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Messalinus

(41 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Originally, a cognomen in the family of the Valerii ( Valerius), from them it passed over to the family of the Aurelii (Aurelius [II 13]); epithet of C. Prastina Pacatus M. ( cos. AD 147). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Naso

(53 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Widespread Roman cognomen (‘large-nosed’), which does not, however, occur in distinguished families of the Republican period; the family of some of its bearers cannot be determined. The most prominent figure to bear the name was the poet P. Ovidius Naso. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 237 2 Walde/Hofmann 2, 146.

Denter

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (cf. Dentatus) of the Caecilii [I 25] and M.  Livius D. (cos. 302 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 224.

Vitulus

(17 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('young bull') with Mamilius [6-7]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 329.

Laevinus

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen for the Valerii in the Republican era, no longer attested in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 243.

Scipionic inscriptions

(379 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Term referring to the nine extant sarcophagus inscriptions of the so-called 'Tomb of the Scipios', the burial place of the Cornelii Scipiones from c. the mid 3rd cent. to the end of the 2nd cent. BC (CIL I2 6-16, ILLRP 309-317). The earliest texts are the eulogies for L. Cornelius [I 76] Scipio Barbatus ( cos. 298) and his son L. Cornelius [I 65] Scipio ( cos. 259), each consisting of a painted name followed by a chiseled poem in saturnian metre (most scholars date the eulogy to the father

Capitolinus

(64 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, probably originally an indication of the bearer's or his family's place of residence. For the early Republican Age, it is transmitted for the families of the Maelii, Quinctii, and Tarpei, and prominent with the Manlii; in the Imperial Age, it was widespread. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography ThlL, Onom. 166f. Kajanto, Cognomina, 183 H. Gundel, s.v. Quinctii Capitolini, RE 24, 1010.

Get(h)a

(49 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the Getan’), in the Republican period of C. Licinius G. ( cos. in 116 BC) and C. Hosidius G., in the Imperial period ─ in the form Geta ─ also among the Hosidii and Septimii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR 253 Kajanto, Cognomina 204.

Scaurus

(29 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('with prominent ankles'), in the Republican period in the Aemilii (Aemilius [I 37-38]) and Aurelii (Aurelius [17-18]) families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 242.

Libo

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, in the Republican period in the families of the Iulii, Livii, Poetelii and Scribonii, in the Imperial period in the Anni, Flavii, Livii, Scribonii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Imperios(s)us

(30 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, designating excessive personal harshness, in the Republican period in the Manlii family ( Manlius) in the 4th cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 266.

Abbius

(92 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Oppianicus, Statius. Roman knight from Larinum. He tried to have his stepson A.  Cluentius Habitus poisoned and was therefore accused by him of murder in 74 BC, convicted, and died in exile in 72.  Cicero defended Cluentius against the counterclaim of the stepmother in 66 that Cluentius had tried to poison A. and accused the latter of the murder of other family members, falsification of the will, bribing of judges, and other crimes (Cic. Clu. passim). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography C.J. Classen, Recht, Rhet., Politik, 1985, 15-119 Nicolet 2, 755-756.

Gnipho

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from Greek Γνίφων; Gníphōn, ‘miser’), epithet of Mark Antony [I 12] G., the teacher of Caesar and Cicero. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Lars

(87 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Latin form of the common Etruscan praenomen lar and its variants (references: [4. 205-208]; the Latin form Lar is only uncertainly documented, Liber de praenominibus 4; [2]). Known bearers: L. Porsenna, king of Clusium 508 BC; L. Herminius Coritinesanus (?), cos. 448 BC, and L. Tolumnius, king of Veii (2nd half 5th cent. BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Rix, Das etr. Cognomen, 1963, 273, 348 2 O. Salomies, Die röm. Vornamen, 1986, 31f. 3 Schulze, 84 4 Thesaurus linguae Etruscae 1, 1978.

Tubertus

(18 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (connected with tuber, 'swelling'), Postumius [I 17]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto…

Torquatus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (decorated with a Torque (I.)), prominent in the Manlii family (cf. Manlius [I 12; 14-21]). Legend on its origin in Liv. 7,10,11. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 346.

Tertullus

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Common Roman cognomen, derivative (diminutive) of Tertius . Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 270  Kajanto, Cognomina, 128; 292.

Sertorius, Q.

