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(649 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ὑμηττός; Hymēttós, name pre-Greek [17]). Mountain in Attica, modern Imittos, earlier Trelovuni, Turkish Deli Dağ (height 1027 m). H., which is mostly deforested today, consists of Triassic limestone, micaceous slate, marble and other metamorphites [19]. It isolates the pedíon of Athens in the south-east from the Attic mesógaia. From the defile between Pentelicon and H. near Stavro in the north it stretches over 22 km to the Saronic Gulf by Cape Zoster in the south [14]. The gorge of Pirnari separates the northern ‘great H.’ (μέγας Ὑ./ mégas H.) from the southern ‘…


(232 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Σχοινοῦς/ Schoinoûs, literally '(bul)rushes'). [German version] [1] River in Boeotia River in the area of Thebes in Boeotia (Σχοινεύς/ Schoineús in Steph. Byz. s. v. Σχοινοῦς/ Schoinoûs; Stat. Theb. 7,268; Nonnus, Dion. 13,63; Nic. Ther. 889) which flowed through the region or town of Schoenus (about 9 km from Thebae; modern Muriki) (Str. 9,2,22 or Hom. Il. 2,497) and into Trephia Limne (modern Lake Paralimni). According to  Steph. Byz. loc.cit., S. was derived from one of the sons of the Theban hero Athamas. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 229-232. [German version] […


(111 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (μεσόγεια, mesógeia), the inland area of Attica. Since Cleisthenes' reform of the tribes [4. 157ff.], each of the ten Attic phýlai consisted of one trittýs (‘third’) each of dḗmoi from a sty, m esógeia and p aralia (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 21,4) [1; 2. 251ff.; 4. 159]. In classical times the 10 mesógeia trittýes included approximately 47 dḗmoi [3. 125ff.]. Attica (with map); Demos [2] Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. H. Hansen, Asty, M. and Paralia, in: CeM 41, 1990, 51-54 2 P. J. Rhodes, A Commentary on the Aristotelian Athenaion Politeia, 1981 3 J. S. Traill, Demos and …


(110 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ὄα/ Óa, Ὀά/ ; demotikon Ὀα(ι)εύς/ Oa(i)eús, Ὄαθεν/Ó athen or Οἴαθεν/ Oíathen [1]). Attic mesogeia deme of the phyle of Pandionis, and from 1AD 27/8 of the Hadrianis, with four bouleutaí. Finds of funerary inscriptions point to the neighbourhood of Spata: IG II2 7820 (FO Papangelaki), IG II2 7816, 7817, 7825 (FO Velanideza). For métoikoi in O. cf. [2. 84]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 S. Dow, The Attic Demes Oa and Oe, in: AJPh 84, 1963, 166-181 2 Whitehead, Index s.v. O. Traill, Attica, 8, 17f., 42 with notes 14, 43, 62, 68, 111 no. 91 pl. 3, 15  J.S. Traill, Demos…


(110 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Λειψύδριον; Leipsýdrion). Town on the Parnes in the Attic deme of Paeonidae [2], fortified by the Alcmaeonidae shortly before [3] or after the murder of Hipparchus in 514 BC in the battles with the Peisistratidae. Identification uncertain. The fortress near modern Karagufolesa supposed to be L. dates to the 4th/3rd cents. BC [1]. Sources: Hdt. 5,62,2; Aristoph. Lys. 665 with schol.; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 19,3. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J. R. McCredie, Fortified Military Camps in Attica (Hesperia Suppl. 11), 1966, 58ff. fig. 11 pl. 12d 2 P. J. Rhodes, A Commen…


(872 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Οἰνόη/ Oinóē). [German version] [1] Arcadian nymph, mother of Pan Arcadian nymph, mother of Pan (schol. Eur. Rhes. 36), nurse of Zeus (Paus. 8,47,3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Wife of Nicodamas Wife of Nicodamas, mother of Mopsus, transformed into a crane as punishment for arrogance (Antoninus Liberalis 16, see also Gerana). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Eponymous lady of the Attic deme of O. [5] Eponymous lady of the Attic deme of O. [5], sister of Epochus (Paus. 1,33,8). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Attic paralia deme of the phyle of Hippothontis At…


(63 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπιεικίδαι; Epieikídai). Attic asty or mesogeia deme of the phyle Cecropis. One  bouleutes. In the years 303/2 and 281/0 BC, E. was without council representative. The location is unknown. Trittys-affiliation uncertain [1. 135, 13533]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986. Traill, Attica 11, 20, 51, 62, 70, 110 no. 39, table 7 Whitehead, 266, 372, 379, 428.


