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Xenoi

(675 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(ξένοι/ xénoi). 'Alien', i.e. free-born person not belonging to the Greek citizenship structure, who voluntarily stayed in a place and enjoyed certain rights there. Non-free aliens (slaves, prisoners of war) were not members of the group of xenoi, which was primarily defined in terms of rights. [German version] I. Classical Greece The term xenoi generally describes large groups of free-born people, staying permanently or temporarily in a particular community, without being citizens of it (Thuc. 2,31,1; 2,36,4; 6,30,2; Aristot. Pol. 1300b 31 f.), often used in contrast to ἀστοί/ ast…

Arabarches

(420 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Ἀραβάρχης; Arabárchēs) [German version] [1] Office in roman Egypt Office in Roman Egypt, attested as from 2nd cent. AD (OGIS 202), but it may have had Ptolemaic models. A college of arabarchai was responsible for levying the import tax in Coptus in the mid 2nd cent. (SB 18,13167, vers. 2,11 ff.). The distribution of tasks is unclear with the παραλήμπτης τῆς Ἐρύθρας θαλάσσης ( paralḗmptēs tês Erýthras thalássēs), however, OGIS 202 indicates the offices were operating in parallel. The arabarches was also responsible for collecting the road taxes on the road from Coptus to …

Stolus

(232 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] [1] From Cyrene, c. 100 BC (Στόλος; Stólos). Son of Theon, probably from Cyrene, later honoured with Athenian citizenship; archedéatros in Cyrene in 108 BC, later admiral of Ptolemaeus [15] IX on Cyprus between 107 and 104. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. S. Bagnall, S. the Admiral, in: Phoenix 26, 1972, 358-368  H. Hauben, Was S. a Cyrenaean?, in: ZPE 25, 1977, 221-226  J. Pouilloux, Salaminiens de Chypre à Delos, in: BCH Suppl. 1, 1973, 406-411. [German version] [2] City This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Στῶλος; Stōlos). Inland cit…

Nomographos

(377 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(νομογράφος/ nomográphos, ‘law-writer’) [German version] I. Greece In some Greek cities individual, specially qualified men were entrusted during the archaic period with the task of writing laws for the pólis. This could include writing down the existing legal practice as well as creating new laws. Known nomográphoi are, for example, Zaleucus in Locri Epizephyrii, Charondas in Catane, Draco [2] and later Solon in Athens. At times, but not always, this commission was associated with a regular office of state. Thus, Solon was at the same time an árchōn (Archontes [1]) in Athens but D…

Echecrates

(239 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἐχεκράτης; Echekrátēs). [German version] [1] Thessalian condottierre of Ptolemy IV, c. 217 BC Thessalian condottiere of Ptolemy IV, whose training of the army and especially the cavalry significantly contributed to the victory at Raphia in 217 BC. In that battle, he commanded the right wing of the cavalry. An anecdotally coloured representation of the battle is recorded in Diod. Sic. 16,26,6. PP 2, 2161. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Pythagorean from Phleius Pythagorean from Phleius, who together with Phanton, Polymnastos and Diocles, who also came fro…

Hippomedon

(202 words)

Author(s): Klodt, Claudia (Hamburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἱππομέδων; Hippomédōn). [German version] [1] One of the Seven against Thebes One of the  Seven against Thebes, brother or nephew of  Adrastus [1], from Lerna, hero of gigantic size. In Aeschylus (Sept. 486ff.), he stands against Hyperbius at the Oncaean Gate, in Euripides (Phoen. 1113ff.; 119ff.), at the Ogygian Gate and at the head of the army. The motif on his shield is  Typhon or  Argus [II]. Euripides (Suppl. 881ff.) depicts him as a warrior limited to physical power. In Statius, he wins the discus co…

Menyllos

(166 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μένυλλος; Ményllos). [German version] [1] Military officer in the Lamian War, 322 BC After the Athenian defeat in the Lamian War by Antipater [1] in 322 BC, M. was appointed commander of the Macedonian garrison at the Munychia fortress in Piraeus (Diod. 18,18,5; Plut. Phocion 28,1 and 7). He was on good terms with Phocion who was then in charge of Athenian policy. After the death of Antipater, Cassander replaced M. with Nicanor. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography W. S. Ferguson, Hellenistic Athens, 1911, 20. [German version] [2] Envoy of Ptolemy VI to Rome, 163/2 BC In 163/2 BC, M. …

