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Clonas

(84 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Κλονᾶς; Klonâs). Poet and musician who is claimed to be from both Tegea and Thebes; possibly early 7th cent. BC, as he is classified between  Terpander and  Archilochus (Ps.-Plut. De musica 1133a). Heraclides Ponticus (fr. 157 Wehrli = Ps.-Plut. ibid. 1131f-1132c, cf. Poll. 4,79) credits him with elegiac poems and hexameters as well as with having introduced nómoi for vocal music (αὐλῴδια/ aulṓidia) accompanied on the aulós, and processional songs (προσόδια/ prosódia). Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography M. L. West, Ancient Greek Music, 1992, 333-334.

Mimnermus

(760 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Μίμνερμος; Mímnermos) of Colophon or Smyrna, 2nd half of the 7th century BC. One of the earliest writers of Greek elegy. In antiquity, he was viewed, along with Callinus [1] and Archilochus as its possible ‘inventor’. The Suda dates M. to the 37th Olympiad (632-629 BC), but the opinion of scholars is divided: that M. was still living around 600 cannot be proved by citing Solon (20 W., purporting to be a reply to M.) ( contra [7]); praise of a victor from an earlier generation over the Lydians (14 W.), as well as a poem about a battle against Gyges [1] (P…

Glycon

(378 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Γλύκων; Glýkōn). [German version] [1] Poet Named by Heph. 10,2 Consbruch as the inventor of Glyconic verse ( Metre). His existence is disputed and the three verses ascribed to him (= 1029 PMG) are generally viewed as alexandrine in terms of metre: G. could hardly have lived before Sappho (late 7th cent. BC), who used this meter. Choeroboscus names G. (in his Comm. on St. In Heph. Consbruch) as a comedic poet, but probably mistook him for Leucon (PCG V 612). Anth. Pal. 10,124, a two-liner on the futil…

Adaeus

(272 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἀδαῖος; Adaîos). [German version] [1] Dynast in south-eastern Thrace, (middle of the 3rd cent. BC) Dynast in south-eastern Thrace, middle of the 3rd cent. BC, probably offspring of a Macedonian governor appointed by  Philip II. He minted several emissions of bronze coins. Probably identical to A., who reigned in Cypsela (Athen. 11,468 f.) and A., who was executed by  Ptolemaeus III (Pomp. Trog. prol. 27; SEG 34, 1984, 878). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography K. Buraselis, Das hell. Makedonien und die Ägäis, 1982, 122-123, 139. [German version] [2] Macedonian epigrammatist Maced…

Panarces

(79 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Πανάρκης; Panárkēs). Date and origin uncertain; Ath. 452c, adducing Clearchus' [6] On Riddles (Περὶ γρίφων, Perì gríphōn), attributes riddles to him but cites only one, known also from Pl. Resp. 479b, where the scholiast quotes two versions, each in four iambic trimeters, and attributes them to Clearchus = fr. 95 Wehrli. It is uncertain whether P. lived as early as that, or whether the riddle was attributed to him, in Plato's time. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)

Nicostratus

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Νικόστρατος; Nikóstratos). [German version] [1] Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen [1]. According to  Hom. Il. 3,175 and Hom. Od. 4,12, Menelaus and Helen had only a daughter (Hermione, cf. Eur. Andr. 898; Lycoph. 851), but in another tradition they also had a son (Hes. Fr. 175,2 M.-W.; Soph. El. 539). Later authors tried to resolve this discrepancy by making N. the son of a slave (Paus. 2,18,6). In Amyclae, N. and Megapenthes [2] were portrayed on horseback, as a counterpart to t…

Philagrus

(129 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Φίλαγρος; Phílagros). Sophist from Cilicia, regarded as arrogant and irritable (Philostr. VS 2,8), possibly related to Q. Veranius Philagrus of Cibyra [1]; pupil of Lollianus [2], probably at Athens, where he quarrelled with Herodes [16] Atticus and his pupils. He may have been Lucian's (Lucianus [1]) target in the latter's Lexiphánēs (cf. [2]). Offered the chair of Greek rhetoric at Rome (in the 170s (?) AD), he died either in Italy or at sea (Philostr. VS 2,8). His pupils included Phoenix (ibid.). Artem. 4,1 (p. 242,11-13 Pack…

