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Gabriel

(300 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[English version] [1] (Erzengel) Erzengel Der Engel G. (“Mann Gottes”) gehört in der jüd. Überl. zusammen mit Uriel, Rafael, Raguel, Michael und Sariel zu den sechs Erzengeln (äthHen 20,1-7; für sieben Erzengel vgl. Tob 12,12-15; für vier Erzengel: äthHen 9-10; 40,9f.). Zusammen mit Michael erscheint G. bereits in der biblischen Überl., wo er als angelus interpres fungiert, der dem Seher seine Visionen deutet (Dan 8,16; 9,21) und die Geburt Johannes des Täufers und Jesu (Lk 1,19.26) verkündet. Nach äthHen 20,7 ist G. über die Paradiesschlangen und d…

Krinagoras

(222 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[English version] (Κριναγόρας) von Mytilene. Geb. um 70 v.Chr., gest. wahrscheinlich nicht vor 11 n.Chr. (Anth. Pal. 7,633, vgl. 9,283). K. war in seiner Heimatstadt ein einflußreicher Mann. Seine Teilnahme an verschiedenen Gesandtschaften seiner Stadt ist inschr. bezeugt: im Jahr 48 oder 47 sowie im Jahr 45 nach Rom (IG XII 35a; 35b), im Jahr 26/25 nach Tarragona in Spanien (zu Augustus, IG XII 35c). Auch in Rom war K. hochangesehen; er gehörte dem Kreis der Octavia, der Schwester des Augustus, a…

Isidoros

(2,344 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig) | Eck, Werner (Köln) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἰσίδωρος). [English version] [1] Piratenkapitän, 72 v. Chr. von Lucullus bei Tenedos geschlagen Piratenkapitän, organisierte die kilikischen Seeräuber im Raum um Kreta, wurde 78 v.Chr. von P. Servilius Isauricus besiegt (Flor. 1,41,3), trat später in den Dienst des Mithradates und wurde 72 in der Seeschlacht von Tenedos (am Eingang der Dardanellen) von Lucullus geschlagen (App. Mithr. 77, Memnon 42,2 = FHG 3,548) und getötet (Plut. Lucullus 12.2). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [English version] [2] I. aus Charax Geograph, E. 1. Jh. v. Chr. Geograph, wohl der augusteischen Zeit…

Herakleides

(3,898 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Köln) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης). Bekannte Persönlichkeiten: der Politiker und Schriftsteller H. [19] Lembos, der Philosoph H. [16] Pontikos d.J., der Arzt H. [27] aus Tarent. I. Politische Persönlichkeiten [English version] [1] Fürsprecher Athens am pers. Hof, Ende 5. Jh. v. Chr. H. aus Klazomenai (vgl. Plat. Ion 541d) stand in persischen Diensten, darum wohl basileús genannt. Er hat so 423 v.Chr. wertvolle Dienste am persischen Hof für Athen leisten können, wofür er bald nach seiner Übersiedlung das att. Bürgerrecht erhielt (nach 400, Syll.3 118). Um die Athener für eine noch stärkere Teiln…

Honestus

(116 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[English version] Epigrammatiker aus dem “Kranz” des Philippos, unter dessen seltenem Namen Ὅνεστος (wahrscheinlich Assimilation des röm. Cognomens H.) - er wird bald als Korínthios (vgl. Anth. Pal. 9,216), bald als Byzántios (vgl. ebd. 7,274) bezeichnet - zehn größtenteils epideiktische Gedichte erh. sind, die oft in Bezug zu Böotien stehen und sich durch Antithesen und lexikalisch wie phraseologisch originelle Wortprägungen auszeichnen. Beinahe sicher ist die Identität mit dem homonymen Verf. der in Thespiai ans Licht gekom…

Kallikter

(103 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[English version] (Καλλικτήρ) von Manesion. Epigrammatiker, vielleicht aus dem 1. oder 2. Jh.n.Chr., dem die satirischen Einzeldistichen Anth. Pal. 11,2; 5; 6 und, Planudes zufolge, 333 zugeschrieben werden. Ihm gehören wahrscheinlich auch die Epigramme gegen die Ärzte 11,118-122, nach Planudes jedoch dem Nikarchos. Dem Namen Killaktor werden die erotischen Gedichte Anth. Pal. 5,29 und 45 zugeschrieben; zugunsten einer Gleichsetzung mit K. spricht die Seltenheit der beiden sonst nicht belegten Namen, über deren genuine Form noch Unsicherheit besteht. Albiani, Maria Graz…

