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(159 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Walenburch, Adrian (23.5.1609 Rotterdam – 12.9.1669 Wiesbaden) und Peter van (1610 Rotterdam – 21.12.1675 Köln). Kontroverstheologen, Weihbfe. Nach ihrem Rechtsstudium in Angers veranlaßte Nuntius Fabio Chigi sie 1541, ins konfessionell labile Herzogtum Jülich-Berg zu gehen. Ab 1645 in Köln, wurde Adrian Domkanoniker (1647), Offizial (1648) und Weihbf. (1661). Peter wurde Auditor an der Nuntiatur. 1658 holte ihn Johann Philipp von Schönborn als Weihbf. nach Mainz. Hier bemühte er sich u…

Walenburch, Adrian and Peter van

(198 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Adrian: May 23, 1609, Rotterdam – Sep 12, 1669, Wiesbaden; Peter: 1610, Rotterdam – Dec 21, 1675, Cologne), theological controversialists and bishops. After completion of their legal studies in Angers, in 1641 the nuncio Fabio Chigo persuaded them to go to the confessionally unstable duchy of Jülich-Berg. Adrian went to Cologne in 1645, where he became a canon of the cathedral in 1647, officialis in 1648, and auxiliary bishop in 1661. Peter was appointed auditor of the nunciature. In 1658 Johann Philipp v. Schönborn brought him to Mainz as a…

Raynaldi, Oderico

(91 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Reinaldus; 1595, Treviso – 1671, Rome), theologian, historian, from 1680 Oratorian, between 1650 and 1656 superior general. He continued¶ the 12-volume Annales ecclesiastici of the Oratorian C. Baronius with nine further volumes, bringing it up to 1564 (Rome, 1676f.; his ninth vol., vol. XXI of the Annales, appeared posthumously). The quality of his work is superior to that of his predecessors. Thus Catholics could put forward a work equal in value to the Protestant Magdeburg Centuries. Rolf Decot Bibliography Annales ecclesiastici, ed. G.D. Mansi, 15 vols.,…

Francis of Borgia, Saint

(197 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Oct 28, 1510, Gandia, Spain – Oct 1, 1572, Rome), third general of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). Francis came from a highly situated family of Spanish nobility (great-grandchild of Pope Alexander VI and King Ferdinand of Aragon). In 1539–43 he was viceroy of Catalonia, 1543–50 duke of Gandia. After the death of his wife (eight children), he became a Jesuit in 1546, renounced his worldly rights in 1551, became a priest, and used his fortune on behalf of the Collegium Romanum (se…

Sanchez, Thomas

(105 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (1550, Cordoba – May 19, 1610, Granada), Jesuit (from 1567) moral theologian. His three-volume treatment of marriage became a standard work, although its open and detailed description drew censure. He anticipated the modern view that not every instance of marital intercourse need be intended for procreation. Jansenists accused him of laxism. Rolf Decot Bibliography Works include: Disputationum de sancto matrimonii sacramento... libri 10, 3 vols., 1602–1605 Opus morale in praecepta Decalogi, 2 vols., 1613–1621 On Sanchez: BCJ 7, 1896, 530–537, suppl. no.…


(157 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Sirmond, Jacques (12.10.1559 Riom – 7.10.1651 Paris). Franz. Jesuit (1576), 1581–1590 Lehrer in Pont-à-Mousson und Paris (hier war u.a. Franz von Sales sein Schüler). 1590–1608 in Rom als Sekretär des Jesuitengenerals C. Aquaviva und Mitarbeiter des C. Baronius. Seit 1617 Rektor des Collège de Clermont in Paris. Von 1637–1643 Beichtvater Ludwigs XIII. Als Gelehrter vf. er hist. und dogmengesch. Werke. Er unterschied zw. Dionysius von Paris und Dionysius Areopagita, schrieb über Pr…


(130 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] (Silvan), Johannes (geb. in Südtirol – 23.12.1572 Heidelberg), Theologe, Prediger, Konvertit zum Protestantismus. Um 1555 wirkt er als bfl. Kontroversprediger in Würzburg. Die Lektüre der Werke Melanchthons führte ihn zur reformatorischen Lehre. 1560 trat er in Tübingen zum Luthertum über und wurde Pfarrer in Calw. Kurfürst Friedrich III. von Kurpfalz übertrug ihm das Amt eines ref. Pfarrers und Superintendenten in Kaiserslautern und ab 1567 in Ladenburg. Er widersetzte sich der E…


