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(716 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Αρισταιο̃ς; Aristaîos). [German version] [1] Greek rural deity Rural deity linked with sheep, the discovery of olive oil and honey, hunting, healing, prophecy and the end- ing of a period of drought on Ceos (cf. Apoll. Rhod. 2,500 ff.). In literature he is famous for the death of his bees, which occurred because he was responsible for the death of  Euridices, and he successfully searched for ways to restore the bee populations (Verg. G. 4,315-558). A. is a complex figure who can be found in Central Greece, in Arcadia, on Ceos and in Cyrene. He was the husband of Auto…


(378 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀμφίων; Amphíōn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and of Antiope Son of Zeus and of Antiope, daughter of Asopus, twin brother of Zethus (Hom. Od. 11,260-265). He built a wall around Thebes, by enchanting the stones with his lyre-playing (Hes. fr. 182 M-W). A. married Niobe, daughter of Tantalus (Hes. fr. 183). After the death of their children A. attacked the temple of Apollo and was killed by Apollo's arrows (Hyg. Fab. 9). Ovid (Met. 6,271 f.) has him commit suicide, according to Lucian (Salt. 41) he go…


(262 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[German version] (Ἀμφιάραος; Amphiáraos). Argive seer. Although he knew that the expedition of the Seven against Thebes was doomed to failure, he had to acquiesce to the judgement of his wife Eriphyle, who had been bribed by Polyneices with the necklace of Harmonia. According to Homer (Od. 15,243-255), A. died in Thebes. (Genealogy: Pind. Pyth. 8,39; Diod. Sic. 4,68,4 f.) According to a second version (possibly Thebaïs EpGF fr. 9), A. was hurled with his chariot into a crevice in the earth opened up by Zeus (representation [2]). A. participated in the funerary games for Pelias (St…


(302 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἄβας). [German version] [1] Figure from Myth of the Peloponnese and central Greece Myth of the Peloponnese and central Greece: a) Argus. Son of Lynceus and Hypermestra. By Aglaea, daughter of Mantineus, father of the twins Acrisius and Proetus (Apollod. 2,24; Hes. fr. 129 M-W; cf. Paus. 2,16,2; 10,35,1) and Idomene, mother of Bias and Melampus by Amythaon (Apollod. 2,24). Lynceus gave A. the shield, consecrated by Danaus to Hera, and for whose festival he had established the agon ἄσπις ἐν Ἄργει (Hyg. Fab. 1…


(388 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[German version] (Δαφνηφορία; Daphnēphoría). A ritual carried out everywhere Apollo bore the epithet daphnēphóros (‘branch wearer’) (e.g. IG IX 2, 1027). Only the Theban ritual has been verified; the sources are Pindar, Proclus and Pausanias, who each deal with a different stage in the process. The most detailed description is by Proclus, who explains the daphnephoric ode sung by a girls' chorus (Photius 321a-321b). The ritual is supposed to have been held on an enneaeteric basis (every ninth year). A paîs amphithalḗs (‘child flourishing on both sides’) led the procession; b…


(357 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[German version] (Ἀθάμας; Athámas). Son of the elder  Aeolus and Enarete, born in Thessaly (Apollod. 1,51), ruled in Halus and Orchomenus and was married to Nephele, Cadmus' daughter  Ino and Hypseus' daughter Themisto. The preserved myth stems at least partly from lost plays of Aeschylus (TrGF 3.1-4), Soph. (TrGF 4.1-10; 721-723) and Eur. (TGF 398-427; 819-838). Since the curse on A.'s house is mentioned in Hdt. 7,197, one can assume that the myth came from northern Greece to Athens during the time of the Persian Wars. Because Ino wanted to get rid of her stepchildren, she let t…


(326 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[German version] (Βοιωτός; Boiōtós). Ancestor of the Boeoti, defies precise identification. Only two genealogies connect him to the region that bears his name. According to Hellanicus (FGrH 4F51) and others [1], he was the son of Poseidon and Arne (who gave her name to the original homeland of the Boeoti). In Paus. (9,1,1) B. is the son of Itonus and Melanippe. One of the two is probably father of Onchestus (Hes. fr. 219 M-W). The myth passed down to us seems to go back no further than two lost pla…


