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Zephyrium

(770 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Et al.
(Ζεφύριον/ Zephýrion). Name used especially in the eastern Mediterranean region for foothills and the cities near them that are exposed to the west wind (Zephyrus). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) [German version] [1] Cape on the north eastern coast of Crete Cape on the north-eastern coast of Crete (Ptol. 3,17,5), probably modern Cape Agios Ioannis at the north-eastern end of the Gulf of Mirabello. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Cape on the south western coast of Cyprus (or Ζεφυρία/ Zephyría). Cape on the south-western coast of Cyprus. According to Ptol. 5…

Pinarus

(69 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Πίναρος/ Pínaros), modern Deli Çayı. A river, dry in summer, rising in the Amanus mountains and flowing into the Issikos Kolpos (Bay of İskenderun) to the south of Issus. On its banks Alexander [4] the Great gained a victory over Darius [3] in 333 BC (Pol. 12,17,4f.; Arr. Anab. 2,10,1; 5; Str. 14,5,19). Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography A. Janke, Auf Alexanders des Großen Pfaden, 1904, 55-74  Hild/Hellenkemper, 380.

Cotenna

(88 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Κότεννα; Kótenna). City in eastern Pamphylia. The name C. is possibly related to the Katenneis tribe that inhabited the mountainous region above Side and Aspendus [1]. In sympolity with Erymna, its western neighbour [2]; bishopric of Pamphylia I (with metropolis in Side) [3; 4. 242]. Modern Gökbel (formerly Menteşbey, Gödene). Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography 1 Zgusta, 240f., 294 2 M. Zimmermann, Untersuchungen zur histor. Landeskunde Zentrallykiens (Antiquitas 1/42), 1992, 137 3 J. Darrouzès, Notitiae episcopatuum Ecclesiae Constantinopol…

Pyramus

(434 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Gauly, Bardo Maria (Kiel)
(Πύραμος/ Pýramos). [German version] [1] Easternmost of the three rivers in Cilicia Pedias Easternmost of the three rivers in Cilicia Pedias (Cydnus, Sarus [1]; Cilices, Cilicia), mentioned as early as Scyl. 102, modern Ceyhan. Rising in Cataonia in Cappadocia, in Antiquity its mouth, on a now defunct branch, lay to the west of Magarsa near the ancient mouth of the Sarus. Because of this the two rivers were occasionally conflated. Today the mouth has shifted far to the east because of alluvial deposits (this…

Celenderis

(100 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Κελένδερις; Kelénderis). Town in  Cilicia Tracheia (Str. 14,5,3), founded by the Syrian Sandacus, colonized by Samos [1. 105]; the harbour with its ornate arcades is depicted on a mosaic (cf. also Tab. Peut. 10,3; [4]), modern Gilindire. Member of the  Delian League. Captured by the Sassanids in AD 260 (Res Gestae divi Saporis 30). Suffragan diocese of Seleucia/Calycadnus. Renamed as Palaiopolis in the Middle Ages. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography 1 E. Blumenthal, Die altgriech. Siedlungskolon…

Dalisandus

(52 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Δαλισανδός; Dalisandós). Name of several towns that lay in Cilicia Tracheia, presumably near Sinabıç [1], near Belören in Lycaonia [2] or in eastern Pamphylia [3]. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography 1 Hild/Hellenkemper, s.v. Dalisandos 2 D. H. French, The site of Dalisandus, in: EA 4, 1984, 85-98 3 J. Darrouzès, Notitiae episcopatuum Ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae, 1981.

