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Agathyrnon

(125 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἀγάθυρνον; Agáthyrnon). On the north coast of  Sicily between Tyndaris and Cale Acte, rather closer to Capo di Orlando than to S. Agata di Militello (location of a chorion ); founded by Agathyrnus, son of Aeolus [1] (Diod. Sic. 5,8), annexed by Tyndaris. In 210 BC, consul M. Valerius Laevinus deported 4,000 exiles from A., where they had settled, to  Bruttium (Liv. 26, 40, 16 f.). The eponymous hero, a standing youth, is depicted on a bronze coin (with corresponding legend). Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography C. Franchina Scurria, Problemi del…

Bidus

(43 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Beidos). Fortress near Syracuse (Steph. Byz. s.v.; Cic. Verr. 2,53ff.; Liv. 25,27). A town of Bidius lay in the territory of Tauromenium (Steph. Byz. s.v.). Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography BTCGI, 4, 45f. Chiron 25, 1995, no. 35.

Cale Acte

(133 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Καλὴ Ἀκτή; Kalḕ Áktē). Greek town on the northern coast of Sicily, founded in 446 BC by  Ducetius with the support of Archonides, the tyrant of Herbita (Diod. Sic. 12,8,2f.). As early as 495 BC,  Scythas of Zanclae had planned the foundation of an Ionian colony on that site. C.A. was probably first entered in around 200 BC into the lists of the theōrodókoi of Delphi. It was plundered by Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,3,101). Birth place of the rhetor  Caecilius [III 5]. Localized near the modern Caronia Marina. Remains of a reservoir, statue of a togatus. Coins: [1. 129f.]. Manganaro, …

Hergetium

(142 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἑργέτιον; Hērgétion). Small town in the interior of Sicily, near Grammichele, and north of  Hybla [1] Heraea; it is mentioned in the Delphian list of the theōrodókoi (col. IV 106; cf. [1. 434f.] with a suggested localization in Ferla, [2. 133ff.32]), and also in an oracle of Dodona [4. 85f.], as well as in Steph. Byz. s.v. Segesta. For the ethnicon cf. bronze coins from Syracuse [3. 203]. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 G. Manganaro, Città di Sicilia e santuari panellenici nel III e II sec. a.C., in: Historia 13, 1964, 414-439 2 Id., Alla …

Cephaloedium

(124 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] (Κεφαλοίδιον, Κεφαλοιδίς; Kephaloídion, Kephaloidís, Cephaloedium). Town on a cape of the northern coast of Sicily, modern Cefalù, repeatedly mentioned in conjunction with  Dionysius [1] I and  Agathocles [2] (Diod. Sic. 14,56,2; 78,7; 20,56,3; 77,3), captured by the Romans in 254 BC during the First Punic War (Diod. Sic. 23,18,3), subsequently a civitas decumana. Plundered by Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,2,128; 3,103). Archaeology: Remains of archaic fortifications; on the acropolis a ‘Temple of Diana’ in pre-Greek layout. Copious coin co…

Longon

(92 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Λόγγων; Lóngōn). Coastal river near Catana in Sicily, probably identical to modern San Paolo. Italion, a Catanian fortress, which was attacked in 247 BC by Hamilcar [3] Barcas (Diod. Sic. 24,6,1; [1. 133; 2. 127-174, especially 156, pl. 9]), was situated close to the source. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981 2 G. Manganaro, Per una storia della chora Katanaia, in: E. Olshausen, H. Sonnabend (ed.), Grenze und Grenzland. 4. Stuttgarter Kolloquium zur Histor. Geogr. (…

Cyttarinii

(98 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Κυτατταρῖνοι; Kytattarĩnoi). Community in the interior of Sicily; not located. Along with the Petrini and the Scherini the koinón of the C. paid a tax in wheat and barley to the synoikismós of  Entella [1. 264f. no. 208: 5th decree, l. 20]. In 254 BC the C. joined the Roman side in the 1st Punic War (Ἠνατταρῖνοι, Diod. Sic. 23,18,5). Ruined by Verres ( Cetarini, Cic. Verr. 2,3,103). Cf. [2]. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 L. Dubois, Inscriptions grecques dialectales de Sicile, 1989 2 G. Bejor, Città di Sicilia nei decreti di Entella…

