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Aradius Rufinus

(196 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Praef. urbi 304-5, 312-13 AD Q. (?). Member of the African family of the Aradii Rufini, which had arisen to Senate membership early in the 3rd cent. AD. Presumably praef. urbi. already from 4.1.304 - 12.2.305 A. R. held this office again under Maxentius (9.2. - 27.10.312), after he had been consul together with  Ceionius in the last months of 311. After the victory of Constantine over Maxentius, A. was again praefectus urbi from 29.11.312 to 8.12.313. His proving himself under the various emperors was praised by Avianius Symmachus (Symmachus, Ep. 1; 2; 3). Bleckmann, Br…

Constans

(591 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Flavius Iulius C. Roman Emperor (Augustus), 337-350 AD Roman Emperor, born c. 320 AD, the youngest son of Constantine [1] and Fausta, elevated to Caesar on 25 December 333 and at about the same time betrothed to Olympias, the daughter of  Ablabius [1]. From 9 September 337 Augustus. At a meeting of the brothers in Pannonia (Julian Or. 1,19a) C. received Italy, Illyricum and Africa (Zon. 13,5). He refused to acknowledge the guardianship of his eldest brother Constantine [2] II [1]. Constan…

Licinius

(11,186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Frigo, Thomas (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Et al.
Name of probably the most important Roman plebeian family. The similarity to the Etruscan name lecne and the links between the gens and Etruria in historical times (L. [I 7]) suggest an origin in that region [1. 108, n. 3]; the name may, however, also be of Latin origin ( Licinus). The spelling with a double ‘n’ occurs not only in the Greek form Λικίννιος ( Likínnios), but also in Latin inscriptions [1. 108, n. 1]. In the annalistic historical records dealing with the early Republic, members of the family appear among the earliest people's tribunes, reaching their polit…

Valeria

(553 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] First priestess of Fortuna Muliebris, 5th cent. BC Sister of P. Valerius [I 45] Poplicola, said to have saved Rome in 488 BC from Coriolanus (Plut. Coriolanus 33; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,39; 8,43,1 f.); first priestess of Fortuna Muliebris (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 8,55,3-5; Fortuna B.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography Latte, 181. [German version] [2] Daughter of P. Valerius [I44], ca. 500 BC Daughter of P. Valerius [I 44] (elected belatedly cos. for the year 509 BC), sent to Porsenna with 19 other hostages (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 5,32,3). They …

Hannibalianus

(197 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Afranius H. Cos. ord. AD 292 Officer in Probus' staff (HA Probus 22,3), in AD 285, praefectus praetorio alongside Asclepiodotus, in 292 consul ordinarius again with Asclepiodotus, in 297-8 praefectus urbi. Perhaps the father of Maximian's stepdaughter  Theodora. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Half-brother of Constantinus [1] beginning 4th cent. AD Half-brother of  Constantinus [1] († AD 337) from the marriage between Constantius [1] and Theodora. Unlike his brothers Dalmatius [1] and Iulius Constantius [4], H…

Silvanus

(1,338 words)

Author(s): Mihály-Lorand, Dészpa | Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Roman god of the forest Male deity. Mihály-Lorand, Dészpa I. Cult and places of worship Roman god of the forest [German version] A. Etymology and origin Based on the etymology of the name, four hypotheses have so far been put forward regarding the origins of this god: S. is identical with the Etruscan god Selvan [4. 54-59; 12. 200]; S. is an adjectival derivation of the word silva ('forest') and was originally an epithet of either Faunus [14. 213] or Mars [6. 132]; S. is a direct derivative of the Latin silva ('forest'), with the suffix -no- adding the meaning of 'mas…