Hippalus

(283 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
(Ἵππαλος; Híppalos). [German version] [1] Son of Sosus, priest of a royal cult, officer Son of Sosus (?); father of the district commander Theomnestus (PP 1/8, 260; 3/9, 5147) and the athlophore Batra (PP 3/9, 5051). From 185-169 BC, priest of the royal cult in Ptolemais Hermou; documented in 182 and 173 as an eponymous officer; before November 176 (from 185?) ἀρχισωματοφύλαξ ( archisōmatophýlax, ‘arch-bodyguard’) and first stratēgós of the Thebaid (court title dependent on reading of PLond VII 2188, 214); from November 176 until at least May 172 τῶν πρώτων φίλων ( tôn prṓtōn phílōn) and ep…

Thibron

(355 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Θίβρων/ Thíbrōn). [German version] [1] Spartan commander, around 400 BC Spartan, who inaugurated Sparta’s war against the Persians in the autumn of 400 BC, but only had command of a small force (Isoc. Or. 4,144), He had some successes only after he had taken on Cyrus’ [3] former mercenaries (about 5000-6000 men) (Xen. An. 7,6,1; 7,8,24; Xen. Hell. 3,1,4-6; Diod. Sic. 14,36,1-37,4). He then went to Caria on the instructions of the éphoroi (Xen. Hell. 3,1,6-7), but was replaced in Ephesus by Dercylidas and punished in Sparta by being exiled be…

Arabarches

(372 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[English version] [1] Amt im röm. Ägypten Amt im röm. Ägypten, zuerst 2 n. Chr. belegt (OGIS 202), aber vielleicht mit ptolemäischen Vorbildern. Ein Kollegium von A. war Mitte des 2. Jh. für die Erhebung der Einfuhrsteuer in Koptos zuständig (SB 18,13167, vers. 2,11 ff.). Unklar ist die Aufgabenteilung mit dem παραλήμπτης τῆς Ἐρύθρας θαλάσσης, doch zeigt OGIS 202 das Nebeneinander der Ämter. Der A. war auch für den Einzug der Straßengebühren auf der Straße von Koptos zum Roten Meer zuständig (OGIS 674 …

Argaeus

(103 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Son of Ptolemy I (Ἀργαῖος; Argaîos). Son of Ptolemy I (and of Eurydice?); murdered by Ptolemy II (because of a conspiracy?) after 282 BC. PP 6, 14489. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography C. Habicht, Argaeus, Ptolemy II. and Alexander's corpse, AHB 2,4, 1988, 88-89. [German version] [2] Volcanic massif in Cappadocia (Ἀργαῖος, also Ἀργαῖον ὄρος; Argaîon oros). Erciyes Daǧı, highest volcanic massif in  Cappadocia (3917 m) south of Kayseri. Volcanic peak of the same name (modern Hasan Daǧı) in south-west Cappadocia (3268 m). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography…

Philammon

(224 words)

Author(s): Knorr, Thorsten (Hamburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Φιλάμμων; Philámmōn). [German version] [1] Singer and lyrist Mythical singer and lyrist of Delphi, a son of Apollo (Pherecydes of Athens FGrH 3 F 120); his mother is variously given as Philonis (ibid.), Chione [2] (Ov. Met. 11,316f.) and Leuconoe [1] (Hyg. Fab. 161). His sons - for whom there are also other genealogical backgrounds - were Thamyris (Eur. Rhes. 916; 925) and Eumolpus (Theoc. 24,108). At Delphi, P. is said to have introduced choirs of virgins (Pherecydes loc. cit.) and choirs within the t…

Philometor

(201 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Φιλομήτωρ/ Philomḗtōr, lit. 'the mother-lover'). [German version] [1] Cultic sobriquet of Greek rulers Cultic sobriquet of Greek rulers, firstly of Ptolemaeus VI, whose reign began under the regency of his mother. For many of the subsequent kings (e.g. Ptolemaeus VIII, X, XV, Cleopatra [II 12] VII, Antiochus [10] VIII, Demetrius [9] III), the statement of Gutschmid [1. 112] is valid, namely that they ruled at first under the guardianship of their mothers. There are also Egyptian connotations to the name ( Kamutef, 'the bull of his mother' [sc. Isis]), intended to show tha…

Ganymede

(531 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Γανυμήδης; Ganymḗdēs, Etruscan Catmite, Latin apart from G. also Catamitus). [German version] [1] Cupbearer to Zeus In Greek mythology (main source: Hom. Il 20,231-235) the son of the Dardanian king Tros (Iliad parva 29,4 PEG I: son of Laomedon), who as the most beautiful human was abducted to the Olympus to serve Zeus as cupbearer in eternal youth and to delight the gods with his beauty. He is either abducted in a windstorm (H. Hom. 5,202), by  Iris (in art, possibly already in Ibycus PMG Fr. 289), by  Hermes…