Kosmas

(774 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Κοσμᾶς). [English version] [1] K. und Damianos Ärzteheilige und Heilungspatrone Ärzteheilige und Heilungspatrone. Das griech. Synaxarion (hrsg. von H. Delehaye) überl. drei unterschiedliche Heiligenpaare mit diesen Namen: 1) die in Asia minor geb. und in Pelusion begrabenen Söhne der Theodota, deren Festtag der 1. November ist; 2) die röm., unter der Herrschaft des Carinus (283-285) gesteinigten Märtyrer, deren Festtag der 1. Juli ist; 3) die arab., unter Kaiser Diocletian (284-305) im kilikischen Aigai …

Maecius

(755 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
Italian family name [1. 185; 469], with an uncertain connection to the Roman tribus Maecia. M. is encountered first among Rome's Latin neighbours (Liv. 10,41,5), from the 2nd cent. BC on, also in inscriptions from Delos (ILS 9417; SEG 1,334) and Lucania (ILS 5665). I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] M. Geminus Died in 340 BC in a duel with Torquatus From Tusculum, challenged T. Manlius [I 12] Torquatus to a duel and fell during the Latin War in 340 BC, according to legend (Liv. 8,7,2-12). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] M. Tarpa, Sp. Designed the game plan in 55 B…

Magnus

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Et al.
Roman cognomen, which originally designated bodily size or birth order (‘the Elder’), as in the Republican period in the case of Sp. Postumius Albinus M. ( cos. 148 BC) and T. Roscius M. (Cic. Rosc. Am. 17) [1. 275; 3. 47]. As an assumption of the epithet of Alexander [4] ‘the Great’ (ὁ μέγας/ ho mégas, in the sense of great historical importance), first taken by Cn. Pompeius ( cos. 70 and 55) in the 1st cent. BC, then inherited by his sons Cn. and Sex. Pompeius and their descendants. Sex. Pompeius used M. also as a praenomen resp. nomen gentile [4. 364f.]. In the Imperial period, more frequen…

Pollianus

(136 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Πωλλιανός/ Pōllianós). Epigrammatist of the golden age of the Imperial skoptic epigram. Of his output, the following survives: a description of a painting - attributed without evidence to the sculptor Polyclitus (Anth. Pal. 16,150) and four satirical poems, one against a prolific poet lacking in any critical faculty (11,127), one against a certain Florus, author of clumsy, heavy verse (128: identification with the poet and historian Florus [1] is pure speculation), one against the cyclic poets as 'pillagers' of Homer (130) and one against a profiteer (167). Albiani…

Samius

(121 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Σάμιος/ Sámios), also Samus (Σᾶμος/ Sâmos). Epigrammatist of the 'Garland of Meleager' (Anth. Pal. 4,1,14), son of Chrysogonus and contemporary of Philip [7] V of Macedonia (Pol. 5,9,4), who condemned him to death (Pol. 23,10,8-10) perhaps because of his criticism (Plut. Mor. 53e). A poem about Philip V dedicating to Heracles the hide and horns of a bull survives (Anth. Pal. 6,116); a variant (ibid. 6,114) on the same theme can probably also be ascribed to him (the attribution to Simi…

Meleager

(1,931 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Μελέαγρος/ Meléagros, Lat. Meleager). [German version] [1] Hero from the pre-Trojan period, Argonaut, [1] Hero from the pre-Trojan period, Argonaut Mythological hero. Hero from the generation before the Trojan War, from Calydon [3], the capital city of the Aetolians. As one the Argonauts ( Argonautae) M. participated in the funereal games for Pelias (Stesich. PMG 179; Diod. 4,48,4). As the brother of Deianeira he is also linked with the Hercules cycle (Bacchyl. 5,170-175; Pind. fr. 70b). First and foremost, however, he is associated with the local legend of Calydon. In the archaic …

Iulianus

(4,648 words)

Author(s): Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
Epithet of many gentilicia [1]. Famous persons: the jurist Salvius I. [1]; the doctor I. [2]; the emperor I. [11], called ‘Apostata’; the bishops I. [16] of Aeclanum and I. [21] of Toledo. [German version] [1] L. Octavius Cornelius P. Salvius I. Aemilianus Roman jurist, 2nd cent. AD Jurist, born about AD 100 in North Africa, died about AD 170; he was a student of  Iavolenus [2] Priscus (Dig. 40,2,5) and the last head of the Sabinian law school (Dig. 1,2,2,53). I., whose succession of offices is preserved in the inscription from Pupput, provi…

