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Choregos

(180 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (χορηγός; chorēgós). Literally ‘chorus leader’ (in lyric texts); in Athens the ‘sponsor of a lyric or dramatic chorus. The choregoi themselves were responsible for assembling their chorus of citizens, looking after their upkeep during the month of rehearsals, seeing to the smooth running of rehearsals, which were led by the poet or by a professional chorodidaskalos, and above all for meeting the costs. (In Plautus the choregos became a lender of costumes; in Plaut. Curc. 462-486 he makes a metatheatrical appearance.) Many ancillary services ( parachoregema) were c…

Histrio

(1,128 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] I. Term Term for the Roman actor. Livy (7,2: according to Varro) reports that after a plague epidemic in 364 BC, dancers ( ludiones) with a flautist were called from Etruria in order to purify the city with a cultic ceremony. The local youth is said to have imitated their dances and added satirical verses until finally professional artists, for whom the Etruscan word histrio was used, developed this improvization further.  Livius Andronicus only had to add a fable to create the tragedy. This bold combination of Italian ludi scaenici and the Greek artistic drama contai…

Tritagonistes

(160 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (τριταγωνιστής; tritagōnistḗs). The third actor in a tragedic tetralogy, introduced by Sophocles [1]. In the competition for  best performer (at the Dionysia from 449 BC onwards) only the prōtagōnistḗs would take part. He would take the main role and possibly also powerful single-actor scenes, the two lesser actors (particularly the tritagonistes) would master a large number of different male and female roles; this would require linguistic and performing expression of great variety. In Soph.  OC two performers (Oedipus and Antigo…

Competitions, artistic

(3,335 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Paulsen, Thomas (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] I. Stage competitions Competitions, which included the   skēnḗ (the stage and the podium in front of it for the actor's appearance) in Greek theatre, that is dramatic performances. Originally, the skēnḗ was away from the orchḗstra ( Theatre I) and was used only for changing costumes and masks; it probably was not moved into the audience's view and integrated into the play until 458 BC with the ‘Orestia’ of  Aeschylus [1]. Nevertheless, early dramatic competitions are also thought to have been staged. Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) A. Greece [German version] 1. Developm…

Roscius

(1,412 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Italian nomen gentile, with many bearers in Ameria (CIL XI 4507-16) and Lanuvium (CIL XIV 3225-7). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] R., L. Roman envoy killed in 438 BC by the Fidenati A Roman envoy killed in 438 BC together with his three colleagues by the Fidenati (Fidenae); because of this all three were honoured with statues on the Rostra (Cic. Phil. 9,4; Liv. 4,17,2-6). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] R., Sex. Father and son; the latter was defended by Cicero in 80 BC against the accusation of patricide and embezzlement From Ameria; so…

Echeia

(173 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (ἠχεῖα; ēcheîa). Instruments/objects producing or amplifying sound (echo). Vitruvius refers to echia as bronze vessels with a wide opening, which were used for resonance reinforcement in the theatre (Vitr. De arch. 1,1,9; 5,5). Tuned to various keys, they were supposedly installed under the rows of seats according to mathematical calculations. They did not exist in Rome, but L. Mummius is said to have brought pieces of loot of this type back from Corinth. However, nothing in the theatre of C…

Aesopus, Clodius

(163 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] Tragedian in 1st-cent. BC Rome; respected freedman ( nostri familiaris Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 1,2,14), achieved wealth as a ‘star’. Scattered mentions provide no coherent picture of his art. In the role of Atreus, carried away by emotion, he is said to have killed a servant with his sceptre (Plut. Cicero 5,5), but  Cicero says his anger was simulated (Cic. Tusc. 4,55). His use of facial expression was praised (Cic. Div. 1,80); however Fronto (p. 143,13-14) emphasizes his intensive study of masks […

