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Ismāʿīl

(222 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Bulbul, Abu’l--Ṣaḳr, vizier of al-Muʿtamid. In 265 (878—9) Abu ’l-Ṣaḳr was appointed vizier; but the real ruler was al-Muwaffaḳ, the Caliph’s brother. At the beginning of Ṣafar 278 (May 891) a rumour gained currency that al-Muwaffaḳ, who was then very ill, had died in Bag̲h̲dād. His son Abu’l-ʿAbbās, the future caliph al-Muʿtaḍid, had also a strong following among the population of the capital and, when Abu’l-Ṣaḳr had the Caliph brought with his family from al-Madāʾin to Bag̲h̲dād and placed th…

Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Malik

(245 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar, called Ibn al-Zaiyāt, vizier to several ʿAbbāsids. Ibn al-Zaiyāt began his career as secretary in the chancellery in Bag̲h̲dād and when the caliph al-Muʿtaṣim noticed his ability and learning he appointed him his vizier (219—220 = 834—835). He also filled this office in the reign of al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ; but as he treated the latter’s brother Ḏj̲aʿfar, the future caliph al-Mutawakkil, with a lack of respect he earned his hatred. After the death of al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 232 (Aug…

Saʿd

(1,045 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Abī Waḳḳāṣ, an Arab general. His father’s full name was Mālik b. Wuhaib b. ʿAbd Manāf b. Zuhra b. Kilāb b. Murra. Saʿd, who had become a convert to Islām at the age of seventeen (cf. al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Manāḳib al-Anṣār, bāb 31; Ibn Mād̲j̲a, Sunan, introductory chapter, bāb 11), was one of the oldest companions of the Prophet, being a special favourite of his and one of those who had been promised Paradise (Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, i. 193; ii. 222); he took part not only in the battles of Badr and Uḥud but also in the campaigns that followed. When a…

al-Mag̲h̲ribī

(752 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of several viziers. 1. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusain, Abu ’l-Ḥasan. Like his ¶ father, ʿAlī was one of the intimate friends of the Hamdānid Saif al-Dawla of Ḥalab. He had also great influence with his son Saʿd al-Dawla, but when a cloud came over their friendship, ʿAlī left Ḥalab and went to al-Raḳḳa to Bakd̲j̲ūr, who had been one of Saif al-Dawla’s Mamlūks and persuaded him to enter into negotiations with the Fāṭimid caliph al-ʿAzīz bi ’llāh [q. v.] with whom ʿAlī had had relations for a long time. When Bakd̲…

Abū Hās̲h̲im

(17 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad. See also Yaʿḳūbī, ed. Houtsma, ii. 356-358. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

Buraida

(211 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Ḥuṣaib, one of Muḥammad’s Companions, chief of the tribe of Aslam b. Afṣā. When the Prophet migrated from Mecca and was passing the settlement of the Aslam in al-G̲h̲amīm, Buraida became converted to Islām, with about eighty families, who were with him. He did not go to Medīna till after the battle of Uḥud but thereafter then he took part in all Muḥammad’s campaigns. In the year 9 (630) he was sent to collect taxes from the Aslam and G̲h̲ifār and is said to have accompanied ʿAlī’s expeditio…

Ṭug̲h̲tegīn

(871 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿAbd Allāh Amīn al-Dawla Ẓahīr al-Dīn Abū Manṣūr, founder of the dynasty of the Būrids. Ṭug̲h̲tegīn began his military career as a mamlūk in the service of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭān Tutus̲h̲ [q.v.] who afterwards manumitted him, entrusted him with the education of his son Duḳāḳ and even gave him the latter’s mother Ṣafwat al-Mulk as a wife. After Tutush had fallen in battle with his nephew Barkiyārūḳ (488 = 1095) Duḳāḳ was recognised as lord of Damascus. He showed the greatest respect for his stepfather a…