Anchiale

(384 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Ἀγχιάλη; Anchiálē). [German version] [1] Cretan nymph Cretan nymph, mother of the Idaan  Daktyloi Tities and Cyllenus (birth myth in Apoll. Rhod. 1,1129-31) and, as lover of Apollo, mother of Oaxes also, the founder of the Cretan city of Oaxus (Serv. ecl. 1,65). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] (Anchialos) City on the western coast of Pontus This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Christianity | Moesi, Moesia (Anchialus; Ἀγχίαλος; Anchíalos) City on the western coast of Pontus, present-day Pomorije, founded by and dependent on  Apollon…

Mopsucrene

(27 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Μοψουκρήνη/ Mopsoukrḗnē; Nampsucrone, Itin. Anton. 145,5; Mansucrinae, Itin. Burdig. 579,2). Road station between Tarsus and the Cilician Gates [1]. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography Hild/Hellenkemper, 359f.

Cydnus

(123 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Κύδνος; Kýdnos). Aside from Pyramus and Sarus, the third large river of the Kilikia Pedias. In front of its estuary it formed the so-called Ῥῆγμα ( Rhêgma, ‘chasm’), a lagoon that served as the harbour of  Tarsus and originally flowed through Tarsus, before it was diverted, after a flood, by Justinian I eastward around the town (Procop. Aed. 5,5,17). After bathing in its cold waters (impressive waterfalls north of Tarsus) Alexander the Great fell gravely ill (Arr. Anab. 2,4,7). In the Middle Ages C. was c…

Lamus

(231 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
(Λάμος/ Lámos). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon, king of the Laestrygones Son of Poseidon, old king of the Laestrygones and constructor of their stronghold at Telepylus (Hom. Od. 10,81ff.; Ov. Met. 14,233). On account of the identity of Telepylus and Formiae, Hor. Carm. 3,17 imagines his friend Aelius Lamia from Formiae to be L.'s offspring. Walde, Christine (Basle) [German version] [2] Eponym of the Thessalian town Lamia (also Lamius). Son of Hercules and Omphale, eponym of the Thessalian town Lamia (Diod. Sic. 4,31). He persecutes his half-brother Bargasu…

Hagia Thekla

(180 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Ἁγία Θέκλα; Hagía Thékla), modern Ayatekla, Meryemlik. Important place of pilgrimage extended in the manner of a city with a wall, cisterns, an aqueduct and several huge churches (monasteries) south of Seleucia on the Calycadnus in western Cilicia with a cult tradition involving older sanctuaries of Apollo Sarpedonius, Athene, and Artemis (as πότνια θηρῶν, ‘Mistress of beasts’). Aside from the apocryphal Acts ( Pauli) et Theclae, the vita and miracula of St Thecla are preserved from the middle of the 4th cent. [1]. Gregory of Nazianzus stayed here…

Sarpedon

(481 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Σαρπηδών/ Sarpēdṓn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. In the Trojan War, S. and his cousin Glaucus [4] command the Lycians (Lycii), the strongest and remotest allies of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,876-877; the name S. is also of Lycian origin [1]). Zeus' son S. wins a duel with Zeus' grandson Tlepolemus (ibid. 5,628-662) and plays a decisive part in storming the defensive wall around the Greek camp (ibid. 12,290-471). Here his rousing speech to Glaucus (ibid. …

Eirenoupolis

(73 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Εἰρηνούπολις; Eirēnoúpolis). Today Çatalbadem (formerly İrnebol) in Cilicia Tracheia (in the region of Lacanitis, Ptol. 5,7,6). Founded by Antiochus IV of Commagene. From AD 355 to 359, the city was surrounded by a wall. From the early 4th cent., it belonged to the province of Isauria; diocese (suffragan of Seleucea on the Calycadnus). Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography G. Bean, T. B. Mitford, Journeys in Rough Cilicia 1964-1968, 1970, 205ff. Hild/Hellenkemper, s.v. E. 1).