Nepotianus

(177 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Son of Flavius N. (cos. AD 336) Son of the half-sister of Constantinus [1], Eutropia [2], and Flavius N. ( cos. AD 336). As a member of the Constaninian dynasty, he rose up in Rome against Magnentius. He defeated the army of the latter's praef. praet., Anicius (or Anicetus), in Italy and claimed to be the ruler for a while (June 350), until Magnentius's magister officiorum, Marcellinus [5], defeated him. Magnentius's retribution against N.'s supporters was bloody. PLRE 1,624, No. 5. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Father of the Emperor Nepos,…

Galerius

(1,279 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] C. G. Eques, Rom. official, praefectus Aegypti probably AD 16-31 Eques, who probably came from Ariminum. Of his public offices only the praefectus Aegypti is known, which he held for 16 years, probably AD 16-31. [1; 2]; P. Oxy 3807. Died returning from Egypt. Married to Helvia, Seneca's aunt. PIR2 G 25. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 G. Bastianini, in: ZPE 17, 1975, 270 2 I. Cazzaniga, in: Analecta Papyrologica 4, 1992, 5ff. [German version] [2] M. G. Aurelius Antoninus Son of the later emperor Antoninus Pius, died before AD 138 Son of the later emperor …

Domitius

(5,665 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
Roman plebeian family name, attested from the 4th cent. BC onwards (ThlL, Onom. 3,217-227). The most important families into the 1st cent. AD are the Ahenobarbi [I 1-8] and the Calvini [I 9-12]. Identification of some members of the family in the 2nd cent. BC is uncertain. I. Republican period [German version] Domitii Ahenobarbi Family history in Suet. Ner. 1-5. Legend of the origin of the cognomen (ThlL, 1,135; in manuscript also Aenobarbus) ‘Red-beard’, ‘Bronze-beard’ in Suet. Ner. 1,1; Plut. Aem. 25. The family was probably accorded patrician st…

Eutropia

(83 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] [1] Wife of emperor Maximianus, about AD 320 Wife of Emperor Maximianus. Mother of Maxentius and Fausta ([Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 40,12). After AD 324, she spent some time as a Christian pilgrimess in Palestine and drew Constantine's attention to the desecration of the holy place of Mambre (Eus. Vita Const. 3,52). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Half-sister of Constantine Half-sister of Constantine. Mother of Nepotianus, who in AD 350 was declared Augustus in Rome. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)

Fausta

(104 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Flavia Maxima F., daughter of Emperor Maximian and Eutropia; when still a minor, at the end of AD 307, she was married to Constantinus [1] in order to reinforce the alliance between Maximian and Constantine, after the former had returned to politics. Mother of three emperors: Constantinus [2], Constantius [2] and Constans [1]. At the end of 324 she was elevated with Helena to the rank of Augusta, but a little later, in circumstances that remain unexplained, killed by order of her imperial husband. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography PLRE 1, 325f. J. W. Drijvers, F…

Constantina

(154 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Eldest daughter of Constantine [1] the Great, she was married in 335 to  Hannibalianus and presumably not meant to be made Augusta until after Constantinus'death (Philostorg. Hist. Eccl. 3,22). After the murder of Hannibalianus she lived in the part of the empire ruled by Constans [1]. She was involved in Vetranio’s elevation to Caesar in 350 and in the following year married her cousin  Gallus, by then Caesar. She reigned with him in Antioch and took active part in matters of gov…

Romula

(118 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] Mother of the emperor Galerius [5] Maximianus. According to Lactantius, her devotion to the mountain gods strongly influenced her son's anti-Christian politics (De mort. pers. 11,1 f.). Her significance in Galerius's dynastic self-presentation is evident in an anecdote about his conception (Ps.-Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 40,17) which was modelled after that of Alexander [4] the Great (Olympias [1]) as well as in the fact that he named the imperial residence Romuliana (modern Gamzigrad…