(533 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] B. 123 BC at Nursia (Samnium), of an equestrian family. He gained military experience in 105/4 under Q. Servilius [I 12] Caepio and C. Marius [I 1] in the wars against the Cimbri and Teutoni, and in 98-93 under T. Didius [I 4] in Spain, where he particularly distinguished himself and acquired intimate knowledge of the country. In 91, S. was quaestor in Gallia Cisalpina, after which he fought in the Social War [3]. In 89 or 88, hi…

Fimbria

(30 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘fringe’, ‘curl’), attested in the Republican period in the family of the Flavii, also in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 223.

Laenas

(72 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, derived by Cicero (Brut. 56) from laena, the cloak of the flamines , but in fact of Etruscan origin and probably an ethnicon (cf. Asprenas, Maenas, etc.). In the Republican era it was the hereditary surname in the Popillius family (from cos. 359 BC on), in the Imperial period also in the Octavius and Vipsanius families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 210 Schulze, 83; 186; 530.

Hispallus

(29 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Epithet (‘Spaniard’) of Cn. Cornelius [I 78] Scipio H. (cos. 176); taking the form of Hispanus with his son Cornelius [I 79]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Stolo

(40 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('runner', 'stolon'), according to Varro (Rust. 1,2,9) and Plinius (HN 17,7) 'somebody who prunes wild shoots'; recorded only for the Licinii family (Licinius [I 43-44; II 24]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 337  Walde/Hofmann 2, 599.

Delmaticus

(19 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Victor's name of L. Caecilius [I 24] Metellus D. ( cos. 119 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Ligus

(43 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘Ligurian’), in the Republican period in the families of the Aelii (Aelius [I 5 and 6]), Octavii and other (unknown) families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 196 D. R. Shackleton Bailey, Onomasticon to Cicero's Letters, 1995, 63.

Balbus

(65 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Common Roman cognomen (‘the Stutterer’) in republican times among the Acilii, Cornelii, Laelii, Lucilii and other families (ThlL 2,1693f.). In imperial times the epithet of the following consuls: l. Cornelius B. (40 BC), l. Cornelius B. (32 BC), D. Laelius B. (6 BC), l. Norbanus B. (AD 19), Q. Iulius B. (AD 85), Q. Iulius B. (AD 129). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Verrucos(s)us

(31 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('Wart-Bearer'). Epithet of Q. Fabius [I 30] Maximus and of Asinius Pollio V. (PIR A 1243, cos. in 81 AD). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 246.

Metellus

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen in the family of the Caecilii Metelli ( Caecilius [I 10-32]; [II 16]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Trio

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, describing the constellations of Ursa Major and Ursa Minor. The sole known bearer is the triumvir [4] monetalis in 136 BC, Q. Lucretius T. (RRC 239). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 338.

Cincinnatus

(80 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘curlyhead’) of Cn.  Manlius C. ( cos. in 480 BC) and especially occurring in the Gens Quinctia; attested between around 460 and 360 BC, originally used to differentiate the brothers L.  Quinctius C. ( dictator in 458 BC) and T. Quinctius Capitolinus Barbatus, then apparently passed down in the family. There must have been a patrician bearer of the name as late as the 1st cent. AD (Suet. Cal. 35,1). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 223.

Atratinus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (probably designation of origins [1]) of the Sempronii in the 5th/4th cents. BC and in M.  Asinius A. ( cos. AD 89). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 184

Barbatus

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the Bearded’) of the Cornelii, Horatii, Quincti, Valerii and other families (ThlL 2,1746; Kajanto, cognomina, 224). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Glaucia

(39 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (the identification with the Greek proper name Γλαυκίας ( Glaukías) is disputed, [1]) in the family of the Servilii (known is the praetor in 100 BC C.  Servilius Glaucia). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze 343.

Luscinus

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘one-eyed’, Plin. HN 11,150), in the Republican period in the Fabricii family (Fabricius [I 3 and 4]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Nerius

(99 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Rare Roman proper name (epigraphic evidence for praenomen, family name and epithet). Also the name of a Gaulish-Roman goddess (Néris-Les Bains). [German version] [1] Money Lender Well Versed in Law Money lender well versed in law (Hor. Sat. 2,3,69 with Porphyrio ad loc.; cf. Pers. 2,14). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] N., Cn. (?) Accused P. Sestius of corruption in 56 BC Accused P. Sestius of gaining office by improper means ( ambitus; Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 2,3,5) in 56 BC; not identical with the

Glabrio

(37 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘bald-head’, cf. glaber) in the family of the Acilii ( Acilius [I 10-13]; [II 6-9]), in the Imperial period also in other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR 254 Kajanto, Cognomina 236.

