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Syracusae

(4,720 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
(Συράκουσαι/ Syrákousai, Lat. Syracusae). Syracuse, town on Sicily's southeast coast, modern Siracusa. [German version] I. Topography Colony of Corinth (Colonization), founded in 734/3 BC. The place name is said to have derived from the swamp area of Lysimeleia, also called Συράκω/ Syrákō (cf. Scymn. 280-282), which existed until the 20th cent. and was located west of the slim promontory, which, together with the island Ortygia facing it, constituted the original bridgehead settlement (inhabited from the early Paleolithic). The factor …

Xenarchus

(885 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | A.FA.
(Ξέναρχος; Xénarchos). [German version] [1] Comedy writer, 4th cent. BC Comedy writer of the (probably late) 4th cent. BC. Eight play titles (quite typical of this period) and 14 fragments have been preserved (exclusively in Athenaeus [3]). In fragment 1, a speaker (perhaps a slave, also the eponym character, Butalíōn) laments in exuberant dithyrambistic language, that there is no means of curing his master's impotence [2. 263]; in fragment 4 (Πένταθλος/ Péntathlos, 'Pentathlete') a brothel-keeper sings a song in praise of prostitutes and risk-free love-for-s…

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Nicon

(255 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Νίκων; Níkōn). [German version] [1] Theban military leader, 413 BC Theban leader of 300 Boeotian hoplites who, together with some Spartan units, crossed over to Sicily in 413 BC in order to defend Syracuse (Thuc. 7,19,3). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Comedy writer, 4th/3rd cent. BC Comedy writer of the 4th or 3rd cent. BC; there is a preserved fragment of a play Kitharōdós, in which apparently the direct speech of a non-Greek slave is quoted (fr. 1). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 7, 1989, 38. [German version] [3] Co-founder of the anti-Roman alliance of…

Callicrates

(1,202 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Et al.
(Καλλικράτης; Kallikrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and politician Athenian demagogue and politician in the succession of  Cleophon, he abolished the   diobelía with the promise of increasing it by an obolós; later sentenced to death (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28,3). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Rhodes, 356-357. [German version] [2] Sculptor in Laconia Sculptor in Laconia. Together with  Myrmecides, C. was considered the legendary, probably archaic creator of microscopic sculptures made of iron, bronze, ivory and marble. An…

Xenophon

(5,032 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Ξενοφῶν; Xenophôn). [German version] [1] Of Athens, strategos, 5th cent. BC Athenian. Initially commander of the cavalry ( hippárchēs; IG I3 511); then participated in the campaign against Samos in 441/40 BC as stratēgós (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38), was also stratēgós the following years and operated as such in Thrace in 430/429. He was treated with hostility due to his unauthorized acceptance of the capitulation of Potidaea (Thuc. 2,70), but remained in office and fell as stratēgós at Spartolus in the summer of 429 during a campaign against the Chalcidians and Bottians (…

Neon

(631 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Νέων; Néōn). [German version] [1] Military official under Chirisophus Lacedaemonian from the perioeci town of Asine [3], subordinate commander (ὑποστράτηγος/ hypostrátēgos) of Chirisophus [1] in the campaign of the younger Cyrus [3] against Artaxerxes [2]. After Chirisiphorus' death, N. commanded the Lacedaemonian contingent. After Xenophon had relinquished command at Byzantium, N. hoped for supreme command, and opposed the decision to place the mercenary army in the service of the Odrysian King Seuthes (Xen. An. 6,4,23f.; 7,2,1-2; 7,3,7; [1. 350]). Schmitz, Winfried (Bi…

Lattabus

(59 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Λάτταβος; Láttabos). Aetolian who jointly with Nicostratus (and Dorimachus) attacked the Boeotians in 220 BC at their confederate festival (Pol. 9,34,11; cf. 4,3,5), probably identical with the epigraphically attested Naupactian (?) L., son of Strombichus and brother of a Nicostratus; not identical with the stratēgós Lattamus, son of Bucatieus (s. Syll.3 539,1). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Echedemus

(72 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἐχέδημος; Echédēmos). Prominent Athenian from Cydathenaeum [1. 189-193], tried in vain in 190 BC to mediate between the Aetolians and the Romans, i.a. with P. Cornelius Scipio (Pol. 21,4-5; Liv. 37,6; 7) [2. 277-288], and in 185/4 contributed decisively to the reorganization of the Delphian  amphictyony [3. 213]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 C. Habicht, Studien zur Gesch. Athens in hell. Zeit, 1982 2 P. Pantos, E., the Second Attic Phoibos, in: Hesperia 58, 1989 3 Habicht.

Amynander

(149 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀμύνανδρος; Amýnandros, also Ἀμυνᾶς; Amynâs). King of  Athamania since 220(?) or c. 205 BC (Pol. 4,16,9; Syll.3 565; Welles 35; Moretti II 94), usually allied with the Aetolians, he received  Zacynthus (Liv. 36,31,11-12) [1. 405] from Philip V for his neutrality in 207/6; in the second Macedonian War on the Roman side (Pol. 16,27,4; 18,1,3; 36,3; 47,13;) [1. 420-425; 2. 1-8]; in 198/8  Flamininus sent him as envoy to Rome (18,10,7) [3. 253 f.]. In 192/1 allied with  Antiochus, as he hoped to see…