Phanias

(104 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Φανίας; Phanías). Epigrammatist, perhaps among the last (2nd-1st cent. BC?) of the Garland of Meleager (Anth. Pal. 4,1,54); also a grammatikós (lemma on 7,537). Among the eight poems of his to survive (including one erotic one: 12,31), minute accounts of work tools and everyday objects predominate; with these, P. emulated Leonidas [3] of Tarentum. The extremely rare Latinism δρύππα, 'ripe olive' (cf. Anth. Pal. 6,299,4), may reflect direct knowledge of the terminology of Italian agriculture. The form Phainías for the name (cf. lemma on 6,299 and 12,31) se…

Zelotus

(82 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Ζηλωτός/ Zēlōtós). Greek epigrammatist, possibly first half of the 1st cent. AD. Planudes ascribes to him an anonymous poem Anth. Pal. 9,31: a boat, hewn from a pine tree uprooted by the winds, predicts storms at sea. Ascribed by the Codex Palatinus to a bearer of the extremely rare name Z. - as an alternative to Bassus - is a one-line version on the same theme (Ant. Pal. 9,30). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE, 103 M. Lausberg, Das Einzeldistichon, 1982, 364.

Nicias

(1,775 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Νικίας; Nikías). [German version] [1] Important commander in the Peloponnesian War, c.470-413 BC Son of Niceratus of Athens, born c.470 BC, died 413; one of the most important commanders in the Peloponnesian War. After the death of Pericles, N. competed with Cleon [1] for influence in the popular assembly and the assignment of military commands. His policy was directed towards ending the aggressive Athenian politics of expansion and towards reconciliation with Sparta. From 427, N. was regularly elected stratēgós . He led expeditions against Minoa [4…

Nilus

(410 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νεῖλος/ Neîlos, Latin Nilus). [German version] [1] N. of Ancyra Author of monastic letters and stories, c. 400 A number of monastic letters, stories, apophthegmata, treatises and fragments are attributed to a N. of Ancyra or an ascetic N. in MSS. The question of authorship is hardly fully resolved in any of the texts. If the autobiographical data in the Dihēgḗmata [1. 6044] are not held to be authentic (but so in [4]), little more is known of N. than that he lived in Galatia at the turn of the 4th and 5th cents. AD  (but cf. the critique of this in [7. …

Philitas

(773 words)

Author(s): Sbardella, Livio (L'Aquila) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Φιλίτας; Philítas). [German version] [1] P. of Cos Poet and philologist, Hellenistic Period (Φιλίτας/ Philítas, the correct form; also Philḗtas/Φιλήτας), ποιητὴς ἅμα καὶ κριτικός ( poiētḕs háma kaì kritikós/"both poet and philologist": Str. 14,2,19) of the early Hellenistic Period, regarded by learned poets of later generations as the founder of a school and an important reference point (cf. Callim. fr. 1,9-12 Pfeiffer and the schol. Florentina a.l.; Theoc. 7,37-41; Hermesianax fr. 7,75-78 Powell). Born c. 340 BC on Cos (his father's name was Telephus), P. was invite…

Perses

(346 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πέρσης; Pérsēs). [German version] [1] Son of the Titan Crius and Eurybea (or Persaeus [1]: H. Hom. 2,24). Son of the Titan Crius [1] and Eurybea, brother of Astraeus and Pallas (Hes. Theog. 375ff.; Apollod. 1,8), husband of Asteria [2], father of Hecate (Hes. Theog. 409ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Helios Son of Helios, brother of Aeetes (Hyg. Fab. 27). He seized power in Colchis from Aeetes, for which he was killed either by Medea (Apollod. 1,83) or her son Medus (Hyg. loc.cit.; Diod. Sic. 4,56,1). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [3] Son of Per…

Theaetetus

(1,081 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Θεαίτητος; Theaítētos). [German version] [1] T. of Athens, mathematician, c. 400 BC Mathematician, a native of Athens, pupil of Theodorus [2] of Cyrene and later a member of Plato's Academy ( Akadḗmeia ). In Plato's [1] dialogue named after him, T. appears (together with the aged Theodorus [2]) as about fifteen years old in 399 BC; he was therefore born c. 414. Plato describes him as gentle, courageous and quick to apprehend. After he had been wounded in the battle of Corinth, T. contracted dysentery and died in 369. T. contributed substantially to the theory of irrational quantiti…
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