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Nireus

(238 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Νιρεύς; Nireús). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and Canace Son of Poseidon and the Aeolian Canace (Apollod. 1,53). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Second most beautiful Greek in the Trojan War Son of Aglaia [2] and Charops [3], the ruler of Syme; weakling and (after Achilles) the second most beautiful Greek in the Trojan War, in which he took part with three ships (Hom. Il. 2,671ff.). N. is killed by his Trojan opposite number Eurypylus [2], the second most beautiful Trojan (Hom. Od. 11,522), (Quint. Smyrn. 6,3…

Mosella

(206 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (‘the little Maas’, diminutive of Mosa [1]). Lefthand, 545 km long tributary of the Rhine, today the Moselle. Its source was on the Vosegus in the territory of the Leuci, it flowed in the land of the Treveri through the provinces of Gallia Belgica and Germania superior, and its mouth was near Confluentes (Koblenz). Situated on the M. were Divodurum, Augusta [6] Treverorum and Rigodulum (cf. Tac. Ann. 13,53; Tac. Hist. 4,71; 77). The legate of Germania superior, L. Antistius Vetus,…

Haemon

(380 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Αἵμων; Haímōn, ‘skilful’), name of heroes. [German version] [1] Eponym of the Thess. Haemones Eponym of the Thessalian Haemones, son of  Pelasgus, father of  Thessalus (Rhianus of Bene, FGrH 265 F 30), or son of Zeus and Melia (IG IX 2, 582: 1st cent. BC, Larisa [1]), or son of Ares (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,527e). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Founder of Haemoniae in Arcadia Son of  Lycaon, founder of Haemoniae in Arcadia (Paus. 8,44,1; Apollod. 3,97). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [3] Companion of Nestor Leader of the Pylians, companion of  Nestor (Hom. Il. 4,296). Dräg…

Argonauts

(1,398 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Ἀργοναῦται; Argonaûtai). [German version] A. Participants Argonauts is the general descriptive term for the group of heroes (also called Minyae), mainly belonging to the pre-Trojan generation, who were sent by Pelias under Jason's leadership on the Argo to fetch the fleece of the ram on which Phrixus and Helle had once fled. Even the most ancient sources identify the Golden Fleece with the Argonauts myth, although originally the two groups of myths probably had nothing done with each other. Altogethe…

Aea

(294 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Αἶα). Mythical island of exploration in the Oceanus (in the land of the Aethiopeans: Mimn. fr. 5 Poetae Elegiaci Gentili/Prato), in which Helios has a thalamos for his rays, originally the goal of Jason (Mimn. fr. 10). In A. (etymologically, ‘Earth, Land’ [1. 22, 39]) is the city of Aeetes, the ‘husband of A.’ (Mimn. fr. 10, cf. Pherecyd. fr. 105). Knowledge that the Pontus is an inland lake resulted in A. being shifted to the river (Phasis) connecting it with the sea (Hes. fr. 2…

Chalciope

(157 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Χαλκιόπη; Chalkiópē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Chalcodon Daughter of Chalcodon (king of the Abantes: Hom. Il. 2,541) or of Rhexenor; second wife of Aegeus before Medea (Apollod. 3,207; Schol. Eur. Med. 673). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Sister of Medea Daughter of Aeetes and Idyia; sister of Medea, wife of Phrixus, mother of Argos, Mela, Phrontis and Kytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83; Herodor FGrH F 39; Apoll. Rhod. 2,1148ff.); in Pherecydes (FGrH F 25) she is called Euenia (also C. and Iophossa; cf. Hes. fr. 255 M-W; Ac…

Cretheus

(124 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Κρηθεύς, as ke-re-te-u already Mycenaean). The son of  Aeolus [1] and Enarete (Apollod. 1,51), founder and ruler of  Iolcus. After the death of his first wife  Sidero, he married his ward Tyro, the daughter of his brother  Salmoneus and the mother of Pelias and  Neleus with Poseidon, with whom he begat  Aeson [1], Phere and  Amythaon (Hom. Od. 11,235ff.; Hes. fr. 30,29ff.; Apollod. 1,90ff.; 96); Val. Fl. 5,476ff. also makes  Athamas a son of C.; Pind. Nem. 5,26 speaks of a daughter…

