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Luṭf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān

(604 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
was the last member of the Zand dynasty in Persia. He was born in 1769, the son of Ḏj̲aʿfar, son of Karīm Ḵh̲an Zand [q. v.]. Ḏj̲aʿfar, who had seized the throne in 1785, had continued the struggle against the Ḳād̲j̲ār Ag̲h̲a Muḥammad, who had forced him to retire to S̲h̲īrāz, where he died on Jan. 23, 1789 from poisoning. During the short period of the reign of his father, Luṭf ʿAlī Ḵh̲ān had been entrusted with the conquest of Lāristān and Kirmān, which he had successfully carried through. ¶ But after the death of Ḏj̲aʿfar he was forced to flee from his own army to Kirmān to seek …


(499 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a little town, capital of a ḳaḍā of the same name in the sand̲j̲aḳ of Ertogrul, belonging to the wilāyet of Ḵh̲udāwendigiār in Asia Minor. It lies to the south of Saḳariya between Lefke and Eski S̲h̲ehir and is a day’s journey from each of these places ( Ḏj̲ihān-numā). Sögüd lies at the mouth of a mountain gorge, very deep and very narrow, and is built in an amphitheatre. The country round the town forms part of the fertile region which forms the transition between the Central Plain of Anatolia on the ¶ south and the lands on either side of the lower course of the Saḳariya to the nort…


(541 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(p.), derived from Ḵh̲udāwend, signifying master, lord, prince, and often used in literature to denote God. In the history of the Ottoman Empire this word was: 1) the surname of the Sulṭān Murād I (1360— 1389, q. v.) and 2) the name of the sand̲j̲aḳ and later of the wilāyet of which Brūsa was the capital. The earliest Ottoman chroniclers do not yet give this surname to Murād I (generally called Sulṭān Murād G̲h̲āzī, see e. g. Anonymous Chronicle, ed. Giese). It does not appear until the xvith century (Idrīs Bidlīsī, Saʿd al-Dīn; see von Hammer, G. O. R., i. 107). But the title of Ḵh̲unkiār is found…


(256 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(a.), name of a corps of guards, who were especially attached to the person of the Ottoman Sulṭān in the ancient Turkish court. The name is also applied to a member of the guard. Their occupations were similar to those of the Čawus̲h̲ [q. v.], not of military character, nor for court service only, but they were used for more or less important public or political missions. Like the Čawus̲h̲, the Mutafarriḳa were a mounted guard. In later times there were two classes, the gedikli or ziʿāmetli Mutafarriḳa, and the fiefless. Their chief was the Mutafarriḳa Ag̲h̲asi̊. In course of time their nu…

Muṣṭafā III

(1,417 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the twenty-sixth ruler of the Ottoman Empire, was one of the younger sons of Aḥmad III and was born on Ṣafar 14, 1129 = January 28, 1717 ( Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, i. 80). When he succeeded to the throne, after ʿOt̲h̲rmān III’s death on October 30, 1757, his much more popular brother and heir to the throne, Muḥammad, had recently died, in December 1756. Turkey enjoyed at that time, since the peace of Belgrad of 1739, a period of peace with her neighbours. Since December 1756 the very able Rāg̲h̲ib Pas̲h̲a [q. v.] was grand …

Muṣṭafā IV

(607 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, twenty-ninth sulṭān of the Ottoman Empire, was a son of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd I and was born on S̲h̲aʿbān 26, 1193 = Sept. 19,1778 (Meḥmed T̲h̲üreiyā, Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿOt̲h̲mānī, i. 81). When the anti-reform party, headed by the ḳāʾim-maḳām Mūsā Pas̲h̲a and the muftī, and supported by the Janissaries and the auxiliary troops of the Yamaḳs had dethroned Selīm III [q. v.] on May 29,1807, Muṣṭafā was proclaimed sulṭān. Immediately afterwards, the unpopular niẓām-i d̲j̲edīd corps was dissolved and Ḳabaḳd̲j̲i Og̲h̲lu, the leader of the Yamaḳs, was made commander of the Bosporus for…