Acragas

(744 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Christianity | | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Ἀκράγας; Akrágas, Latin Agragantum/Agrigentum, in the Middle Ages Girgenti). River and town (modern Agrigento) on the south-west coast of  Sicily, 4 km inland on a steep rocky hill, which rises from 50 m in the south to 328 m in the north and 351 m in the north-east, encircled by the rivers  Hypsas in the west and A. (S. Biagio) in the east, which join south of…

Achradine

(89 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἀχραδίνη; Achradínē). District of  Syracusae with the agora, linked with Ortygia via a bridge (Cic. Verr. 2,4,52; 117; Str. 6,2,4). In 405 BC captured by Himilkon (Diod. Sic. 14, 63), 352 BC plundered by Nypsius on behalf of Dionysius II and liberated by Dion (Plut. Dion 42 f.).  Sicily Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography G. Manganaro, Iscrizioni, Epitaffi ed Epigrammi in Greco della Sicilia centro-orientale di epoca romana, in: MEFRA 106, 1994, 79-118, here 79-82 R. J. A. Wilson, Sicily under Roman Empire, 1990, 39 f., 160 (map), 359.

Acesines

(157 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Ἀκεσίνης; Akesínēs). [German version] [1] River in Sicily River in  Sicily (Thuc. 4,25,8 Ἀχεσίνης; Achesínēs, Plin. HN 3,88 Asines), the modern Alcantara, which rises north of Randazzo, runs along the northern foot of Mount  Aetna [1] [2. 137], and flows, south of  Naxos, into the  Ionios Kolpos, identical with the Assinus (depicted as a horned youth on the obverse of a coin from Naxos, bearing the legend ΑΣΣΙΝΟΣ [1. 65 f., 93 f.]. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 H. A. Cahn, Die Mz. der sizilischen Stadt Naxos, 1944 2 G. Manganaro, Per una storia de…

Haluntium

(73 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Ἀλόντιον; Halóntion). City on the north coast of Sicily (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,51; Cic. Verr. 2,3,103; 2,4,51; Plin. HN 3,90; 14,80: viticulture), modern San Marco d'Anunzio. For the gymnasium of H., cf. SEG 26, 1060 (revision in [1]). For coin production cf. [2. 5-16]. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography 1 G. Manganaro, Sikelika, 1988 2 F. Bianco, Archeologia Storica di Messina, 1993.

Imachara

(109 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἰμάχαρα; Imáchara). Small town in Sicily (Cic. Verr. 2,3,47; Plin. HN 3,91; Ptol. 3,4,12,3; preserved are kerykeion, IG XIV 589, litrai in two versions). The identification with the excavation site near Nissoria is conceivable. There was a river in the area of I. (reverse of the litra). Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica (Testimonia Siciliae antiqua 1,1), Kokalos Suppl. 4, 1981, 190 R. J. A. Wilson, Sicily under the Roman Empire, 145, 378 no. 14 S. Cataldi, s.v. I., BTCGI 8, 238-247 G. …

Hybla

(437 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
(Ὕβλα; Hýbla). [German version] [1] H. Megale/Heraea (Ὕ. Μεγάλη; H. Megálē, Ἡραία; Hēraía). The existence of H. is indisputable (differing: [6]), but the location of the city near Ragusa (on Sicily) is not clearly determined. Hippocrates, the ruler of H., died during the siege by the Siculans in 491 BC (Hdt. 7,155,1). H. had three bronze coin emissions with the legend Ὕβλας Μεγάλας, their circulation was limited to a small area (around Ragusa, Modica, Vizzini). Of great importance is the list of the theorodokoi of Delphi, in which Υβλας appears after Camarina and before Herget…

Chrysas

(41 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] Sicilian river close to the road to Morgantina in the territory of Agyrion (Diod. Sic. 14,95,2), modern Dittaino. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography L. Rocchetti, EAA 2, 1959, 570 C. Vitanza, Arch. St. Sic. or., 12, 1915, 163-180.

