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Idyma

(192 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἴδυμα; Ídyma). Ancient Carian settlement (Ptol. 5,2,15; Steph. Byz. s.v. I.) on the eastern end of the gulf of Ceramus near Gökova, 4 km inland near İskele, by the river Idymus. Coins (from the 6th cent. BC onwards) showing a head of Pan and from the Hellenistic period with a Rhodian Apollo and fig leaf are preserved. In the mid-5th cent. BC I. was a member of the  Delian League and was ruled by Pactyes. In the 3rd/2nd cents. I. belonged to the Rhodian Peraea, was occupied in 201 …

Theangela

(390 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Θεάγγελα/ Theángela). City in Caria (Cares), to the east of Halicarnassus, most eastern settlement of the Leleges; a precedessor settlement may have been Συάγγελα/ Syángela (S.), at the modern Alazeytin Kalesi to the west above Çiftlik [1. 112-116, 145-147; 2. 89-96], or on Mount Kaplan to the southwest of modern Etrim [3. 17 note 3, 224 note 33a]. In the 6th/5th cent. BC S. was in the hands of the Carian dynastic family of Pigres, who held a command…

Trapezopolis

(140 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τραπεζόπολις/ Trapezópolis). City in Caria (Ptol. 5,2,18; Cares) on the northern slopes of Mount Cadmus (modern Baba) in the Salbacus mountains (modern Akdağ); scant remains of the city are at Bolu to the west of Denizli. As well as in inscriptions and on coins (1st-3rd cents. AD) T. is particularly well attested in late Antiquity literary sources. T. was part of the Conventus of Alabanda (Plin. HN 5,109). T. enjoyed close relations with the neighbouring city of Attuda (modern Hasköy; cf. Homónoia coins under Antoninus [1] Pius). In the 4th cent. AD T. was …

Amyzon

(290 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ἀμυζών/ Amyzṓn). City in Caria (Cares; cf. Str. 14,2,22; Ptol. 5,2,19), on the northern slopes of the Latmus [1] mountains 15 km to the northwest of Alinda (see vol. 15 addenda). A 6th cent. BC settlement which arose around a mountain sanctuary - in the middle of the 5th cent. possibly belonging to the Delian League (ATL 1, 521) - was expanded under Idrieus (351-344 BC) into a Greek-style city. It attained its peak in the 3rd cent. BC. A. was renamed Alexandria for a short time, w…

Cedreae

(271 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Education / Culture (Κεδρέαι, also Κεδρεῖαι, Κεδρεαί; Kedréai, Kedreîai, Kedreaí). Town in Caria on the eastern end of the Ceramic Gulf, on the island of Şehir adası and on the mainland near Taşbükü. Originally, its population was purely Carian, later Carian-Greek (μιξοβάρβαροι, mixobárbaroi, Xen. Hell. 2,1,15). The inhabitants of C. spoke the dialect of Dorian Asia Minor (cf. inscriptions). At the end of the 6th cent. BC, Hecat. mentions C. as a town (FGrH 1 F 248); in the 5th…

Thyssanus

(109 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Θυσσανοῦς/ Thyssanoûs). Port in southern Caria (Cares; Mela 1,84; Plin. HN 5,104) on the western coast of the Bozburun peninsula on the Gulf of Syme (modern Sömbeki) at modern Ortaca. T. belonged to the Rhodean peraia, as a dámos ( demos [2] B) politically to Camirus on Rhodes, with a territory stretching as far as the southern and northern bays (e.g. with the remains of an acropolis at modern Cumhuriyet Mahallesi). After a temporary separation T. was returned to Rhodes by the Romans presumably c. 70 AD. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography W. Blümel, Die Inschr…