Dioikesis

(730 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
(διοίκησις ; dioíkēsis, Lat. dioecesis). [German version] I. Greece ‘Housekeeping’ in the sense of administration, especially in the financial realm. Dioikesis is used for the administration of the state in general (for example, Pl. Prt. 319d; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 43,1), also for the financial administration (for example, Xen. Hell. 6,1,2; Dem. Or. 24,96f.), and, in an extended sense by the author of the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia, for maintenance payments made by the state (24,3). In later 4th-cent. BC Athens, an office for the upper financial administr…

Valerius

(11,988 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, which was said to have immigrated to Rome under King T. Tatius with V. [I 10] (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,46). The name, derived from the old personal name Valesus/ Valerus, was originally Valesios (cf. V. [I 7]; CIL XII p. 298g: Valesies; Fest. 22; Varro, Rerum divinarum fr. 66 Cardauns [4; 5]); the censor App. Claudius [I 2] introduced the new spelling in 312 BC (cf. Dig. 1,2, 2,36). Because in Antiquity the name was derived (etymologically correctly) from valere, 'to be strong', it was considered to be a good omen ( boni ominis nomen, Cic. Div. 1,102; Cic. Sca…

Constantius

(1,565 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] C. I, Flavius Valerius C., C. Chlorus, Roman Emperor (Augustus) AD 305-306 or M., Caesar (293-305) and Augustus (305-306), in later times nicknamed Chlorus; born c. 250 in what would become Dacia Ripensis. On the staff of the Illyrian soldier emperors, first protector, then tribunus. Under the rule of  Carinus attained equestrian rank as praeses Dalmatiarum (Anon. Vales. 1; SHA Car. 17,6). It seems likely that even before 293 (thus Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,24; Eutr. 9,22,1), and in fact before 289, when he was praefectus praetorio to  Maximianus, he had to divorce h…

Maxentius

(1,197 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] From 28 October 306 to 28 October 312, Valerius Maxentius ruled over Italy and Africa as emperor but was not recognised by his co-rulers of the 3rd tetrarchy. As the son of the western Augustus, Maximianus [1], and Eutropia [1] he could be seen as successor (Pan. Lat. 10,14,1), especially since - through his marriage (certainly later than 293) to Valeria Maximilla [1], the daughter of Galerius [5] and (through Valeria) granddaughter of Diocletianus - he was also connected to the I…

Panes aedium

(97 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg)
[German version] ('House-bread') was a special bread ration granted - within the general framework of the system of grain and bread distribution ( annona civica) to the civilian populations of the two capitals, Rome and Constantinople  - to individuals who had built a house at Constantinople. The privilege, established by Constantine (Constantinus [1]) and confirmed by Constantius [2] II, served to ensure the rapid growth of Constantinople. Legislation (Cod. Theod. 14,17,1 and 12) regulating whether the privilege could be passed on to heirs or purchasers is contradictory. Bleckm…

Dalmatius

(366 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Fl. D. Half-brother of the Emperor Constantine I Son of  Constantius [1] and Theodora, half-brother of Constantine I. Nothing is known of his role in the initial period of Constantine's rule, although presumably he was given Toulouse as his abode during the tensions with Licinius in c. AD 320-324 (Auson. Prof. 16,11-12). Consul in 333, he was sent to Antioch at around the same time with the archaizing title of censor (Athan. c. Ar. 65,1ff.). There he was concerned with murder accusations against Athanasius. In Tarsus he had  Calocaerus burnt to d…

Maximilla

(148 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle)
[German version] [1] Valeria Maximilla Daughter of Galerius and wife of Maxentius Daughter of Galerius [5] and wife of Maxentius. The marriage produced two sons, Valerius Romulus (died 309?) and another son who is mentioned along with her as late as 312 (Pan. Lat. 12,16,5). Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) Bibliography PLRE 1, 576 [German version] [2] Cofounder of Montanism in the 2nd cent. AD In the middle of the 2nd. cent. AD she founded, together with Montanus and Priscilla, the Christian revivalist movement of Montanism. She was also a writer (Hippolytus, Refutatio omnium haeresium 8,…
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