Amenanus

(100 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἀμενανός; Amenanós). The modern river of Giudicello, which still runs under the cathedral square of Catania; in antiquity, it supplied water to  Catana (depicted as a minotaurus on the earliest tetradrachmas: BMC, Greek, Sicilia, 48 ff.; on bronze coins of the 1st cent. BC reclining in Nile fashion; cf. Pind. Pyth. 1,132; Str. 5,3,13; Ov. Met. 15,279; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κατάνη; Katánē). Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography Ch. Hülsen, s.v. Amenanus, RE 1, 1823 G. Manganaro, Per una storia della ‘chora Katanaia’, in: E. Olshausen, H. Sonnabend …

Ichana

(117 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] (Ἴχανα; Íchana). Settlement on Sicily, fell under the rule of Syracusae (Steph. Byz. s.v. I.). Evidence: handle of a bronze kerykeion, with the inscription Ιχανινοδαμοσιον; silver hēmílitron (obverse horned head, personification of a river, to its right on some impressions ΣΙΧΑ, on the reverse the bow of a ship with the legend ΝΙΚΑ, datable to the end of the 5th cent. BC; I., therefore, celebrated a naval victory); in a Siculan inscription from Herbessus is ΘΙΚΑΝΑ. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography G. Manganaro, in: JNG 33, 1984, 31-33 Id., Al…

Abolla

(209 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] [1] Roman cloak Roman cloak of unknown form; known from literary sources but not identifiable with certainty from monuments. In contradistinction to the  toga, the abolla is the costume of the farmer and the soldier (Non. 538,16), and to satirists it is the cloak favoured by philosophers of the Cynic and Stoic schools (Mart. 4,53; Juv. 3,115). The abolla was evidently similar to the   chlamys , both in form and in the way it was worn (Serv. Verg. Aen. 5,421). Abolla is possibly a general term for the shoulder-cloak (cf. Juv. 4,76, mentioned as the cloak of the praefectus urbi). …

Herineus

(69 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] River in Sicily along the via Elorina, mentioned by Thucydides (7,80,6; 82,3) in conjunction with the retreat of the Athenians in 413 BC, possibly identical with the Cavallata north of the Assinarus. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography G. Manganaro, Alla ricerca di poleis mikrai della Sicilia centro-orientale, in: Orbis Terrarum 2, 1996, 139 with fn. 50 L. Robert, Noms indigènes de l'Asie Mineure gréco-romaine, 1963, 37f.

Crimisus

(103 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] (Κριμισός). River in West Sicily ( Crinis(s)us, Verg. Aen. 5,38; Crinisos, Vibius Sequester 1,44), at which  Timoleon defeated the Carthaginians in 340/339 BC (Plut. Timoleon 25 with Diod. Sic. 19,2,8). Also, one of the rivers in Segesta (Fiume Freddo, Belice destro, Belice sinistro) as is suggested by the legend that the river god C. begat  Aegestus with the Trojan woman Egesta (Verg. Aen. 5,36ff.). On coins from Segesta C. appears as a dog; a human representation is also known (Ael. VH 2,33), cf. [1]. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Ziegler, Konrat (Gött…

Bricinniae

(91 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata)
[German version] Fortress of Leontini (eastern Sicily), in 422 BC the scene of disputes between the oligarchs and democrats of Leontini (Thuc. 5,4,4), probably near Colle S. Basilio (Scordia), where remains of walls (5th cent. BC), large silos, hewn into the rock, and an epitaph have been found. The late Byzantine period is documented through graves and a lead blade with a Greek prayer of exorcism. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Bibliography BTCGI s.v. B., G. Manganaro, in: Scritti classici e cristiani offerti a Francesco Corsaro, Università Catania 1994, 461f.
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