ʿAbd Allāh

(298 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿOmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, son of the caliph ʿOmar II. In the year 126 (744) ʿAbd Allāh was appointed governor of the ʿIrāḳ by Yazīd III, but in a short time aroused the discontent of the Syrian chiefs in that place, who felt that they were unfavorably treated by the new governor compared with the inhabitants of the ʿIrāḳ. After the accession of Marwān II, ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya [q. v.], a descendant of ʿAlī’s brother Ḏj̲aʿfar, rebelled in Kūfa in Muḥarram 127 (October 744), but was expelled by ʿAbd…

Aḥmed

(405 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Abī Duʾād, Muʿtazilite ḳāḍī, a native of Baṣra, born according to some statements in 160 (776-777). Owing to his scholarship and merits he acquired influence over Caliph al-Maʾmūn, and became soon one of the latter’s most intimate friends. Al-Maʾmūn also advised his brother and successor al-Muʿtaṣim to place Aḥmed, who was a fervent adherent of the Muʿtazilite teaching among his counsellors and never to leave him. After his accession in 218 (833) al-Muʿtaṣim consequently appointed Aḥmed chief ḳ…

al-ʿAbbās

(378 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Walīd, Umaiyad general, son of the caliph Walīd I. ʿAbbās owes his celebrity principally to the energetic part he took in the continual struggles of the Umaiyads with the Byzantines. With regard to the details, the Arab and Byzantine sources do not, certainly, always agree. In the early part of the reign of Walīd I, he and his uncle, Maslama b. ʿAbd al-Malik, seized Ṭuwāna, the most important fortress of Cappadocia. The Mussulmans had begun to be discouraged and ʿAbbās had to display the gr…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Muʿāwiya

(51 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Further Bibliography: Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, Paris, vi. 41 sq., 67 sq., 109; Kitāb al-Ag̲h̲ānī, see Guidi, Tables alphabétiques; Wellhausen, Die religiös-politischen Oppositionsparteien im alten Islām, in Abh. G. W. Gött., v. 2, p. 98 sq.; cf. also Caetani and Gabrieli, Onomasticon Arabicum, ii. 853. (K. V. Zetterstéen)

Zubaida

(196 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Bint Ḏj̲aʿfar b. Abī Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr, Umm Ḏj̲aʿfar, wife of the caliph Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd and mother of his successor Muḥammad al-Amīn [q. v.]. She was born in 145 (762 — 763) and her real name was Amat al-ʿAzīz “the slave of the Almighty”, but on account of her youthful and fresh complexion she was nicknamed by her grandfather, the caliph al-Manṣūr, zubaida (diminutive of zubda “cream”, “fresh butter”; also the name of the marigold, Calendula officinalis). Her marriage with Hārūn was celebrated in 165 (781—782) and she died in Bag̲h̲dād in Ḏj̲umādā I 216 (June—July …

Pehlewān

(293 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Muḥammad b. Īldegiz, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn, Atābeg of Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān. His father Īldegiz [q. v.] had in course of time risen to be the real ruler in the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire; the widow of Sulṭān Ṭug̲h̲ri̊l [q. v.] was Pehlewān’s mother and Arslān b. Ṭug̲h̲ri̊l [q. v.] his step-brother. In the fighting between Īldegiz and the lord of Marāg̲h̲a, Ibn Aḳ Sunḳur al-Aḥmadīlī, Pehlewān played a prominent part [cf. the article marāg̲h̲a]. From his father he inherited in 568 (1172—1173) Arrān, Ād̲h̲arbāid̲j̲ān, al-Ḏj̲ibāl, Hamad̲h̲ān, Iṣfahān and al-Raiy with their dependent ter…

Ibn Ḏj̲ahīr

(748 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of four viziers: 1. Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Abū Naṣr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲ahīr, born in Mōṣul in 398 (1007-8). He first entered the service of the ¶ Banū ʿUḳail, who had been ruling in his native city since 386 (996); but when the ʿUḳailid Ḳurais̲h̲ b. Badrān wished to throw him into prison he fled to Aleppo where the Mirdāsid Muʿizz al-Dawla b. Ṣāliḥ appointed him his vizier. He next left Aleppo and was appointed vizier to Naṣr al-Dawla Aḥmad b. Marwān, lord of Diyār Bakr. After the latter’s death in 453 (1061-2)…