Acastus

(139 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἄκαστος). Son of Pelias and Anaxibia (cf. Apollod. 1,95), probably an Argonaut from the beginning (Apollod. 1,112). A. institutes games to commemorate his dead father and expels Jason and Medea from Iolcus (Apollod. 1,144), of which he becomes king (Apollod. 3,164; cf. Diod. 4,53,1; Hyg. Fab. 25,5). Absolves Peleus of the murder which Astydameia, wife of A. (in Pind. this is Hippolyte) is vainly trying to bring about, then slanders him to A.; A. leaves Peleus unarmed in Pelion, w…

Iason

(2,023 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἰάσων; lásōn). [German version] [1] Leader of the Argonauts Thessalian hero from  Iolcus, leader of the  Argonauts, participant in the Calydonian Hunt (Apollod. 1,68), son of  Aeson [1] and Polymela (Hes. Cat. 38-40; Apollod. 1,107) or  Alcimede (Pherecydes 3 F 104 FGrH; Apoll. Rhod. 1,47); brother of  Promachus (Apollod. 1,143); with  Hypsipyle, he fathered  Euneus [1] (Hom. Il. 7,468) and Nebrophonos (Apollod. 1,115), and with  Medea, he fathered Medeus (Hes. Theog. 1001),  Mermerus [3] and Pheres (Apollod. 1,146). Having been raised by  Chiron (Hes. Cat. 40), I. lives…

Amycus

(178 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Ἄμυκος; Ámykos). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and the Bithynian nymph Melia Son of Poseidon and the Bithynian nymph Melia; king of the Bebryians, who sacrifices all foreigners to Poseidon (Val. Fl. 4,99) or challenges them to a boxing match with leather gloves (he is credited with their invention) and kills them (schol. Pl. Leg. 7,796a). Defeated during the Argonaut journey by Polydeuces, the son of Zeus and, according to Apollod. 1,119 and Apoll. Rhod. 2,1, killed (according to Theoc. 22,17 ff.; 131 ff , allowed to live after swearing an oath). Dräger, Paul (Trier) …

Apsyrtus

(504 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Doyen-Higuet, Anne-Marie (Ciney)
(Ἄψυρτος [ Ápsyrtos], Lat. Absyrtus). [German version] [1] Son of Aeetes and Idyia The son of Aeetes and Idyia (correctly Tzetz. Lycoph. 798), and the brother of Medea. According to the older myth, Medea abducted him when he was still a small child, and, in order to stop the father's pursuit, threw his dismembered body into the water (Pherecyd. FGrH F 32; Apollod. 1,132 f.; or on the fields, according to Ov. Tr. 3,9). According to Sophocles (fr. 343 TrGF 4) and Callimachus (fr. 8), A. was killed in Aeetes' h…

Machaon

(405 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μαχάων; Macháōn). In Homer, M., like his brother Podalirius, is the son of Asclepius and like him is a ‘good physician’ and commander of 30 ships from Tricca, Ithome and Oechalia (Hom. Il. 2,729ff.) in Thessaly [1. 47ff.; 2. vol. 2, 17ff.; 3. vol. 1, 225ff.]; he cures Menelaus, who has been wounded by Pandarus, with herbs that Asclepius obtained from Chiron (Hom. Il. 4,192ff.); M. himself is wounded by Paris with an arrow (ibid. 11,505ff.) and revived by Hecamede with a mixed drin…

Helle

(164 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἕλλη; Héllē). Daughter of  Athamas and  Nephele, fled with her brother  Phrixus on a golden ram from her stepmother Ino and drowned in the sea, which from then on has been called  Hellespont (Pind. fr. 189; Aesch. Pers. 69f.) (Apollod. 180-182; Ov. Fast. 3,851-876; Hyg. Fab. 1-3; her tomb on the Chersonesus: Hdt. 7,58,2). Valerius Flaccus (5,476ff.; 2,611) associates H. and Phrixus more closely with the  Argonauts, by making Athamas the son of  Cretheus, rather than his brother, a…