Folius

(157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman gentile name (older form epigraphically Foslius, InscrIt 13,1,37,  folius [3]), attested in the early Republic solely for the family of the patrician Folii, which died out at the end of the 4th cent. BC; later common proper name of non-senatorial families. [German version] [1] Pontifex maximus, killed by the Celts in 387 BC Pontifex maximus, remained in Rome with other old men when Rome was taken by the Celts in 387 BC and was killed (Liv. 5,41,3).…

Mancinus

(16 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen in the family of the Hostilii (Hostilius [7-9]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Poppaedius

(220 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (also attested epigraphically as Popaedius). Italian family name, possibly of Etruscan origin [2. 367]. It is well-known from Q. P. Silo, leader of the Marsi [1] in the Social War (Social Wars [3])of 90-88 BC and, with C. Papius [I 4] Mutilus, one of the two commanders-in-chief of the secessionists (Diod. Sic. 37,2,6; Str. 5,4,2; Liv. Per. 76 et passim; coins: [3; 4]). As a guest-friend of the people's tribune M. Livius [I 7] Drusus, he regarded the latter's murder …

Tertius

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman praenomen (the numeral often indicating birth-order), common cognomen and Roman slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 74; 292 2 Salomies, 17; 116-118 3 H. Solin, Die stadtrömischen Sklavennamen 1, 1996, 152 f.

Arruns

(129 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Etruscan first name (in inscriptions arnth, arunth, arenth), Lat. Ar(r)uns. Only Romans of Etruscan origin bore this name (abbreviation Ar.). Praenomen in the gens Tarquinia [1; 2]. [German version] [1] Legendary Etruscan Legendary Etruscan in the army of Tarchon who was allied with Aeneas (Verg. Aen. 11,759-867). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Son of Porsenna Son of Porsenna, friendly toward Rome, fell in the battle of Aricia (Plut. Poplicola 18-19; Liv. 2,14,5 among others). …

Dolabella

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, became hereditary in the family of the Cornelii Dolabellae ( Cornelius [I 23-29]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Emperors, child

(228 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] The term child emperors (after Lat. principes pueri, SHA Tac. 6,5; Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7, 533) has been applied, since Hartke [1], to the members of the Valentinian-Theodosian dynasty (genealogical tree see  Theodosius) who ascended the throne as one- to eight-year-old boys: the sons of Valentinianus I, Gratianus [2] (born in AD 359; Augustus in 367), and Valentinianus II (born in 371; Augustus in 375); the sons of Theodosius I, Arcadius (born in 377; Augustus in 383) an…

Vicellinus

(15 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen of Cassius  [I 19] Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 163.

Maius

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman surname and cognomen [1. 61; 2. 13]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina 2 Walde/Hofmann 2.

Macedonicus

(19 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Victor's epithet of Q. Caecilius [I 27] Metellus M. ( cos. 143 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Tertia

(39 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Woman's praenomen (Varro Ling. 9,60), more commonly a cognomen. The best-known bearers are Clodia [3] T., Iunia [2] T. and Mucia T. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 292 2 H. Solin, Die stadtröm. Sklavennamen 1, 1996, 153 f.

Iullus

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Name (also in manuscripts Iulus) of the son of Aeneas ( Iulus); epithet in the family of the Iulii [I 13-16]; first name of I. Antonius [II 1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Saburra

(69 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] ( Saborra). Military commander of Juba [1] of Numidia, in 49 BC he helped to bring about the defeat of Caesar's governor C. Scribonius Curio, but was himself defeated and killed in 46 by the Caesarean P. Sittius (Caes. B Civ. 2,38-42; Bell. Afr. 48,1; 93,3; 95,1; App. B Civ. 2,181-186; 4,232; Frontin. Str. 2,5,40). For reasons of metre, Lucan (4,722) wrote Sabbura. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Cispius

(97 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Plebeian family name, historically first attested in the 1st cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 460). According to later invention, a C. Laevius gave his name to the Cispius mons in the time of King Tullus Hostilius (Varro in Fest. p. 476). [German version] C., M. as people's tribune, called for Cicero's reappointment in 57 BC (Cic. Red. Sen. 21; Sest. 76). In 56 (?) he was accused of ambitus, defended by Cicero without success (Cic. Planc. 75f.) and went into exile. Perhaps he was a praetor under Caesar (ILLRP 383; MRR 2, 463). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
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