(1,791 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Ἄρης; Árēs). [German version] A. Genealogy Son of Zeus and Hera (Hes. Theog. 921-923; Homer [1], cf. Apollod. 1,13). Forms the connection, together with his sisters Eilithyia and Hebe, of the divine embodiment of the beginning, high point and often violent end of life. Eris, the daughter of Zeus and Hera, is another of A.'s sisters (Hom. Il. 4,440 f.), but Hesiod states (Theog. 225) that she is the daughter of Nyx. Zeus calls A. the most hated of the Olympians (Hom. Il. 5,890) and blames his uncontrollable and relentless spirit on his mother Hera (Hom. Il. 5,892 f.). Schachter, Albert (Mon…


(297 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[German version] (Ἀκταίων; Aktaíōn). a) Theban: son of Aristaeus, son of Apollo and Cyrene, and Autonoe, daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia (Hes. fr. 217 A; Eur. Bacch. 230). b) Attica: mythical king and eponym of Attica (Str. 9,1,18; Paus. 1,2,6: Actaeus). Variants of a): 1. A. rapes Semele; consequently Zeus sends Artemis to set A.'s dogs on him. A. is torn to pieces. (Hes. fr. 217, cf. 346; Stesich. fr. 236 PMG; Acusilaus FGrH 2 F 33; Apollod. 3,31). 2. A. is killed, because he boasts that he is a …


(821 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Bodnár, István (Budapest)
(Ἀλκμαίων; Alkmaíōn). [German version] [1] Figure of Greek myth: son of Amphiaraus Son of Amphiaraus and  Eriphyle (Apollod. 3,81; Hes. fr. 198 M-W, cf. 197; traditions, see [1; 2]). He avenged his father with his younger brother Amphilochus by murdering Eriphyle. A. went insane and wandered erratically through the Peloponnese and north-western Greece (Eur. TGF 65, 87). In Psophis he was healed by Phegeus, and married his daughter Arsinoe, to whom he gave Eriphyle's ill-fated necklace and veil. The land bec…

Charites (Graces)

(602 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[German version] (Χάριτες; Chárites). Group of goddesses who embody beauty, happiness and abundance. They appear for the first time in Homer, where their number, like that of the Muses is ambiguous; it is however clear that more than one existed and that not all were of the same age. Hera promises Hypnos that she will give him as his wife Pasithee, one of the younger Charites, whom he desires (Hom. Il. 14,267-276). In Il. 18,382f. one Charis is also the wife of Hephaestus, who is actually married t…


(137 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[German version] (Ἀηδών; Aēdṓn). Daughter of Pandareus, who out of jealousy towards Niobe tried to murder her oldest nephew. But she inadvertently killed her and Zethus' son, Itylus/Itys and was changed into a nightingale (Hom. Od. 19,518-523) [1]. Theban version of the story of Procne and Philomela: Hes. Op. 568 and Sappho fr. 130 V; Attic version: Soph. Tereus: TrGF 4 p. 435-437 and Apollod. 3,193 [2]. Ant. Lib. 11 transfers the incident to Ephesus. A. designates the personified nightingale. Olde…


(1,657 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Ἄρης). [English version] A. Genealogie Sohn von Zeus und Hera (Hes. theog. 921-923; Homer [1], vgl. Apollod. 1,13). Mit seinen Schwestern Eileithyia und Hebe Verbindung der göttl. Verkörperungen von Beginn, Höhepunkt und oft gewaltsamem Ende des Lebens. Eris ist als Tochter von Zeus und Hera eine weitere Schwester von A. (Hom. Il. 4,440 f.), bei Hesiod (theog. 225) jedoch Tochter der Nyx. Zeus nennt A. den am meisten verhaßten der Olympier (Hom. Il. 5,890) und schreibt seinen unzügelbaren und unnachgiebigen Sinn seiner Mutter Hera zu (Hom. Il. 5,892 f.). Schachter, Albert (Montreal) …


(139 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[English version] (Ἀηδών). Tochter des Pandareos, wollte aus Eifersucht auf Niobe ihren ältesten Neffen umbringen. Sie tötete aber aus Versehen ihren und Zethos' Sohn Itylos/Itys und wurde in eine Nachtigall verwandelt (Hom. Od. 19,518-523) [1]. Thebanische Version der Erzählung von Prokne und Philomela: Hes. erg. 568 und Sappho fr. 130 V; att. Version: Soph. Tereus: TrGF 4 p. 435-437 und Apollod. 3,193 [2]. Ant. Lib. 11 verlegt die Gesch. nach Ephesos. A. bezeichnet die personifizierte Nachtigall…