(123 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀμφιτροπή; Amphitropḗ). Attic   paralia deme of the phyle  Antiochis (IG II2 1750). Two bouleutai. From [3] onwards localized near Metropisi, nowadays in the Legrena valley with the deme's centre at Sinterina-Pussipelia [1. 88 ff.]. Its borders with  Atene in the west on Mount Megalo Baphi, and with  Sounion in the east on Mount Spitharopussi are marked by rock-hewn   horos inscriptions [1. 54; 2 (new find in 1994)]. A. with its evidence of eight to nine mines was one of the smaller exploitation areas ( Mining) of  Laurion. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Lo…


(494 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Πύρρα/ Pýrrha). [German version] [1] Daughter of Epimetheus In Greek mythology daughter of Epimetheus (brother of Prometheus) and Pandora and wife of  Deucalion. She and her husband were the only people to survive the flood sent over the earth by Zeus to punish the people of the Bronze Age; on the advice of Prometheus they built a boat on which they sailed around for nine days and nine nights. Deucalion and P. created a new race of people (Pind. Ol. 9,43-56; Ov. Met. 1,318-415), by - on the instruction…


(197 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Μακαρία; Makaría). [German version] [1] Daughter of Heracles and Deianira Daughter of Heracles and Deianira; sacrifices herself voluntarily in the war of the Athenians and the Heraclidae against Eurystheus to secure victory ( Human sacrifices): first referred to in this way in Eur. Heracl., but without mentioning her name; possibly already in Aeschylus or in Athenian local myth [1. XVI, XXXI-XXXIII, 111f.] Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 J. Wilkins (ed.), Euripides, Heraclidae, 1993 (introduction and commentary). [German version] [2] Spring in Tricorythus Spring in Tricor…


(1,309 words)

Author(s): Smarczyk, Bernhard (Cologne) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Unit within a polis (φυλή/ phyl , plural phylaí). Smarczyk, Bernhard (Cologne) [German version] I. Definition The Greeks described as phylaí groups or categories of extremely various sizes of people (or animals), and therefore also the peoples and tribes into which they divided themselves and the 'ethnic groups' ( éthnē) of barbarians. Clearly predominant, however, is the technical use of the term for the largest subunit of a pólis state. As in the case of the terms for other subdivisions of the pólis, with the term phyle the idiom of the kinship was transferre…


(76 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀχερδοῦς; Acherdoús, from ἄχερδος; ácherdos, thorn bush,  Achradus). Attic   paralia(?)-deme of the phyle  Hippothontis, 1 bouleutes. Localization uncertain [1. 23 (near Goritsa); 2. 217 (near Eleusis or Decelea); 3. 137], obviously within the region of Thriasia. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Milchhoefer, Erläuternder Text, in: E. Curtius, J. A. Kaupert (ed.), Karten von Attika 7-8, 1895, 23 2 Id., s. v. A., RE 1 3 J. S. Traill, Demos and Trittys, 1986. Traill, Attica, 52, 109 no. 2, table 8 Whitehead, 23, 336, 372.


(61 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Αὐρίδαι; Aurídai). Attican paralia(?)-deme belonging to the phyle of Hippothontis, and later possibly that of Antigonis; one bouleutes [1. 106]. The location is unknown, but was probably in Thriasion Pedion. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J. S. Traill, Diakris, the inland trittys of Leontis, in: Hesperia 47, 1978, 89-109 2 Id., Attica, 12, 27, 52, 70, 109 (no. 22), table 8, 11.