Evenus

(688 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Εὔηνος, Εύηνός; Eúēnos, Euēnós) [1] of Paros [German version] A. Personal Data Eratosthenes distinguishes between two elegiac poets from Paros, both named E. (Harpocr. s.v. Εὔηνος 139,15 Dindorf), others maintain that there had only been one [1]. Plato mentions an E. of Paros, a poet and ‘philosopher’ (Pl. Phd. 60d; 61b), a teacher of political rhetoric around 400 BC (Pl. Ap. 20a-b), who had ‘discovered’ a number of tropes (Pl. Phdr. 267a). Both his language and the subject matter of some of the extant fra…

Damocrates

(60 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Δαμοκράτης; Damokrátēs).   [German version] (M.?) Servilius D. Freedman of M. Servilius ( cos. ord. AD 3) whose daughter he cured (Plin. HN 24,7,28). Under Nero and Vespasian he wrote prescriptions in iambic trimeters in the didactic tradition of  Apollodorus [7]; some of these are extant in  Galen. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography Edition: F. Cats Bussemaker, Poetae bucolici et didactici, 1862.

Elegy

(3,415 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Spoth, Friedrich (Munich)
I. Greek [German version] A. Definition Poem in elegiac verse metre (alternating a dactylic catalectic hexameter and a pentameter). This important Greek literary genre is documented since c. 650 BC. Once the inscriptional  epigram had developed into the literary epigram and the elegiac distich had become its customary verse metre, often no difference was recognizable between the two genres. The Greek metric term for the couplet is elegeíon (ἐλεγείον; formed from élegos, ἔλεγος), first in Pherecrates PCG VII, fr. 162,10 (in plural) and Critias 4,3 West, later docume…

Buntschriftstellerei

(1,226 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Krasser, Helmut (Gießen)
[German version] A. Greek The term was coined by German classicists (based on  Aelianus' [2] title ποικίλη ἱστορία, poikílē historía), to classify prose works which present their material in a deliberately indiscriminate order. We have no ancient generic term for works of this kind (neither do we have a detailed critical explanation), but can make the following distinction: (a) works whose contents follow one another apparently haphazardly and whose subjects are different and (b) works whose contents follow one an…

Demodocus

(382 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Δημόδοκος; Dēmódokos). [German version] [1] Singer at the royal court of the Phaeaces Singer at the royal court of the  Phaeaces; as an indirect self-portrait, his slightly idealized description (Hom. Od. 8), just as that of  Phemius, constitutes an important source for the self-perception, working style and social status of the Homeric   aoidoi . D. is highly regarded in society; his name (‘whom the people receives’) is very telling and specifically explained in ‘etymological’ terms in Od. 8,472. D. presents his songs accomp…

Lesbonax

(349 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Λεσβῶναξ; Lesbônax). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian Greek grammarian, dates uncertain (perhaps before the end of the 2nd cent. AD). Author of a work on rhetorical figures (Περὶ σχημάτων; Perì schēmátōn) that is extant in two different excerpts (there is no basis for equating him with the orator L. of Mytilene). In it, L. describes a series of grammatical peculiarities ( schḗmata, ‘figures’), i.e. changes in the normal form of speech, which are demonstrated with examples primarily from Homer. There is no Atticist influence at all: the principal sou…

Polymnestus

(178 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Πολύμνηστος/ Polýmnēstos), son of Meles. Epic and elegiac poet of the 7th cent. BC from Colophon. Ps.-Plut. De musica 1132c-d reports that according to Heraclides Ponticus (fr. 157 Wehrli), P. lived after Clonas and Terpander, and composed aulodic nomoi (αὐλῳδικοὶ νόμοι/ aulōidikoì nómoi; Nomos [3]), the so-called Polymnḗsteia (Πολυμνήστεια) (1132d). In connection with the establishment (κατάστασις/ katástasis) of the 'Second School' of Greek music on the Peloponnese, Ps.-Plutarch links him with, among others, Thale(ta)s of Gortyn and…

