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Stata Mater

(164 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] Roman goddess. The earliest literary evidence (Fest. 416 f. L. with [1. 2167]) mentions a statue of Stata Mater, which is said to have stood in the Forum Romanum until the early 1st cent. BC; the population of the city of Rome is supposed to have then carried the cult of the goddess into the vici ('city quarters'; Vicus ) (Fest. 416 f. L.; cf. [2]). Inscriptions from the Imperial period attest to dedications by the vicomagistri to Stata Mater alone (ILS 3307), in conjunction with the Lares Augusti (ILS 9250; Lares) or with Volcanus (ILS 3306). She was invoked to a…


(812 words)

Author(s): Beck, Jan-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] [1] Athenian praised by Solon (Τέλλος; Téllos). Athenian, praised by Solon [1] to Croesus as a most fortunate person (Hdt. 1,30): T. saw healthy children and grandchildren grow up in a well-ordered polis, died in battle for his homeland and was given an honorary burial in Eleusis [1] (Hero cult). Doubt as to T.'s historicity are without foundation [1. 44 f.]. In Herodotus' [1] Lydian tale ( 'lógos'), which is imbued with oriental doctrines of wisdom, he presents profoundly Greek values (worldliness, ideal of citizenship, immortality through des…


(341 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] Roman festival to avert mildew (Lat. robigo) on 25 April, at the 5th milestone on the via Claudia (Verrius Flaccus, InscrIt 13,2 p. 131; with differing topographies. Details: Ov. Fast. 4,901-942), with the sacrifice of a sheep and a dog by the flamen Quirinalis (Ov. Fast. 4,905-910; F lamines ) and (at least in the later period) ludi with equestrian competitions (Tert. De spectaculis 5). Apart from a goddess Robigo (InscrIt 13,2 p. 131; Ov. Fast. 4,907; 911), a god Robigus (the latter is better attested) has been passed down to us (Fest…


(2,227 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Menerva, Menrva). I. Cult A. The earliest findings [German version] 1. General M. is traditionally considered an Etruscan deity that came to Rome as part of the Capitoline Triad of Jupiter, Juno and M., who had their temple on the Capitolium ([1; 5]; undecided [6. 163f.]). Thus, on the basis of representations of M. on Etruscan mirrors as a martial goddess [2] modelled on the Greek Athena, it is assumed that she was a Hellenic goddess introduced via Etruscan trade contacts with Greece. Besides taking as evidence the form Menrva/ Menerva in Etruscan, but also Menerva in Italian and Old La…


(2,151 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) I. Meteorology [German version] A. Early conceptions In Antiquity, Greece with its many islands, and intimately connected with the sea, relied on the observation of the winds (ἄνεμος/ ánemos, Latin ventus) that blow at various times of the year, because navigation (Navigation) for merchant ships through the Aegean and Mediterranean to Egypt and Magna Graecia was always important (except for the Spartans) [1]. Homerus [1] already refers to the most prevalent winds, named after their direction of o…

Sementivae feriae

(232 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] Roman movable holiday ( Feriae ) to promote the growth of the seed, which Ovid discusses in relation to 24-26 January (Ov. Fast. 1,657-704) with reference to the Fordicidia of 15 April [1. 142 f.]. The festival included sacrifices to Tellus and Ceres on two days separated by seven days (Lydus, Mens. 3,9); it was celebrated following the first spring sowing within 91 days of the vernal equinox (Varro, Rust. 1,34) and before the second spring sowing in late January or …


(10,943 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Et al.
I. Religious studies [German version] A. General Sacrifice is one of the central concepts in describing ritual religion in ancient and modern cultures. In European Modernity, the term sacrifice (directly or indirectly influenced by Christian theology of the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ to redeem mankind) also has an intimation towards individual self-giving ('sacrifice of self'). The range of nuances in the modern meaning stretches to include discourses that have lost their religious motif and hav…


(286 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] The Roman goddess R. traditionally appears in conjunction with a fig tree, the f icus Ruminalis, which provided food for the twins Romulus and Remus (Liv. 1,4,5). The goddess' sanctuary was said to be near to the tree. The ancient etymological connection between R. and ruma or rumis ('female breast'; Fest. 326, 332 f. L., Varro, Ling. 5,54), refers to the breast-like shape and milk-like juice of the nutritious fig [1. 112 f.]. For this reason, R. allegedly received sacrifices of milk (Varro, Rust. 2,11,5; Non. p. 167 f. M. = …

Sea gods

(1,210 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] A. Overview The modern category of sea gods has no direct ancient equivalent. This does not automatically make it unusable, but it is inadequate as an attempt to classify and systematize religious organisations in order to understand ancient polytheistic systems (Polytheism). Moreover, scholars tend to concentrate on Greek deities, while possible Roman equivalents are viewed as secondary and derived from Greek gods; therefore they are frequently denied independent discussion. Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania) [German version] B. Greek The mo…


(214 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] Name of two Roman wine festivals, the V. Priora on 23 April (InscrIt 13,2,446 f.) and the V. Rustica on 19 August (InscrIt 13,2,497 f.). On the V. Priora people presumably made offerings to Jupiter (Iuppiter), the dedicatee of the festival, of new wine which went on sale at that time (Plin. HN 18,287; Ov. Fast. 4,863 f.; Plut. Quaest. Rom. 45). The propitiation of the weather on the V. Rustica was also addressed to Jupiter (Plin. HN. 18,284). A third Roman wine festival, the Medit…


