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Fernandez, Alonso

(188 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (1573, Malpartida de Plasencia – c.1633, Plasencia, Spain), OP (1587), historian and preacher. He was honored in 1618 at the General Chapter of Lisbon with the title Preacher General. Fernandez authored works on the history of the Dominicans in Spain, of which a few remain unpublished. He was prior in Zamora, Cuenca, Guadalajara, Cáceres and finally in Plasencia. Heinz Ohme Bibliography Works: Historia ecclesiastica de nuestros tiempos, 1611 Historia y anales de la devoción y milagros del Rosario, 1613 De los servicios que a los Reinos de España ha hecho la …

Excommunication

(2,394 words)

Author(s): Wohlmuth, Josef | Ohme, Heinz | Link, Christoph | Oppenheimer, Aharon
[German Version] I. Catholic – II. Orthodox – III. Protestantism – IV. Judaism I. Catholic Excommunication must be defined as a privative term from communicatio and κοινωνíα/ koinōnía (cf. 1 Cor 10:16: sharing and participating in the body and blood of Jesus ¶ Christ; cf. 2 Cor 13:13: communion in the Holy Spirit). The word excommunication does not occur in the New Testament. The competence of the church to excommunicate is traced back to Matt 16:18f.…

Androutsos, Chrestos

(86 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (1869, Kios – 1935, Athens), professor of theology and ethics at Chalki (1895–1911) and Athens (1911–1935). Androutsos was a preeminent figure in 20th-century Greek theology. His Dogmatics has been considered the first complete and authentic systematic exposition of Orthodox doctrine. To “neopatristic” theologians, Androutsos embodies a scholastic theology infiltrated by Western rationalism, unrooted in the life of Orthodoxy. Heinz Ohme Bibliography Works (Greek and Romanian): Συμβολική ἐξ ἐπόφεως ὀρθοδόξου, 21930 Δογματικὴ …

Synod

(3,747 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Brandt, Reinhard | Germann, Michael | Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] I. History As it developed in the Early Church and the Middle Ages, the term synod (from Gk σύνοδος/ sýnodos, “assembly, being together on the way”) cannot be separated from the term council. Only in 19th- and 20th-century Protestantism is a separate treatment warranted; in that context – with roots going back to the 16th century – the synod represents a new constitutional phenomenon (Church polity: IV, 2; V, 1.c). Its antecedents include medieval diocesan synods (as extensions of the provincial syn…

Stavropigial Monasteries

(263 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] The ecumenical Council of Chalcedon in 451 for the first time set out to “integrate” monasticism, placing it under the authority of the local bishop; the erection of monasteries was made subject to episcopal approval (c. 4). The external sign of a monastic foundation was the erection of a cross, the so-called stavropigia (from Gk σταυρὸν πηγνύναι/ staurón pēgnýnai), mentioned in the civil ecclesiastical laws of Emperor Justinian I ( Cod. Iust. I 3.26; Novella 5.1; 67.1; 131.7), which adopted this canonical legislation ( Cod. Iust. I 3.39; Novella 133.4). The bishop h…

Blastares, Matthew

(104 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (died after 1346). A monastic priest and canonist, c. 1335 Blastares compiled a handbook of Byzantine ecclesiastical law ( Syntagma kata stoicheion), in which kanones and nomoi were arranged in alphabetic association with juristic lemmas. It comprises 24 chapters, each with subdivisions. It came into widespread use in Slavic as well as Byzantine areas. Heinz Ohme Bibliography Sources: G.A. Ralles & M. Potles, eds., Σύνταγμα τῶν θείων καὶ ἱερῶν κανόνων, vol. VI, 1859 PG 144, 959–1399 On Blastares: A. Soloviev, “L'œuvre juridique de M. Blastares,” SBNE 5, 1939, …

Jeremiah II of Constantinople

(160 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (1536, Anchialos – Sep, 1595, Constantinople), patriarch of Constantinople (1572–1579, 1580–1584, 1587–1595), contributed to the consolidation of Orthodoxy with important decisions: in his correspondence with Tübingen theologians (1573–1581) concerning the Confessio Augustana Graeca (Augsburg) he had been sent, he rejected their positions in three written responses. In 1583 and 1593, he refused to adopt the calendar reforms of Gregory XIII and a new edition of the Union and effected reconciliation with the Russi…

Constantinople/Byzantium

(7,786 words)

Author(s): Koch, Guntram | Ritter, Adolf Martin | Ludwig, Claudia | Thümmel, Hans Georg | Ohme, Heinz | Et al.
[German Version] I. Archaeology – II. Early Church – III. After 600 – IV. Councils – V. Patriarchate – VI. Literature – VII. Art – VIII. Church Music – IX. Judaism I. Archaeology Settlers from Megara settled Byzantium in the early 7th century on a previously inhabited hill on the Bosphorus, the most important water route from the Mediterranean to the Black Sea; a deep bay, the “Golden Horn” offered additional protection. In 324 ce, after the victory over Licinius, Constantine chose Byzantium as a new capital and dedicated it on May 11, 330 as Nea Roma, “New Rome”; soon the name …

Canons/Canon Collections

(812 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] Into the 4th century, synods did not call their decisions “canon” or “regula.” In the Greek East, they used the term horos as the older term for ecclesiastical decisions (Ankyra, cc. 6, 19, et passim). In the Latin language sphere, designations including placita, statuta, instituta, decreta, sententiae were drawn from Roman legal language as the specific terminology applicable in such cases. The designation as canons appeared for the first time at the Synod of Antioch c. 330 (cc. 19 etc.) and quickly established itself in the East (Bas. Ep. 188, cc. 4, 10). Th…