Cietis

(105 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Κιῆτις, Κῆτις; Kiêtis, Kêtis). Region of  Cilicia Tracheia (comprising Cennatis, Lacanitis, Lalassis), which extended along the coast from  Anemurium to the mouth of the Calycadnus, and in the interior into the headwater region of the Calycadnus (Ptol. 5,7,3; 6). Its inhabitants were the Cietae, who in AD 52 laid siege to Anemurium (Tac. Ann. 6,41; 12,55). The minting of coins by  Antiochus [18] IV and several individual towns of the C. is evident. Cf. the vita of St.  Thecla [1. 276];  Hagia Thekla. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography 1 G. Dagron, Vie et miracl…

Scopelus

(64 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Σκόπελος; Skópelos). Foothills of the Amanus between Rhosus and Seleucia [2] Pieria (Ptol. 5,15,2) with the cape Ras al-Ḫinzīr. It formed the natural boundary, and in Late Antiquity, also the political boundary between Syria and Cilicia; in the Middle Ages, there were Greek, Syrian, Armenian, and Latin monasteries in this region. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography Hild/Hellenkemper, s. v. Ras al-Hinzir, s. v. Skopelos.

Issus

(128 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon | Alexander (Ἰσσός; Issós) City east of Cilicia Pedias between Amanides (Amanikai) and Ciliciae Pylae, today the settlement mound Yeşil Hüyük (formerly Kinet Hüyük), 2 km north-northwest of the mouth of the  Pinarus, where  Alexander [4] the Great defeated  Darius [3] III in 333 BC; later also called Nicopolis. In AD 194, Septimius Severus won a victory here over Pescennius Niger and had a triumphal arch known as a kodrigai (after quadriga) erected in Ciliciae Pylae to commemorate this. Nicopolis, conquer…

Pindenissus

(115 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] Fort in the Amanus range in Cilicia Pedias. In the course of defending the frontiers of his province Cilicia against the Parthians, Cicero as Roman proconsul in 51 BC fought against the indigenous peoples of the Amanus from Epiphaneia [1] and took Erana (chief town of the Amanus), Sepyra and Commoris. He then camped at Arae Alexandri (south of Issus), subjugated the remainder of the Amanus and, after a long siege, gained P., the high and strongly fortified oppidum of the Eleutherocilices (Cic. Fam. 2,10,3; 15,4,7-10; Cic. Att. 5,20,1: inhabitants called Pindenissitae; 5…

Elaeussa

(143 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Ἐλαιοῦσσα; Elaioûssa). This city in Cilicia Trachea, originally situated on an island 200 m from the shore, arose as  Diocaesarea [1] from a temple sanctuary belonging to Corycus, and is first attested in the early 1st cent BC. In 12 BC E. became the residence of Archelaus of Cappadocia, who had renamed E. Sebaste after his patron Augustus. In the 2nd cent. AD expansion onto the mainland, and extensive construction. In 260 conquered by t…

Neronias

(94 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Νερωνιάς/ Nerōniás). City in the east of Cilicia Pedias, modern-day Düziçi (formerly Haruniye). Possibly founded by Antiochus [18] IV of Commagene in honour of Nero (beginning of the city era in AD 51/2) at the site of Pindenissus (?). Probably already renamed Eirenoupolis during the time of Vespasian (AD 69-79). Diocese of Cilicia II (metropolis: Anazarbus); important border fortress of the Byzantines. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography Hild/Hellenkemper, 245-248  F. Hild, Eirenupolis in der Kilikia Pedias, in: G. Dobesch, G. Rehrenböck (ed.), Hundert J…

Xenagorou nesoi

(84 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Ξεναγόρου νῆσοι/ Xenagórou nêsoi). Island group off the western coast of Lycia: the rocky islands of Sıçan (Byzantine Ochentres) and Yılan (Byzantine Dragonēsi) outside the bay of Kalkan between the island of Roge (Byzantine Rhō) and Patara ( Stadiasmus maris magni 245 f.). According to Plin. HN 5,131 ( Xenagora VIII) further islands could be meant by XN. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography A. Delatte, Les Portulans grecs, 1947, 183, 254 F. Hild, H. Hellenkemper, in: TIB 8 (Lykien und Pamphylien), 2004 H. Treidler, s. v. X. n., RE 9 A, 1417.
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