Volux

(68 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Son of the Moorish king Bocchus [1]. In 106 BC in the Romans' war with his brother-in-law Iugurtha, he took L.Cornelius [I 90] Sulla to Bocchus, who thereby indicated his change of sides. The dramatic description of this risky mission in Sallustius [II 3] (Sall. Iug. 101,5; 105-107), which shows V. as an unreliable cowardly 'barbarian', can probably be traced to Sulla's memoirs. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Pleuratus

(299 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Πλευράτος/ Pleurátos). [German version] [1] Illyrian king c. 200 BC Illyrian king, son of Scerdilaedas and from 212 (?) BC his co-regent [1. 256]; nephew of Agron [3]. He ensured his autocracy over the southern Illyrian tribes from 206 onwards by means of an alliance with Rome in the first (Pol. 10,41,4; Liv. 26,24,9; 27,30,13; 28,5,7; 29,12,14) [2. 298-302] and the second of the Macedonian Wars (Pol. 21,11,7; 21,21,3; Liv. 31,28,1f) [2. 302-306], for which in 196 he received the cities of Lychnis (moder…

Nearchus

(948 words)

Author(s): Mommsen, Heide (Stuttgart) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Νέαρχος; Néarchos). [German version] [1] Attic Black-Figure vase painter, c. 560 BC Attic black-figure vase painter and potter of the high Archaic Period, c. 560 BC. His name appears on eight vessels; of these one painter's and four potter's signatures are certainly his. N.'s importance is based primarily on the fragment of the great kantharos from the Acropolis with the painter's signature (Athens, NM Acr. 611 and AP 67), depicting Achilles harnessing his team of horses and the handover of weapons. By choosing the motif of harnessing - here for t…

Androsthenes

(244 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] See > Olympionikai see  Olympionikai Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Commander of  Philippus V in the second Macedonian War Commander of  Philippus V in the second Macedonian War, held Corinth despite being defeated in Nemea by the Achaeans under  Nicostratus (Liv. 33,14,1; 15). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [3] General of the Thessalian League (middle of the 1st cent. BC) General of the Thessalian League ( praetor Thessaliae); after Caesar's defeat at Dyrrhachium, he joined  Pompeius and attempted to defend …

Adherbal

(236 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meißner, Burkhard (Halle/Saale)
(drbl; Greek Ἀτάρβας; Atárbas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian general, 307 BC Successful general at the defence of Carthage against  Agathocles in 307 BC (Diod. Sic. 20,59; 61) [1. 9]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian general for Sicily c. 256-247 Carthaginian general for Sicily c. 256-247 [1. 9-10], successful in battle against the Romans in 250 at  Lilybaeum and in 249 at the defence of Drepana (Pol. 1,46; 49-51). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [3] Carthaginian ship commander under  Mago Carthaginian ship commander und…

Zenicetes

(63 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ζηνικέτης; Zēnikétēs). Lycian/Isaurian pirate chieftain, defeated during P. Servilius [I 27] Vatia Isauricus' campaign in 77 BC, with Z. being killed in his own house in Olympus [11]  (Str. 14,5,7) [1. 216 f.; 2. 259-263, 226]. Piracy Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. A. Ormerod, Piracy in the Ancient World, 1924 2 H. Pohl, Die römische Politik und die Piraterie im östlichen Mittelmeergebiet vom 3. bis zum 1. Jahrhundert v. Chr., 1993.

Onomastus

(79 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ὀνόμαστος/ Onómastos). Confidant and official of Philippus V [1. 109f.], as governor in Thrace in 185/4 BC he and Cassander actuated a bloody raid by the Thracians on pro-Roman Maronea [1] (Pol. 22,13,3-7; Liv. 39,34,2), which, however, Philippus protected from being handed over to Rome (Pol. 22,14,1-5; Liv. 39,34,6-10). In the Demetrius [5] high treason affair O. probably advised rigour (Liv. 40,8,4-6; cf. 16,1-3). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 S. Le Bohec, Les 'philoi' des rois Antigonides, in: REG 98, 1985, 93-124.

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [German version] [2] Tragic poet, 5th cent. BC Greek tragic poet, victor at the Great Dionysia in…

Phaeneas

(185 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φαινέας; Phainéas) from Arsinoe. Strategos of the Aetolian League in 198/7 and 192/1 BC (Aetolians, with map), who in vain presented to T. Quinctius Flamininus in the second of the  Macedonian Wars Aetolian demands against Philippus [7] V (in 198: Pol. 18,2,6; 4,3; Liv. 32,32,11; 33,8; 34,2-3; in 197: Pol. 18,37,11f.; 38,3-7) and later in the escalating conflict with the Romans firmly represented a moderate position (in 192: Liv. 35,4,41; 35,45,2-5) [1. 73-75, 102]. As strategos he completed with M'. Acilius [I 10] Glabrio (who later confiscated a piec…

Aristoteles

(5,596 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Frede, Dorothea (Hamburg) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Et al.
(Ἀριστοτέλης; Aristotélēs). [German version] [1] Athenian oligarch Athenian oligarch who, in 404 BC, was banned from Athens and sent to Sparta by  Lysander (Xen. Hell. 2,2,118). Later, he was one of the 30 Tyrants in Athens (Xen. Hell. 2,3,2;  Triakonta), who sent him to Sparta with the request for a Spartan occupational force (Xen. Hell. 2,3,13). Traill, PAA, 174765. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Rhodian envoy, 166/5 BC Rhodian envoy to Rome who, in 166/5 BC, failed in his request for a renewal of the amicitia by the Senate (Pol. 30,23,2-4) [1. 167,2; 2. 208]. Günther, …
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