Pigres

(93 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Πίγρης; Pígrēs). Poet from Halicarnassus, son (Plut. Mor. 873f) or brother (Suda π 1551) of Artemisia [1], c. 480 BC (provided the person was not invented; on the Carian name cf. Hdt. 7,98; Syll.3 46,28). Plutarch (if this is not an interpolation [1]) ascribes the Batrachomyomachía to P.; the Suda adds the Margítes and an Iliás, in which P. follows each hexameter in Homer with a pentameter. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography 1 R. Peppmüller, Review of A. Ludwich, Der Karer P. und sein Tierepos Batrachomachia, 1896, in: PhW 21, 1901, 673-679.

Callinicus

(455 words)

Author(s): Willi, Andreas (Basle) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Καλλίν(ε)ικος; Kallín(e)ikos: ‘The noble victor’). [German version] [1] Epithet of Heracles Epithet of  Heracles (Eur. Herc. 582; Aristid. Or. 40.15; OGIS 53; Iscrizioni di Cos ED 180,28ff.; SEG 28.616), according to Archil. fr. 324 IEG in a hymn used as a victory song in Olympia (Pind. Ol. 9,1ff. with schol.; according to schol. Aristoph. Av. 1764 composed in Paros: cf. IG XII5, 234); probably first used for Heracles as a victorious warrior (cf. the aetiologic myth in Apollod. 2.135), later often in an apotropaic epigram (Preger, Inscr. Graecae metricae 213; EpGr 1138). Willi, Andrea…

Aspasius

(588 words)

Author(s): Sharples, Robert (London) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] Commentator on Aristotle Commentator on Aristotle, 1st half of the 2nd cent. AD; teacher of  Herminus. His works were read in the school of Plotinus (Porph. Vita Plotini 14). A.' commentary on the ‘Nicomachean Ethics [1] is the earliest surviving extended commentary on an Aristotelian text, and influenced the treatment of the ‘common books’ 5-7 as Nicomachean; although the theory in [2. 29-36] that he was responsible for the inclusion of these books has been questioned by the ‘Eud…

Aristocles

(543 words)

Author(s): Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἀριστοκλῆς; Aristoklês). [German version] [1] of Messene Peripatetic philosopher of the early imperial era Peripatetic philosopher of the early imperial era. His main work, Περὶ φιλοσοφίας in 10 books, contained a critical summary of the teachings of all philosophical schools; extracts in Euseb. Praep. evang. 14-15. Other teachings attributed to him until recently belong to  Aristotle of Mytilene. Because of the confusion with the latter, A. was also thought to have been a teacher of Alexander of Aphrodisias…

Echembrotus

(74 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Eχέμβροτος; Echémbrotos) Arcadian aulode and elegist. Paus. 10,7,5-6 reports about his victory in the aulode competition during the newly arranged Pythian Games in 586 BC and quotes his verse(?) epigram on a tripod in Thebes dedicated to Hercules. His description as a singer of μέλεα καὶ ἐλέγους is the earliest record of the term élegoi. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography IEG 2, 62 M. L. West, Studies in Greek Elegy and Iambus, 1974.

Tettix

(214 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
(Τέττιξ, lit. “cicada”). [German version] [1] Founder of a city at the entrance to Hades A Cretan said to have founded a city on the Taenarum near the supposed entrance to Hades: there the man who killed Archilochus in battle, Callondas, nicknamed Corax, was sent by Delphi to placate Archilochus' ghost (Plut. De sera 17.615E, whence Suda α 4112, probably via Ael. (fr. 80)). The hypothesis of [1] that Archilochus called himself T. remains unproven, in spite of Lucian, Pseudol. 1 and Archil. fr. 223  West. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography 1 Göber, s. v. T. (1), RE 5 A, 1111. [German version] [2…
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