(74 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] (Reinaldus), Oderich (1595 Treviso – 1671 Rom), Theologe, Historiker, seit 1680 Oratorianer, 1650–1656 Generalsuperior. Er führte die zwölfbändigen, bis 1198 reichenden »Annales ecclesiastici« des Oratorianers C. Baronius in 9 Bde. bis 1564 fort und übertraf qualitativ seine Vorgänger (Rom 1676f.; der 9. Bd.=21. Bd. der Annales erschien postum). Damit lag katholischerseits ein den Magdeburger Zenturien ebenbürtiges Werk vor. Rolf Decot Bibliography Neuausg. der Annales ecclesiastici von G.D. Mansi, 15 Bde., 1747–1756.


(91 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Thomassin, Louis (25.8.1619 Aix-en-Provence – 24.12.1695 Paris), kath. Theologe, Kanonist. Er wurde Oratorianer (1633) und Theologieprof. in Saumur (1648) und Paris (1653). Wegen theol. Differenzen von der Lehre entbunden, widmete er sich ab 1673 theologiegesch. Studien, v.a. untersuchte er das Kirchenrecht mit hist. Methodik. Rolf Decot Bibliography P. Clair, L. Th., 1964 (Bibliogr.) F.J. Busch, Lex Christi secundum naturam, 1975 H.J. Sieben, Die kath. Konzilsidee von der Reformation bis zur Aufklärung, 1988, 274–305 M. Brulin, Le verbe et la voix,…


(92 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Sanchéz, Tomás (1550 Cordoba – 19.5.1610 Granada), Jesuit (seit 1567), Moraltheologe. Seine Ehelehre (3 Bde.) wurde zum Standardwerk, obwohl seine offene und detailreiche Darstellung gerügt wurde. Modern war seine Auffassung, nicht jeder Ehevollzug bedürfe der Zeugungsabsicht. Jansenisten warfen ihm Laxismus vor. Rolf Decot Bibliography Vf. u.a.: Disputationum de sancto matrimonii sacramento …libri 10, 3 Bde., 1602–1605 Opus morale in praecepta Decalogi, 2 Bde., 1613–1621 Über S.: BCJ 7, 1896, 530–537, Suppl. Nr.2280.5266 J. Theiner, Die Entwic…


(163 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[English Version] Scioppius, Gaspar (Kaspar Schoppe; 26.6.1576 Pappenberg – 18.10.1649 Padua), vielseitiger Späthumanist, Philologe, Kontroverstheologe, Jurist, Politiker. Aus prot. Pastorenfamilie stammend, konvertierte er 1598 in Prag zur kath. Kirche. 1598–1607 knüpfte er in Rom Beziehungen zu Papst und Kurie. Er war auf verschiedenen diplomatischen Missionen im Dienst der Habsburger, Wittelsbacher und der Kurie in Deutschland und Italien tätig. In polemischen Schriften wandte er sich gegen unte…

Maldonado, Juan

(171 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (c. 1533, Casas de la Reina, Estremadura, Spain – Jan 5, 1583, Rome), Jesuit (1562) theologian and exegete. As a professor at the Jesuit college in Paris (1565), he turned his back on Scholasticism and developed a positive theology based on the Bible. His influence was impaired by accusations of ¶ heresy regarding the Immaculate Conception and purgatory. Despite opposition, Maldonado was very popular and successful, not least in debate with the Calvinists. In Rome he helped shape the Jesuit Ratio studiorum and was a member of the pontifical commission for the …

Gregory of Valencia

(185 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Mar 1549, Medina del Campe, Castile – May 24, 1603, Naples), SJ (1565), and besides his disciple, Adam Tanner, the most important post-Tridentine theologian in Germany. He studied in Salamanca (1566–1568 and 1571/72) and Valladolid (1569–1571), and was professor of dogmatics and controversial theology in Dillingen from 1573. He was in Ingolstadt from 1575 to 1592, and in Rome from 1597 to 1602, where he defended L. de Molina in the dispute over grace. He commented on all the impo…