Cincius

(526 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
Name of a plebeian family that gained prominence during the Second Punic War (Schulze, 266). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] C., L. Antiquarian author, 1st cent. BC? Antiquarian author probably of the late Republican period (1st cent. BC; since [6] differentiated from the historian L.C.Alimentus). Seven works of grammarian, antiquarian and legal content are known from quotes in Festus, Gellius and others (fragments: [1. 1,252ff.; 2. 71ff.]): De verbis priscis, De fastis, De comitiis, De consulum potestate, De officio iurisconsulti (at least two vols.), De re …

Hypokrites

(1,294 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
(ὑποκριτής; hypokritḗs). [German version] I. Concept The underlying verb ὑποκρίνομαι ( hypokrínomai) means in Homer ‘to make a decision upon request’, ‘to interpret’ (on omens: Hom. Il. 12,228 or dreams: Hom. Od. 19,535; 555) or ‘to answer’ (Hom. Od. 2,111). The basic meaning of the noun hypokrites, which is first attested in the 5th cent. BC, was thus postulated now as ‘answerer’ (to questions of the director of the chorus), now as ‘interpreter’ (of the myth which the chorus performed). It refers to the speaker who appeared opposite the si…

Manducus

(168 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] Roman mask figure with an etymologically transparent name (derived from the verb mandere/manducare, meaning ‘chewer, ‘eater); its origin, however, is uncertain. According to Paul. Fest. 115 M. was brought along in the celebratory procession at the circus games ( pompa circensis; cf. [1]) as a tooth-gnashing monster to elicit laughter and fright. If we follow Varro (Ling. 7,95), this M. seems to have found his way into the improvisational Atellana fabula , where he was identified with the character of Dossennus [1] (whose name has b…

Latinus

(795 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] [1] Mythical ancestor of the Latin people (Greek Λατῖνος; Latînos). Mythical eponymous ancestor of the Latini. According to the Greek version, L. and his brother Agrius are the sons of Odysseus and Circe and kings of the Tyrrheni on the Island of the Blessed (Hes. Theog. 1011ff.). Servius (Aen. 12,164), who refers to a no longer identifiable Greek author, takes up this origin of L., but identifies him as the founder of the city of Rome, which was named for Rhome, the sister of L. Accor…

Polus

(313 words)

Author(s): Narcy, Michel (Paris) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
(Πῶλος; Pôlos). [German version] [1] Sophist from Agrigentum Sophist, from Agrigentum. Sometimes mentioned as a pupil of Empedocles (31 A 19 DK), sometimes of Gorgias (82 A 2 and 4 DK; Philostr. VS 1,13). This is why Plato makes him one of Socrates' conversation partners in his Gorgias (461b-481b). The technical treatise Μουσεῖα λόγων ( Mouseîa lógōn, lit. 'Rhetorical Museum'), attributed to him in Pl. Phdr. 267b-c, may also be the one that is alluded to in Pl. Grg. 462c. The Suda (s.v. Πῶλος) gives P. as the teacher of Licymnius [2]. Rhetoric; Sophists Narcy, Michel (Paris) …

Cytheris

(167 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] Descriptive artist's name (‘belonging to Aphrodite’) of a Roman mime actress ( mima) of the 1st cent. BC; bought out of slavery by Volumnius Eutrapelus, her official name was Volumnia (Cic. Phil. 2,58). Nothing is known about her stage performances, but all the more about her erotic qualities. She attained notoriety as mistress of Antonius [I 9]: before his marriage to Fulvia in 47 she accompanied him on his public appearances in an open litter (Cic. Att. 10,10,5; Plut. Antonius 9,7). Cicero …