(290 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[English version] (Ἀκταίων). a) Theben: Sohn des Aristaios, des Sohnes von Apoll und Kyrene, und der Autonoë, Tochter des Kadmos und der Harmonia (Hes. fr. 217 A; Eur. Bacch. 230). b) Attika: Mythischer König und Eponym von Attika (Strab. 9,1,18; Paus. 1,2,6: Aktaios). Varianten von a): 1. A. vergewaltigt Semele; darauf schickt Zeus Artemis, um A.s Hunde auf ihn zu hetzen. A. wird zerfleischt. (Hes. fr. 217, vgl. 346; Stesich. fr. 236 PMG; Akusilaos FGrH 2 F 33; Apollod. 3,31). 2. A. wird getötet,…


(355 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[English version] (Δαφνηφορία). Ritus, der wohl überall dort vollzogen wurde, wo Apollon das Epitheton daphnēphóros (“Zweigträger”) trug (z.B. IG IX 2, 1027). Belegt ist nur das thebanische Ritual; Quellen sind Pindar, Proklos und Pausanias, die je ein anderes Stadium in seinem Verlauf behandeln. Die detaillierteste Beschreibung stammt von Proklos, der die von einem Mädchenchor gesungene daphnephorische Ode erklärt (Photios 321a-321b). Der Ritus soll enneaterisch (neunjährlich) abgehalten worden sein. Ein país amphithalḗs (“ringsumblühtes Kind”) führte die Prozess…


(660 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Folkerts, Menso (München)
(Αρισταιο̃ς). [English version] [1] griech. ländliche Gottheit Ländliche Gottheit, die mit Schafen, dem Auffinden von Olivenöl und Honig, Jagen, Heilen, Weissagen und dem Beenden einer Dürreperiode auf Keos verbunden ist (vgl. Apoll. Rhod. 2,500 ff.). Lit. bekannt ist er dadurch, daß seine Bienen starben, weil er an Euridikes' Tod Schuld trug und er erfolgreich nach Wegen zur Regeneration der Bienenvölker suchte (Verg. georg. 4,315-558). A. ist eine komplexe Figur, die in Zentralgriechenland, in Arkadien, auf Keos und in Kyrene beheimatet ist. Er war Gatte d…


(302 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Ἄβας). [English version] [1] Figur pelop. und zentralgriech. Mythen Mythos der Peloponnes und Zentralgriechenlands: a) Argos. Sohn des Lynkeus und der Hypermestra. Durch Aglaia, Tochter des Mantineus, Vater der Zwillinge Akrisios und Proitos (Apollod. 2,24; Hes. fr. 129 M-W; vgl. Paus. 2,16,2; 10,35,1) und der Idomene, Mutter von Bias und Melampous durch Amythaon (Apollod. 2,24). Lynkeus gab A. den Schild, den Danaos der Hera geweiht, und zu dessen Feier er den Agon ἄσπις ἐν Ἄργει gegründet hatte (Hyg. …


(544 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[English version] (Χάριτες). Gruppe von Göttinnen, die Schönheit, Heiterkeit und Überfluß verkörpern. Sie erscheinen zum ersten Mal bei Homer, wo ihre Zahl wie die der Musen nicht eindeutig ist; es ist jedoch klar, daß mehr als eine existierte und nicht alle gleich alt waren. Hera verspricht Hypnos, ihm Pasithee, eine der jüngeren Ch., die er begehrt, zur Frau zu geben (Hom. Il. 14,267-276). In Il. 18,382f. ist eine Ch. auch Frau des Hephaistos, der in der Odyssee ja mit Aphrodite verheiratet ist.…


(247 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal)
[English version] (Ἀμφιάραος). Argiv. Seher. Obwohl er wußte, daß die Expedition der Sieben gegen Theben zum Scheitern verurteilt war, mußte er sich dem Urteil seiner Frau Eriphyle beugen, die durch Polyneikes mit der Halskette der Harmonia bestochen worden war. Nach Homer (Od. 15,243-255) starb A. in Theben. (Genealogie: Pind. P. 8,39; Diod. 4,68,4 f.) Einer zweiten Version zufolge (evtl. Thebaïs EpGF fr. 9) wurde A. mit seinem Wagen von einer von Zeus geschaffenen Erdspalte verschlungen (Darstellung [2]). A. nahm an den Totenspielen für Pelias (Stesich. fr. 179 PMG), d…
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