(150 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] The goddess of weeding (Lat. ( e-/ sub-) runcare) appears only in Varro, Antiquitates rerum divinarum fr. 176 Cardauns. Subruncinator is the masculine equivalent in the list of the twelve deities of agrarian fieldwork who were invoked during the sementivae feriae (Fabius [I 34] Pictor apud Serv. Georg. 1,21, 2nd cent. BC). The authenticity and age of both deities have been called into question (Sondergötter; Obarator), but can be defended with a glance at the importance of the agricultural life cycle for Roman society. The suffix formation of Subruncinator and the ve…

Roads, deities associated with

(222 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] In Greco-Roman polytheism, but few deities were associated exclusively with roads, travels and travel routes on land or at sea; in such situations, depending on the requirements of the traveller, various gods from the local or inter-regional pantheon [1 III] could be called upon for support ([1]; Hor. Carm. 1,5,13 f.). Already in Homer, Poseidon, Calypso and Leucothea (Sea gods) appear in connection with Odysseus' sea voyage, just as Athena with his overland travels (Hom. Od. 13,190 f.). Likewise already in Hom. Il. 24,334 f. Her…


(5,982 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
see Iulius [IV 15] (poet); see Iulius [IV 16] (jurist) [German version] I Greek (Παῦλος; Paûlos). [German version] [I 1] Bishop of Antioch [1], died after 272 Bishop of Antiochia [1] († after AD 272). P., who was probably born in Samosata and grew up in modest circumstances, succeeded Demetrianus in 260/1 and quickly antagonized influential parts of the Antioch community with his teachings and conduct of his office. According to Eusebius [7] (account of P.: Eus. HE 7,27-30), the presbyter Malchion, head of a school of r…

Twelve (Olympian) gods

(600 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
(Δωδεκάθεοι/ Dōdekátheoi, Lat. Di Consentes). [German version] I. General Groups of TG are a topic that was already dealt with in Hellenistic literature; their composition has been subject of antiquarian speculation throughout the whole of Antiquity. Nevertheless, they did not represent a 'monotheistic dodecade'. Worshipping them as a set group of gods was, in compliance with the structural principles of ancient polytheism, not obligatory and the members of the group varied from one region to the other [1. 360 f.]. Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania) …


(208 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] Brother of Picumnus and, as Stercutius, connected with manuring (Serv. Aen. 10,76). According to antiquarian speculation (Piso fragment 44 HRR; Varro in Non. 848 L.), P. (with Picumnus, q.v.) was among the dei coniugales or dei infantium. Varro groups P. with the goddesses Deverra and Intercidona (Varro, Antiquitates rerum divinarum fragment 111 Cardauns; [1]) as tutelary deities of the family household, guarding against Silvanus [2. 29-31], and derives his name from pilum, 'pestle', which also explains the association with bakers (Serv. Aen. 9,4; […


(171 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] Roman god of manure ( stercus) spreading, known by several names (e.g. Sterces: Aug. Civ. 18,15; Stercutus: Plin. HN 17,50; et al.). S. is sometimes identified with Pilumnus or Saturnus (Isid. Orig. 17,1,3), and is seen as the son of Faunus (Plin. HN 17,50). Academic opinion, based on Serv. Georg. 1,21, counts S. among the Sondergötter , or regards him as an antiquarian speculation. However, the significance of manure in the agriculture of ancient Italy (Fertilizer), and the possible existence of an altar to Stercutu…


(1,746 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] I. Greek (soldier saint) Greek (soldier saint), I (Μερκούριος; Merkoúrios). Widely attested but legendary figure - a soldier saint who according to Soz. 6,2,3ff. is said to have killed Emperor Iulianus [11] at God's behest by spearing him. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography H. Ch. Brennecke, Studien zur Geschichte der Homöer, 1988, 96f. II. Roman (the god Mercury) Roman (the god Mercury), II [German version] A. Origin and functions The traditional view is that M. is the direct Roman transposition of the Greek god Hermes (= H.) [1. 304-306]: …


(264 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] The Roman god of ‘reploughing’ the seed appears only in Servius' (Georg. 1,21) list of twelve “Sondergötter” connected with agriculture. This list goes back to the libri iuris pontificii by Fabius [I 34] Pictor (fr. 3 HRR, mid 2nd cent. BC?). The verb obarare appears once in Latin literature in a military context (Liv. 23,19,14), the concept of reploughing appears in Varro (Rust. 1,29,1-3; [1]). Opponents of the theory of Sondergötter [2] have denied the existence of O. It is also doubtful for linguistic reasons [3]. Yet it can be defended [4]…

Ver sacrum

(481 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] The Italic ritual of the 'sacred spring', practiced in times of great adversity (Fest. 519 f.), integrated ritual elements of expiation and thanksgiving, and was not limited to Italic peoples alone (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,16; Liv. 5,34,2 f.; Just. Epit. 24,1,1; but cf. [1. 708 f.]). The whole yield of a spring (or of the whole year) - plants, animals, humans - was 'consecrated' (Sacer) to a deity; the animals were sacrificed, people (adults) were expelled, although originally, people are said to have been sacrificed as well (Fest. l.c.; Dion. Hal. l.c.). It is only po…


(472 words)

Author(s): Phillips, C. Robert III. (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)
[German version] The (plural) name of two festivals popular with the urban population of the city of Rome (primarily with craftsmen) (Plaut. Mil. 692; Plin. HN 35,143; Suet. Aug. 71,3): the Q. Maiores celebrated from 19-23 March (epithet only in Varro Ling. 6,17) and the Q. Minusculae from 13-15 June (Liv. 9,30,5-10). Some ancient annotators (cited in Varro Ling. 6,14) interpret Q. as describing the duration of five (Latin quinque) days. In fact, however, it is a matter of the fifth day after the Ides [1. 406-408], perhaps of the fifth dies nefastus or ater, 'black day' [2]. Charisius'…
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