Agathoclea

(178 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Ἀγαθόκλεια; Agathókleia). [German version] [1] Mistress of Ptolemy II Mistress of Ptolemy II; her historicity is uncertain. PP 6, 14713; [1]. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Mistress of Ptolemy IV Daughter of Agathocles [5] and  Oenanthe, sister of  Agathocles [6]. Mentioned 215 BC in possession of several Nile boats, 213/12 kanephore. Mistress of Ptolemy IV; in 204 took part in the murder of  Arsinoe [II 4] III, entrusted with her mother with the young Ptolemy V (as nursemaid?). Murdered by a mob in 203 at the deposition of her brother. PP 3/9, 4984; 6, 14714; [2]. Ameling, W…

Harmachis

(202 words)

Author(s): Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(ägypt. Ḥrw-m-­ḫ.t, “Horus im Horizont”). [English version] [1] Name der großen Sphinx Name, unter dem die große Sphinx von Giza seit Anf. des NR (ca. 1500 v.Chr.) als Verkörperung des Sonnengottes verehrt wurde. Viele Votivstelen dokumentieren die Popularität des Kultes bei Privatleuten wie bei Königen. Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) Bibliography J.assmann, s.v. H., LÄ2, 992-996. [English version] [2] Priester des Ptah von Memphis, um 200 v.Chr. Sohn des Anemhor, Vater des Nesysti III.; hoher Priester des Ptah von Memphis (ca. 260 - nach 194/3 v.Chr.)…

Helenos

(547 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἕλενος). [English version] [1] einer der frühen großen Seher Einer der frühen großen Seher, im ep. Kyklos wichtiger als bei Homer; Sohn des Priamos und der Hekabe (Hom. Il. 6,76; 7,44; Soph. Phil. 605f.; Apollod. 3,151; POxy. 56,3829), Zwillingsbruder der Kassandra (Antikleides FGrH 140 F 17; POxy. 56,3830). Einer wahrscheinlich archa. Trad. nach erhält H. bereits als Kind seine Sehergabe im Tempel des Apollon Thymbraios, wo er und Kassandra eingeschlafen sind. Als die Eltern am nächsten Morgen zurückko…

Hegelochos

(223 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἡγέλοχος). [English version] [1] Flottenoffizier unter Alexandros d.Gr., 4. Jh. v.Chr. Sohn des Hippostratos, Offizier unter Alexandros [4]. Anfangs Kommandeur der Vorhutkavallerie, wurde er im Sommer 333 v.Chr. beauftragt, aus von griech. Städten gesammelten Schiffen eine maked. Flotte zu bilden (Arr. an. 2,2,3; ungenau Curt. 3,1,19f.; Amphoteros war ihm unter- und nicht beigeordnet). Nach dem Tod von Memnon beherrschte seine Flotte den Hellespont, wo er u.a. eine athenische Getreideflotte aufhielt (Ps.-…

Kronios

(343 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κρόνιος). [English version] [1] Platoniker, 2. Jh. Platoniker (Syrianos, In Aristot. metaph. 109,11) der pythagoreisierenden Richtung, meist als Pythagoreer bezeichnet, (vielleicht älterer) Zeitgenosse und Freund (Porph. De anthro nympharum 21) des Numenios, also Mitte des 2. Jh.n.Chr. In der Regel wird K. nur mit diesem, aber häufig vor ihm genannt und teilt durchweg dessen Auffassungen. In Plotins Schule wurde K. gelesen (Porph. vita Pythagorica 14); er verfaßte Hypomnemata (ebd., verm. keine Komm. …

Margos

(118 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μάργος). [English version] [1] Stratege 255 v.Chr. M. aus Karyneia fiel, wohl als Nauarch des achaischen Flottenkontingents, während des illyr. Kriegs 229 v.Chr. vor Paxoi ‘nach treuen Diensten für das Koinon der Achaioi’ (Pol. 2,10). Während der Neuformierung des Bundes hatte er 275 den Tyrannen von Bura getötet und so Iseas, den Tyrannen von Karyneia, veranlaßt, zurückzutreten und seine Stadt dem Bund zuzuführen (Pol. 2,41). Vor Aratos [2] spielte er eine herausgehobene Rolle und wurde 255 als erster zum alleinigen Strategen gewählt (Pol. 2,43). Cobet, Justus (Essen) …
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