Olymus

(128 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ὄλυμος/ Ólymos or Ὄλυμον/ Ólymon?). City in Caria north-west of Mylasa; known only from inscriptions. In the 5th cent. BC, member of the Delian League ( Hýlimos); in the 3rd/2nd cents., O. merged with Mylasa in sympoliteía . A temple of Apollo and Artemis survives at modern Kafaca, 8 km north-west of Milâs. The inscriptions (end of 2nd cent.  - 70s of 1st cent. BC) very often relate to the selling or leasing of temple land and provide information about a privileged class constituted by the desce…

Cnidus

(445 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Colonization | Delian League | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Κνίδος; Knídos, Lat. Cnidus). City of the Carian or Dorian Chersonesus (now the Reşadiye peninsula). Dorian settlement (Hom. Il. 1,43; Hdt. 1,174); member of the Dorian Pentapolis. C. probably stood originally in the middle of the peninsula near today's Datça. Historical dates: About 580 BC it participated in the colonization of Sicily (Thuc. 3,88) and in the Hellenion in Naucratis (…

Blaundos

(240 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre (Βλαῦνδος; Blaûndos). City in eastern  Lydia on the border with Phrygia, to which it is therefore also assigned (Ptol. 5,2,25: Βλέανδρος; Bléandros); south of Inay (cf.  Klannudda) near the modern Sülümenli (also Sülünlü) on a narrow spur between two ravines flowing into the Hippurius (the modern Köprülü Çay), a northern tributary of the upper Maeander [2]. Indigenous place name in 2nd cent. BC still Mlaundos (on coins). From its official designation Blaundeī́s Makedónes (coins, inscription IGR 4, 717, 3rd c…

Temenothyrae

(108 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τημενοθύραι/ Tēmenothýrai, also: Τημένου Θύραι/ Tēménou Thýrai). City in the highlands of eastern Lydia (cf. Paus. 1,35,7) on the border with northwestern Phrygia (Phryges) in Mocadene on an old overland route, probably a station on the Persian Royal Road, near modern Uşak. The indigenous form of the name ( -t(h)yra(i)) suggests that T. was an old Lydian settlement, according to inscriptions and coins (only 1st-3rd centuries AD) it was temporarily also named Flaviopolis; in late Antiquity it was part of the province of Phrygia Pacatiane (Hierocles, S…

Apollonis

(239 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pergamum | Education / Culture (Ἀπολλωνίς; Apollōnís). City in northern  Lydia, equidistant at 300 stadia from  Pergamum and  Sardeis (Str. 300; c. 53 km). Founded at the end of the 3rd cent. BC (on the site of an earlier settlement?) by  Attalus I, and named after his wife Apollonis; ruins in Palamut Kalesi, 22 km north-west of  Thyateira. According to inscriptions and coins,   synoikismos was still taking place under Eumenes II, c. 194 BC, and later; ‘Macedonians’ of Seleucid origin figured amongst the colonists.…

Thyatira

(318 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Education / Culture (Θυάτειρα/ Thyáteira, present-day Akhisar). City in northern Lydia in the valley of the central Lycus [18] on the road from Sardis to Pergamum, 57 km north-east of Magnesia [3]. In 281 BC Seleucus [2] I moved Macedonian military colonists to T., it was occupied by Attalus [4] I in 216 (Pol. 5,77,7), threatened by Philippus [7] V in 201 (Pol. 16,1,7), probably recaptured by Antiochus [5] III in 198 and in 190 by Eume…

Bargylia

(407 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pompeius (τὰ Βαργύλια; tà Bargýlia). Carian coastal town south of what is now Güllük on a secondary bay of the Gulf of Iasus (Βαργυλιητικὸς κόλπος; Bargyliētikòs kólpos; that today is marshy, Pol. 16,12,1; Liv. 37,17,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. B.), now Varvil Bay (medieval form of the name Βαρβύλια ( Barbýlia), Anon. Stadiasmus maris magni 286, 288; Ptol. 5,2,7), in the Carian language also called Ἄνδανος ( Ándanos; Steph. Byz. ibid.), once part of the region of the Leleges (Str. 13,1,59), now Asarlık. In th…