(259 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Δεκέλεια; Dekéleia). Attic Mesogeia deme of the Hippothonti phyles; four  bouleutai. Part of the Attic Dodecapolis (Str. 9,1,20). In the former royal palace gardens of Tatoï (Thuc. 7,19,2) 120 stadiums north of Athens and south of the pass which, to the south-east of the Katsimidi, leads to Oropus and Tanagra (Thuc. 7,28,1; Hdt. 9,15). In 413 BC, the Spartans fortified D. (Thuc. 7,19,2; [1. 15 fig. 7; 3. 56f.; 4. 141f.]; hence the name of the ‘Decelean War’); they occupied D. until …


(151 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Τετράπολις/ Tetrápolis, 'four-city'). Cult association of the Attic dêmoi of Marathon (capital), Oenoe[5], Probalinthus and Tricory(n)thus (Str. 8,7,1) on the eastern coast of Attica, founded by Xuthus (Str. 8,7,1); surviving prehistoric settlements at modern Nea Makri (Probalinthus), Plasi (cf. Marathon) and Kato Souli (cf. Tricorynthus), middle Helladic and early Mycenaean necropolis of a local dynasty in Vrana [1]. As (pre-Greek) Hyttenia T. was part of the Attic Dōdekápolis ('twelve-city', Str. 9,1,20) and sent festal legations from the Deli…


(204 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Σαλαμίνιοι; Salamínioi). Athenian génos from Salamis [5], which was divided into the 'S. of Seven Phyles' and the 'S. in Sunium'. In the 4th cent. BC, it primarily acted as a cult alliance in charge of some of the oldest cults in the polis (Athena Skiras, Aglaurus, Pandrosus, Ge Kourotrophos among others). Both branches had sanctuaries of Heracles, one in Sunium, the other 'on the Porthmus', that is, the strait of Salamis ([4]; pace [1; 2; 3]) where, along with Phalerum and Athens, the cultic activities of the S. were concentrated. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 W. …


(173 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Βῆσ(σ)α; Bês(s)a). Attic   paralia-deme of the phyle Antiochis, later Hadrianis. Two bouleutai. Significant mining district in  Laurion, for which 24 mining leases are attested. Probably located near today's Hagios Konstantinos (formerly Kamareza), as Xen. Vect. 4,43 recommends the construction of a fortification on the highest point of B. (= Vigla Rimbari?) halfway between Anaphlystus and Thoricus. In the south, therefore, B. adjoined Amphitrope; in the north, Thoricus; in the east and south-east, Sunium, to which it was linked by the astikè hodós. Road conne…


(92 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Κόπρος; Kópros). Attic paralia-deme of the phyle Hippothontis, with two bouleutaí. Probably identical with the synonymous (river?) island (νῆσος τῆς Ἀττικῆς, Schol. Aristoph. Equ. 899; Hsch. s.v. Κ.), but not identical with Gaiduronisi (Patroklu Charax) [1]. [2. 52; 3. 178; 4] assume that C. was located east of Eleusis. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 E. Honigmann, s.v. Kopros, RE XI 2, 1365f. 2 Traill, Attica 21 with n. 26bis, 52, 69, 111 no. 74, table 8 3 Travlos, Attika 4 E. Vanderpool, New Evidence for the Location of the Attic Deme Kopros, …


(61 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Βουτάδαι; Boutádai). Attic   asty deme of the phyle Oenieis, later of the Ptolemais; one bouleutes; of uncertain location, but the connection of the  Eteoboutadai with the Scirophoria and the town quarter of Sciron suggests a position of B. at the Holy Way near Laciadae and the Cephisus. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography Traill, Attica 9,48,62,69,109 (no. 27), table 6,13.


(198 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
[German version] (Παιανία/ Paianía). Great Attic mesogeia deme of the phyle Pandionis in Liopesi (today again P.), divided into Upper P. (Π. καθύπερθεν/ P. kathýperthen) with one bouleutḗs and Lower P. (Π. ὑπένερθεν/ P. Hypénerthen) with eleven bouleutaí (Harpocr. s.v. Παιανιεῖς). In 307/6 BC, Upper P. changed over to Antigonis. The deme decree IG I3 250 (450/430 BC; FO: Liopesi) [2. 385 No. 83] of Lower P., which mentions a quorum of 100 dēmótai [2. 95], attests to the harvest festival of Pr(o)ērosía [2. 196f.] and hieropoioí ('cult officials') [2. 142, 183]. For the cult of …
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