Saint-Martin, Louis Claude de

(385 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Jan 18, 1743, Amboise, Département Indre-et-Loire – Oct 13, 1803, Paris), French theosophist (Theosophy). After study-¶ ing law and pursuing a military career, in 1771 he got to know Martinez de Pasqualis (1715–1799) in Bordeaux, who introduced him to mystical Freemasonry (Freemasons). This group of “Martinists,” with its center in Lyon, practiced a mysticism drawn from kabbalistic sources (Kabbalah: II), in which magical and theurgic rites played a role. In his travels he encountered other myst…

Stensen, Nils

(191 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] ( Jan 11, 1638, Copenhagen – Dec 5, 1686, Schwerin) studied languages, anatomy, and mathematics in Copenhagen, Amsterdam, and Leiden. His anatomical discoveries soon gained him the reputation as a scientist. In 1666 he was appointed physician to the court in Florence, where he converted to Catholicism. Discoveries during various expeditions placed him amongthe founders of scientific geology, paleontology, and crystallography. After ordination to the priesthood in 1675, he was appo…

Ems, Congress of

(555 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] The Congress of Ems was a meeting of deputies representing the archbishops of Mainz (Friedrich Karl Joseph, Freiherr v. Erthal), Cologne (Max Franz of Austria), Trier (Klemens Wenceslaus of Saxony), and Salzburg (H. Graf Colloredo). They met at Bad Ems from Jul 25 to Aug 25, 1786, to decide on joint action by the German metropolitans against jurisdictional interference by the Roman Curi…

Labbé (Labbeus), Philippe

(153 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Jul 10, 1607, Bourges – Mar 17, 1667, Paris), French Jesuit (1623), theologian, philologist, and editor of sources pertaining to church history. After lecturing in Caen, Bourges, and Paris, Labbé worked mainly as an author. An erudite compiler with many interests (geography, chronology, patristics, Byzantine studies), he wrote more than 80 works and was regarded as one of the leading scholars of his time. His most important publication is the compilation of the acts of the counci…

Thomassin, Louis

(103 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Aug 25, 1619, Aix-en-Provence – Dec 24, 1695, Paris), Catholic theologian and canonist. He joined the Oratorians in 1633 and served as professor of theology at Saumur (1648) and Paris (1653). Removed from his teaching duties on account of doctrinal differences, after 1673 he devoted himself to historical studies, primarily applying historical methods to the study of canon law. Rolf Decot Bibliography P. Clair, Louis Thomassin, 1964 (bibl.; Fr.) F.J. Busch, Lex Christi secundum naturam, 1975 (Ger.) H.J. Sieben, Die katholische Konzilsidee von der Reformation…

Schoppe, Casper

(167 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Jun 26, 1576, Pappenberg – Oct 18 1649, Padua), polymath, late Humanist, phi­lologist, controversial theologian, jurisprudent, and politician. The son of a Protestant pastor, he converted to Catholicism in Prague in 1598. In Rome from 1598 to 1607, he cultivated ties with the pope and the Curia. He was sent on several diplomatic missions in Germany and Italy on behalf of the Habsburgs, the Wittelsbachs, and the Curia. He wrote polemics against various ¶ schools of Protestantism. Around 1630, after the emperor’s victory in the Thirty Years War, Schoppe …

Sirmond, Jacques

(194 words)

Author(s): Decot, Rolf
[German Version] (Oct 12, 1559, Riom – Oct 7, 1651, Paris), French Jesuit (1576). From 1581 to 1590 he taught in Pont-à-Mousson and Paris (where Francis of Sales was one of his students). From 1590 to 1608 he served as secretary to C. Aquaviva, the superior general of the Jesuits, in Rome, where he also worked with C. Baronius. In 1617 he was appointed rector of the Collège de Clermont in Paris. From 1637 to 1643 he was the confessor of Louis XIII. He wrote scholarly works on history and the history of dogma. He distinguished ¶ between Dionysius of Paris and Dionysius Areopagita, wrote on p…
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