Xystis

(115 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Ξυστίς/ Xystís). City in northwestern Caria (Cares IV.; Steph. Byz. s. v. Ξ.), like Orthosia [1], Euhippe (at modern Dalama), Coscinus or Coscina (at modern Mount Arı near Dalama) and other places (Plin. HN. 5,109) between the Harpasus [1] and the Marsyas [4], left-bank tributaries of the Maeander [2], modern Körteke. Archaeology: a mountain fortress, presumably of the Leleges (cf. Str 7,7,2; 13,1,59), with pre-Classical and Mediaeval walling. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography R. J. A. Talbert, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, 2000, 61 G 3  E…

Triopium

(263 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τριόπιον; Triópion). Promontory at the southwest extremity of Asia Minor (Hdt. 4,38; 7,153;  Scyl. 99; Plin.  HN 5,104), the Western Cape (modern Deveboynu) and in a wider sense the Cnidus (modern Reşadiye) peninsula. The place name, derived from the eponymous founder Triopas (Diod. 5,57,6; 5,61,2), can rather be explained by its geographical shape and location ('three faces'). The cape of T. was frequently of significance to naval strategy in the Aegean (Plut. Cimon 12,2; Thuc. 8…

Tymnus

(78 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τύμνος; Týmnos). Port in Caria (Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.; Cares) on the western coast of the Bozburun peninsula, modern Bozburun. T. was part of the Rhodian Peraia. Inscriptions survive, including some relating to sacred law [1. no. 201], as do a number of ruins. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography 1 W. Blümel, Die Inschriften der rhodischen Peraia (IK 38), 1991, 63-74. P. M. Fraser, G. E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954, 61 f.  W. Ruge, s. v. T., RE 7 A, 1748 f.  Zgusta, Nr. 1384, Nr. 4.

Marathus(s)a

(63 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] (Μαραθοῦσσα; Marathoûssa, ‘fennel island’). The most southerly of the islands off Clazomenae in the south west of the Gulf of Smyrna, modern Hekim or Çiçek Islands. Few remains. Evidence: Thuc. 8,31,3; Str. 14,1,36; Plin. HN 5,137; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μαράθουσα. Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography G. Winkler, R. König (ed.), C. Plinius Secundus der Ältere, Naturkunde, B. 5, 1993, 262f. (commentary).

Lydia

(4,480 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Λυδία; Lydía). [German version] I. Geography Region in western Asia Minor; its southern border with Caria is formed by the Mes(s)ogis and the Maeander, its eastern border with Phrygia by the confluence of the Lycus [18] and the Maeander, the upper course of the Hermus [2] and the Dindymus mountains (modern Murat Dağı) and its northern border with Mysia by the Caicus [1]) and the Temnus (Demirci Dağı) and mountain ranges further west. Aeolis and Ionia are offshore in the west, sharing with L. the clim…

Stratoniceia

(611 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] City on the upper Caicus This item can be found on the following maps: Pergamum (Στρατονίκεια/ Stratoníkeia, Στρατονίκη/ Stratoníkē, Latin Stratonice). City on the upper Caïcus near modern Siledik. Possibly a Seleucid polis foundation (named after Stratonice [3]), from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC under Pergamum. It was probably here - not in S. [2] - that Aristonicus [4] was taken prisoner by Perperna [3] in 130 BC (Eutr. 4,20,2; Oros. 5,10,5). In the first half of the 2nd cent. AD, S. had sympolity (Sy…

Caunus

(821 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Καῦνος; Kaûnos). [German version] [1] Eponym of the Carian town C. [2] Eponym of the Carian town C. [2], who gains contours chiefly in connection with his twin sister  Byblis. The myths depict various constellations of their incestuous relationship (Parthenius 11). Walde, Christine (Basle) Bibliography S. Jackson, Apollonius of Rhodes: the Cleite and Byblis Suicides, in: SIFC 14, 1997, 48-54. [German version] [2] Coastal town in the border areas between Caria and Lycia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Lycii, Lycia | Pergamum | Pe…
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