(151 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the word used in western Turkish for village. It is the form in which Turkish has borrowed the Persian gūy (cf. Bittner, Der Einfluss des Arabischen und Persischen auf das Türkische, S.B. Ak. Wien, cxlii., N°. 3, p. 103) or perhaps more correctly kūy (Vullers, Lexicon; Burhān-i Ḳātiʿ; p. 759) meaning originally path, street. In the geographical nomenclature of the Ottoman empire we find many place-names compounded with kiöy, like Bog̲h̲āz Kiöy, Ermeni Kiöy, etc. It seems that these names are not found before the end of the Seld̲j̲ūḳ period. Kiöy in the sense of an open village is opposed to ḳa…


(366 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the patron saint of all wanderers and vagrants such as jugglers, beggars, conjurers, and those who go up and down the country accompanied by animals (goats, asses or apes), who show real or feigned diseases and mutilations, gipsies etc. These people are often classed together as the Banū Sāsān and have a bad reputation, as is evident from the literary references, as almost all classes of swindlers are included under this name. Their arts and tricks are called ʿilm Sāsān. Various traditions seem to exist regarding the father of this trade of begging. According to one story,…


(875 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
(a.-t.) (Turkish pronounciation: Selamli̊ḳ), 1) Reception-room in Turkish houses of the upper classes, derived from salām, greeting, welcome. In the general plan of this type of house ( ḳonaḳ) there is an ante-room or court behind the main door, at one side of which a stair-case leads up to the selamli̊ḳ, mā-bain [q. v.] and to the corridor ( sofa), which together form the part of the house allotted to the males. On the other side of the court is the entrance to the harem [q.v.]; there also is the swivel-box ( dolab) through which the women communicate with the harem kitchen. Al-though…


(5,631 words)

Author(s): Sobernheim, M. | Kramers, J. H.
, a dynasty of rulers of Egypt and Syria. a. Period from 1250 to 1517. The history of this dynasty is dealt with under the separate rulers; the general questions of art, religion and economics of their time are also dealt with in these articles and notably in Becker’s article egypt [q. v]. and Hartmann’s article damascus [q. v.]. Only a brief survey of the whole period is given here. They were, as their name shows [cf. mamlūk], former slaves from the bodyguards of the sulṭāns and amīrs who had distinguished themselves by ability and been given their freedom by their mast…

Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a, Sulṭān Zāde

(459 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier under Sulṭān Ibrāhīm, was born about 1600 as son of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Bey, son of the former grand vizier Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a (under Murād III), and by his mother a grandson of a princess of the imperial house, whence his surname Sulṭān Zāde. After having been ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊ bas̲h̲i̊ in the palace, he adopted a military career, became already in 1630 ḳubbe wezīri and was appointed in 1638 governor of Egypt. In 1642 he was made ¶ commander of the expedition against Azof [q. v.] which town he rebuilt after it had been burned by the Cossacks before its surrender. On his return he formed with the silaḥ…

Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a

(835 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, grand vizier in the reign of the Ottoman Sulṭān Muḥammad II, often called Welī Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a. He was born in Alad̲j̲a Ḥiṣar (Krug̲h̲ewatz) in Serbia, of Christian parents; according to Chalcocondylas, his father was Greek and his mother Serbian. Taken in his youth to Adrianople, he was brought up at the court of Murād II, and began his public career on the occasion of the accession of Muḥammad II in 1451. Soon afterwards he became Beglerbeg of Rūm-ili; according to the historian Ramaḍān Zāde Meḥmed (Küčük Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲ī) he had been also Ḳāḍiʿasker [q. v.]. As Beglerbeg, he took part…


(529 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a small volcanic island in the Mediterranean Sea between Sicily and Tunis (60 miles south of Cape Gtanitola and 45 miles east of Cape Bon [Ras Addar]; area 40 sq. miles), now called Fantellaria. The name Ḳawṣara (variously written in the MSS.) goes back to the classical Cossyra (cf. Pauly-Wissowa’s Realenzyklopädie der klass. Altertumswiss., xi. 1503). The island, famous for its antiquities (cf. Orsi, Pantellaria in Monumenti dei Lincei, 1899, ix. 450—539), was already important in ancient times for intercourse between Sicily and the African coast and played an…