Pylades

(340 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
(Πυλάδης/ Pyládēs, Doric form Πυλάδας/ Pyládas, Pind. Pyth. 11,23). [German version] [1] Friend of Orestes Phocian hero, son of Strophius and Anaxabia (e.g. Eur. Or. 764 f.; other mothers: schol. Eur. Or. 33, Hyg. Fab. 117). P. and Electra [4] (Eur. Or. 1092; 1207 ff.; Eur. IT 716 among others) were the parents of Strophius and Medon [4] (Paus. 2,16,7; Hyg. Fab. 119 f.) or Medeon (Steph. Byz. s. v. Μεδεών). P. grew up together with Orestes [1] and partakes in the latter's revenge on his mother and Aegisthus. F…

Archimimus

(119 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] ( archimimus). Probably an honorific for prominent actors in the  mime, independent of their role within the ensemble, so that there might be several archimimi in one troupe [1.179-181]. As women also took part in the Mime, there were archimimae (CIL VI 10106/7). The archimimus Sorix equalled the comic actor  Roscius in popularity (Plut. Sulla 36,2). Stars bore pseudonyms: Lepos (Porph. Hor. Sat. 2,6,72), Favor (Suet. Vesp. 19,6); list of names [2.1583]. As freed persons, archimimi played for day wages ( archimimus diurnus, CIL XIV 2408) or for a fixed salary ( archimimu…

Masada

(348 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dead Sea (textual finds) (Greek Μασάδα, Masáda; Hebrew mṣdh, Arabic Tall al-Sab). The name, which is recorded only in Greek and Latin, is probably derived from the Aramaic meṣādā (‘fortress’). It stands in isolation on a rocky plateau on the western shore of the Dead Sea, a rhomboid 600 m north-south and 300 m east-west; 50 m above sea-level with steep cliffs c. 350 m above ground level in the east and c. 150 m in the west. Jos. BI 7,280-294 offers a detailed description, and it is mentioned in Plin. HN 5,73 and S…

Masks

(1,705 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] I. Phoenicia Facial masks and head protomes (also shortened human representations including the neck and shoulder part) are a common type of monument since the 9th/8th cent. BC in the Phoenician-Punic world. They spread from the Levant (here going back to the 2nd millennium, e.g. in Tell Qāṣila, also from Tyrus, Amrīt, Akhzib, Hazor, Sarepta etc.) via Cyprus, Carthage, Sicily (Motya), Sardinia and Ibiza into the far west (Cadiz). The masks (with openings for eyes and mouth) mostly …

Mechane

(320 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] The Greeks called any mechanical device μηχανή but in the narrow sense it referred to the Greek theatre machinery: a crane installed behind the stage as a flying apparatus that can be swung into the scene to take the characters in a drama to a remote location or cause gods to appear up high. The mechane is referred to in drama texts and later sources under many names: κρεμάθρα ( kremáthra, ‘suspension device’, Aristoph. Nub. 218), γέρανος ( géranos, ‘crane’ [in both senses], Poll. 4,130), αἰώρημα ( aiṓrēma, ‘swing’, schol. Aristoph. Pax 80), κράδη ( krádē, ‘fig branch’, Ari…

Callippides

(224 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (Καλλιππίδης; Kallippídēs). Tragic actor of the 5th/4th cents. BC, who, popular and controversial, was remembered long after his death. He himself was many times the victorious  protagonist, for example at the Lenaia of the year 418, but the tetralogy of his poet did not win a prize [1]. His expressive gesticulation, aimed at producing a realistic effect, was modern in its style; it displeased Mynniscus who had once appeared with Aeschylus and who described the young colleague as a…

Theorikon

(135 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
[German version] (θεωρικόν; theōrikón). Public payment to Attic citizens for participating in festivals, particularly dramatic performances. The introduction of the t. (also in the plural θεωρικά/ theōriká sc. χρήματα/ chrḗmata) was sometimes ascribed to Pericles [1], who was suspected of bribing the people with it (Plut. Pericles 9), sometimes to Agyrrhius, who c. 400 BC had expenses paid to participants in the Ekklēsía; there is no contemporary evidence, however. Apparently, Eubulus [1] was c. 350 the first to regularly use public money for subsidising visits to th…
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