Dositheus of Jerusalem

(283 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (May 31, 1641, Peloponnese – Feb 6/7, 1707, Constantinople). Ordained to the diaconate at the age of 16, Dositheus became metropolitan of Caesarea in September 1666, and in January 1669 patriarch of Jerusalem, a position he held for 38 years, only two of which he spent in residence; the rest of the time he spent on fund-raising journeys in Russia, Asia Minor, and the Balkans. He played a central role in the process protecting Orthodoxy against Calvinistic and “Latin” influences, which dominated the century following the Confessio of C. Lucaris (1629). Of particular…

John the Faster (Saint)

(174 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] John the Faster (Saint), patriarch of Constantinople, Apr 12, 582 – Sep 2, 595, previously deacon at the Hagia Sophia; because of his asceticism, he was already known during his lifetime as “the Faster” (ὁ Νηστευτής/ ho Nēsteutḗs). This is probably the reason why, from the 11th century on, a majority of the Byzantine literature on penitential discipline written since the 9th century was attributed to him. Popes Pelagius II and Gregory the Great erroneously understood the designation “ ecumenical patriarch,” already attested before John and after him the titl…

Balsamon, Theodoros

(114 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (1110–1140, Constantinople – after 1195, Constantinople), a Byzantine canonist. As deacon of the Hagia Sophia, Balsamon combined the supreme authority for all affairs of the patriarchate (as its “Chartophylax”) with a juridical office in the service of the state (“Homophylax”). Having fallen out of favor after 1180, Balsamon became the patriarch of Antioch, although he never left the capital. His chief works – which remain fundamental for Orthodox canon law – are the commentaries on the Nomocanon 14 titulorum and on the Synodal and Patriarchal Canons. Heinz Ohme Bibl…

Barsanuphius

(148 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (Barsanorius; feast: Feb 6), an ascetic author of Egyptian origin. He died c. 545 as a hermit in the monastery of Abba Seridos near Gaza. Together with the hermit John “the prophet,” he gave spiritual advice by answering letters sent to him by monks, bishops, and laypersons. Approx. 850 such questions and responses were collected ( biblos psychophelestate). They afford deep insights into the life of the Palestinian church in the 5th/6th centuries, attest to the reception of the asc…

Local Church

(1,563 words)

Author(s): Roosen, Rudolf | zu Schlochtern, Josef Meyer | Ohme, Heinz | Küster, Volker
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Meaning – III. Missiology I. Terminology The term local church owes its theological rediscovery to Vatican II and must be understood against the background of the Roman Catholic understanding of the church (VIII, 2.b). There it denotes the church in a specific region, usually a diocese. From a systematic perspective, it refers to the middle level of ecclesiastical organization, between the Roman Catholic universal church and the Catholic parish. In German Protestantism deaneries (Dean/Deanery) or church districts (Church polity:…

Germanus I of Constantinople

(204 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (patriarch; Aug 11, 715 to Jan 17, 730; b. before 669, d. after 730; feast day: May 12). Germanus became metropolitan of Cyzicus c. 705; in 712 he signed a declaration in support of Monotheletism, which he retracted in 713. From 727 to 729, he wrote a number of letters directed against the rise of iconoclasm, but gave up in the face of the iconoclastic policies of Emperor Leo III and was sent into exile. Anathematized by the iconoclasts in 754 (Anathema), he was rehabilitated in 7…

Synaxarion

(171 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (from Gk σύναξις/ sýnaxis, assembly). In the Orthodox churches, the Synaxarion contains the information on the daily propers for the liturgical commemoration of the saints (Saints/Veneration of the saints: III, 2). This information usually includes the day of the month, an epigram concerning the saint, brief historical notes, information about the saint’s commemoration, place of burial, and any translations of his or her relics, and an abridged vita. This information for the liturgical year, summarized in a book for the church in Constantinople (…

Pentarchy

(342 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] denotes a model of church polity that developed in the Early Church, in which the five patriarchates (Patriarch: I), in order of rank Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, had constitutive significance for the leadership of the whole church. The developing patriarchal constitution was reflected in cc. 6 and 7 of the Council of Nicea (325), c. 3 of Constantinople (IV: 1; 381), and c. 28 of Chalcedon (451), but the pentarchical hierarchy of the five cathedrae is …

Allatius, Leo(n)

(160 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1588, Chios – Jan 18, 1669, Rome), Catholic theologian and learned humanist of Greek origin, promoter of church union and the Counter-Reformation. In 1618, he was appointed Scriptor graecus of the Vatican Library, of which he became custodian in 1660. In 1622/23, he was responsible for incorporating the Bibliotheca Palatina into the collection. He authored some 60 works; 236 autograph volumes remain unpublished. His major work, De ecclesiae occidentalis atque orientalis perpetua consensione (1648), answers Orthodox charg…

Isidore of Kiev

(172 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] (c. 1385, Peloponnese – Apr 27, 1463, Rome). As an abbot in Constantinople and a proponent of union, he was appointed “metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia” in 1436. He led the Russian delegation to the Council of Ferrara-Florence (1438/1439; Basel, Council of") and signed the union bull. As cardinal legate commissioned with the execution of the union in Russia in 1439, he was imprisoned in Moscow in 1441. After his escape, he was active for the union and finally succeeded in achie…

Antimension

(115 words)

Author(s): Ohme, Heinz
[German Version] is, in the Byzantine tradition since the 13th century, an altar cloth consecrated by a bishop and with relics sown to it, necessary for the performance of the divine liturgy, on which is placed the chalice and the paten. It can also represent the altar (III) and make it possible to perform the liturgy in any suitable place. Previously, from the 7th century, it was the designation in the Christian East for the portable wooden altar (Greco-Lat.: anti-mensa, “instead of the altar table”). Heinz Ohme Bibliography I.M. Izzo, The Antimension in the Liturgical and …
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