(129 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, or in the official style, Talk̲h̲īṣī, was the individual appointed to prepare the précis called talk̲h̲īṣ [q. v.] and to take it to the palace where it was handed over to the chief of the eunuchs. The Talk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i was therefore an official of the grand vizier’s department; in addition to preparing the talk̲h̲īṣ, he took part in several official ceremonies. The talk̲h̲īṣd̲j̲i of the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām was not — at least in the later period — in direct communication with the palace; documents presented by him had to pass first of all through th…

Murād Pas̲h̲a

(522 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, Turkish grand vizier under Aḥmad I, was a Croatian by birth and was born about 1520. He served the empire as military commander and later as wālī in different provinces (Egypt, Yaman, Anatolia) and was made prisoner by the Persians in the battle of Tabrīz (Sept. 1585), where Čig̲h̲āle’s army was defeated. In 1601 he was pas̲h̲a of Budin and in 1603 commander-in-chief on the Hungarian front. In these posts he repeatedly conducted for the Porte peace negotiations with Austria. He was the chief negotiator of the peace of Z…


(730 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, a town in Persia, on the main road from Media to Ḵh̲urāsān, situated in the old province of Kumis (Comisene; cf. Marquart, Êrânšahr, p. 71), between Ṭihrān (in the middle ages Raiy) and Dāmg̲h̲ān, at the foot of the Alburz mountain and on the border of the great Kawlr. The form Simnān is most frequently found (e. g. Yāḳūt); the modern pronunciation is rather Semnun. The foundation of the town is ascribed to Taḥmūrat̲h̲ (al-Ḳazwīnī), and it is probably of considerable antiquity, although it is not mentioned in the so…


(534 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the name of the leader of a religious movement in Ḵh̲urāsān, directed against the ʿAbbāsids. The rising began in 150 (767) and spread rapidly in the districts of Herāt, Bādg̲h̲īs, Gand̲j̲-Rustāḳ and Sid̲j̲istān; the sources say that it had 300,000 adherents. The first opposition it met with was at Marw al-Rūd̲h̲ but the rebels killed the Arab leader al-Ad̲j̲t̲h̲am with a number of his officers. On hearing this, the caliph al-Manṣūr sent his general Ḵh̲āzim b. Ḵh̲uzaima to his son al-Mahdī at Nīsābūr and the latter ordered Ḵh̲āzim to attack the rebels with 20,000 men. ¶ After several chec…

Ḳi̊rḳ Kilise

(621 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
A town in Eastern Thrace, situated twenty-four miles to the east of Adrianople, ¶ on the southern slope of the Istrand̲j̲a mountains, which run parallel to the coast of the Black Sea from the north-west to the Southeast. It was conquered from Byzantium during the reign of Murād I, a few years after the capture of Adrianople and after the great defeat of the Serbians near this town (766). The chronology of the conquest is very uncertain, for neither the early Turkish chroniclers nor the Byzantine mention it. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa ( Chronologia historica, Venice 1697, p. 116) and Saʾd al-Dīn ( Tād…


(2,220 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, the Turkish form of the name of the town of Trebizond, in Greek ΤραπεζοῦΣ. Situated at the southeast cerner of the Black Sea on a very hilly coast which is separated from the rest of Asia Minor and Armenia by a high range of mountains, this town, like the population of the country immediately around it, has always led a more or less isolated existence, from which it only emerged in those periods when ¶ its geographical position made it become an important point on the great trade-routes. Trebizond is mentioned for the first time by Xenophon ( Anabasis, iv. 8) and is said to have been a very…

Muʿīn al-Dīn Sulaimān Parwāna

(842 words)

Author(s): Kramers, J. H.
, vice-regent of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire in Asia Minor after the Mongol invasion of that territory. His father Muhad̲h̲d̲h̲ib al-Dīn ʿAlī al-Dailamī (in some sources, such as the Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Guzīda, Muʿīn al-Dīn is called “al-Kās̲h̲ī”, which implies origin from Kās̲h̲ān) had been a minister during the reign of Kaik̲h̲usraw II and had been able, after the battle of Köse Dag̲h̲ (1243), to secure for a time the continuation of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ dynasty in Asia Minor, by his intercession with the Mongol general Baid̲j̲ū (Ibn Bībī, p. …
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