Aeetes

(190 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Αἰήτης; Aiḗtēs). King of Aea/Colchis, son of Helios and Perse(is), brother of Circe, Pasiphae and Perses. Spouse of Idyia or Asterodeia (or Eurylytes: Naupact. fr. 6-7 EpGF), father of Chalciope (whom he married to Phrixus), of Medea, of Apsyrtus/Phaethon (as well as of Circe and Aegialeus in Diod. Sic. 4,45,3 and Dion. Scyt. fr. 20 Rusten): Hom. Od. 10,138 f.; Hes. Theog. 956 ff.; Apollod. 1,83, 129, 147; Apoll. Rhod. 3,240 ff. A. tries to kill Jason for the Golden Fleece, since his power depends on its possession (Val. Fl. 5,236 ff. = Diod. Sic.…

Tityus

(239 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Τιτυός/ Tityós). Son of Zeus and Elara, the daughter of Orchomenus. In fear of Hera, Zeus conceals the pregnant Elara under the earth, which then 'gives birth' to T., with the result that he, because of his gigantic size, could also be called 'Earth-son' (Hom. Od. 7,324; 11,576), i.e. Gēgenḗs (cf. Gēgeneís ; Pherekydes FGrH 3 F 55), or Giant [1. 184 f.]. Since T. intends to assault Leto when she goes through Panopeus to Pytho (= Delphi [2. 302]), he is shot dead by Artemis (Pind. P. 4,90-92) and Apollo (Apoll. Rhod. 1,759-762). In Hades, where he is one …

Planctae

(178 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Πλαγκταί sc. πέτραι/ Planktaí sc. pétrai, 'wandering rocks' or, from the pounding of the breakers, 'clashing rocks'). Designation (Hom. Od. 12,61) for mythical rocks made dangerous due to their smoothness, fire and surging waves; encountered by the Argonauts on their return journey; near the monsters Scylla and Charybdis. The Argo, assisted by Hera, is the only ship to have succeeded in navigating its way past the P. (Hom. Od. 12,59ff.; Apollod. 1,136; Apoll. Rhod. 4,924ff.); on Circe…

Euphemus

(310 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Εὔφημος; Eúphēmos). In older myth, the son of Poseidon and of the Boeotian Mecionice of Hyrie (Hes. fr. 253 M.-W.); husband of the sister of Hercules, Laonome, with the ability to walk on water (probably all in Hes. fr. 253), Argonaut (Apollod. 1,112), chariot victor at the funeral games for Pelias (Cypselus chest, Paus. 5,17,9), (illegitimate) progenitor of the Battiads whom he sired with an (anon.) Lemnian woman, i.e. first ancestor of the kings of Cyrene (cf. Βάττος ... Εὐφημίδ…

Eurypylus

(392 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Εὐρύπυλος; Eurýpylos). [German version] [1] Suitor to Helen Son of Euaimon; a Thessalian and suitor to Helen (Apollod. 3,131), a warrior at Troy: leader of 40 ships (Hom. Il. 2,734ff.); wounded by Paris (11,575ff.), healed by Patroclus (11,809ff; 15,390ff.); stranded in Libya on the journey home (Lycoph. Al. 901f. with schol.). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Telephus, the son of Heracles Son of  Telephus son of Heracles; king of the Mysians; sent to the aid of Troy (Acusilaus FGrH F 40) by his mother  Astyoche, sister of Priam (Apollod. 3,…

Paraebius

(103 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Παραίβιος; Paraíbios). Mythical slave or owner of a farm, whose story was told to the Argonautsby Phineus [1], thereby proving his visionary powers (Apoll. Rhod. 2,456ff. with scholia): P.' father had felled a tree, in spite of the pleas of the hamadryad who lived in it, thus bringing ill fortune on himself and his descendants. Phineus recognized the cause and placated the nymph with an altar, whereupon she became Phineus' friend and provider [1. 222f. n. 3]. On P. in art, see [2]. Dräger, Paul (Trier) Bibliography 1 U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Hellenistische D…

Ananke

(405 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἀνάγκη; Anánkē). The word attested in Homer as an abstract term (‘compulsion’) develops significance as a philosophical term from the pre-Socratics onwards [1. 5 ff.; 2. 147 ff.; 3. 103 ff.]: Thales (A 1, DK 71, 12 f.) preserves the oldest Greek speculation, ‘to bring to expression with ananke, i.e. natural necessity, the power which is active mechanically behind all phenomena and which compels the divine primal principle to appear in its multitudinous forms’ [1. 6]; ananke is frequently equated with εἱμαρμένη ( heimarménē) (e.g. Heraclid. A 5). The pe…
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