Ibn Ṣadaḳa

(430 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, the name of three viziers: 1. Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn ʿAmīd al-Dawla Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī, al-Mustars̲h̲id’s vizier. In 513 (1119-20), he was appointed vizier, but in Ḏj̲umādā I 516 (July-August 1122) the Caliph dismissed him. His house was plundered and his nephew Abu ’l-Riḍā fled to Mōṣul. The office was then given to ʿAlī b. Ṭirād al-Zainabī and in S̲h̲aʿbān (Oct.-Nov.) of the same year, to Aḥmad b. Niẓām al-Mulk. When the latter demanded that Ibn Ṣadaḳa should leave the capital, he went to Hadīt̲h̲at ʿĀna to…

al-Rās̲h̲id Bi ’llāh

(513 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr b. al-Mustars̲h̲id, ʿAbbāsid caliph. On the 2th Rabīʿ II, 513 (July 13, 1119) the caliph al-Mustars̲h̲id [q. v.] had homage paid to his twelve-year-old son Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr as heir-apparent and in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 529 (Aug.— Sept. 1135) the latter was acclaimed caliph under the name al-Rās̲h̲id bi ’llāh. When the Sald̲j̲ūḳ Sulṭān Masʿūd b. Muḥammad [q. v.] soon afterwards demanded 400,000 dīnārs from him, al-Rās̲h̲id refused, because, as he said, he had no money. Masʿūd’s envoy …

His̲h̲ām

(716 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. ʿAbd al-Malik, ʿUmaiyad Caliph, son of the Caliph ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān and ʿĀʾis̲h̲a, daughter of His̲h̲ām b. Ismāʿīl, governor of Medīna. He was proclaimed Caliph in S̲h̲aʿbān 105 = January 724 and began his reign by dismissing ʿUmar b. Hubaira, governor of the ʿIrāḳ. Ḵh̲ālid b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḳasrī was appointed his successor and ruled the province for nearly fifteen years and earned the gratitude of the populace by its peaceful development under him. His enemies, however, ultimately succee…

Muḥammad b. Yāḳūt

(564 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abū Bakr, a chief of police in Bag̲h̲dād. In 318 (930) Muḥammad, whose father was chief chamberlain to the Caliph al-Muḳtadir was appointed chief of police. The maintenance of order in the capital at this time was much neglected and the praetorians conducted a regular reign of terror. In a fracas between infantry and cavalry Muḥammad intervened on behalf of the latter; their opponents were cut down, some driven from the city and only a small contingent of negroes, who at once surrendered, remain…

Bukair

(615 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. Māhān Abū Hās̲h̲im, one of the most zealous propagandists of the ʿAbbāsids. Bukair was originally employed as secretary or interpreter with Ḏj̲unaid ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, governor of India when the latter was dismissed, Bukair went to Kūfa in 105 (723-724) where he was won over to the ʿAbbāsid faction and placed his great wealth at their disposal. After the death of the ʿAbbāsid emissary Maisara, he was entrusted by Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, the leader of the ʿAbbāsids, with charge of the propaganda in ʿIraḳ.…

al-Muḳtadī

(283 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
bi-Amri ’llāh, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad, ʿAbbāsid caliph. His father was a son of the caliph al-Ḳāʾim and his mother an Armenian slave girl named Urd̲j̲uwān. After the death of his grandfather al-Ḳāʾim in S̲h̲aʿbān 467 (April 1075), al-Muḳtadī succeeded him as caliph. The real ruler was the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sulṭān Māliks̲h̲āh [q. v.] to whose daughter al-Muḳtadī was married in 480 (1087). By 482(1089) however, she had returned to her father because ¶ she was neglected by the caliph. Māliks̲h̲āh, who wished to prevent the caliph interfering in affairs of state, end…
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