̲h̲ansabānī house of G̲h̲ūr, the family to which the brothers G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Muḥammad and Muʿizz al-Dīn Muḥammad b. Sām belonged. As Herat recovered from the devastating raids of the armies of Čingiz K̲h̲ān, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn gradually gained power, and by 643/1245 had established himself as ruler of the state, and used the title of Mal…

Sind

(5,998 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W. | Bosworth, C.E. | Ansari, Sarah | Shackle, C. | Crowe, Yolande
, the older Indian Sindhu , the name for the region around the lower course of the Indus river (from which the region takes its name, see mihrān ), i.e. that part of the Indus valley south of approximately lat. 28° 30’ N., and the delta area, now coming within the modern state of Pākistān. There are alluvial soils in the delta and in the lands along the river, liable to inundation when the river ¶ rises in spring from the melting snows of the northern Indian mountains and rendered fertile by a network of irrigation canals and channels for flood control. To the west of …

Muḥammad I

(390 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W.
(759-76/1358-75), the second king of the Bahmanī dynasty of the Dakan, was the eldest son of Ḥasan, ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Bahman S̲h̲āh, usually, but incorrectly, styled Ḥasan Gangū. On succeeding his father, on 1 Rabīʿ I 759/11 February 1358, he carefully organised the government of the four provinces of the kingdom and the administration of the army. The pertinacity of the Hindū bankers and moneychangers in melting down the gold coinage which he introduced led to a general massacre of the community and…

Muḥammad III

(587 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Las̲h̲karī (867-87/1463-82), the thirteenth king of the Bahmanī dynasty of the Dakan, was the younger son of Humāyūn S̲h̲āh, and succeeded his elder brother, Niẓām S̲h̲āh, on 13 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 867/30 ¶ July 1463, at the age of nine. His minister was the famous Maḥmūd Gāwān, Malik al-Tud̲j̲d̲j̲ār, K̲h̲wād̲j̲a D̲j̲ahān [ q.v.]. A campaign against Mālwā in 871/1467 was unsuccessful, but between 873/1469 and 875/1471 Maḥmūd Gāwān conquered the southern Konkan. In 876/1472 Niẓām al-Mulk Malik Ḥasan Baḥrī, a Brāhman who had been captured…

Muḥammad b. Sām

(695 words)

Author(s): Haig, T.W.
, Muʿizz al-dīn, quatrième des princes S̲h̲anzabānides de G̲h̲ūr à régner sur l’empire de G̲h̲aznī [voir G̲h̲azna et G̲h̲ūrides]. Son laḳab, à l’origine, était S̲h̲ihāb al-dīn, mais il prit celui de Muʿizz al-dīn. Son frère aîné, G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-dīn, succéda à son cousin Sayf al-dīn en 558/1163 et nomma Muḥammad gouverneur de Harāt, lui confiant également le soin de développer les possessions de sa famille dans l’Inde. Muḥammad conduisit sa première expédition dans l’Inde en 571/1175, repoussa les hérétiques ismāʿīliens qui gouvernaient Multān, plaça un gouvern…

Ṣāḥib Ḳirān

(218 words)

Author(s): Haig, T. W.
(a. et p.), titre signifiant «Seigneur de la Conjonction (favorable)», Ḳirān désigne une conjonction de planètes; ḳirān al-saʿdayn [voir al-Saʿdān], la conjonction de deux planètes favorables (Jupiter et Vénus), et ḳirān al-naḥsayn la conjonction de deux planètes défavorables (Saturne et Mars). Dans le titre en question, la formule représente évidemment la première. Le i de l’ iḍāfa persane est omis, comme dans ṣāḥib-dil, en vertu du fakk-i iḍāfa. Le titre fut porté d’abord par l’ amīr Tīmūr, que l’on disait né sous une conjonction favorable, mais pour lequel il s’agis…
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