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Tolma

(137 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τόλμα/ Tólma, 'boldness, daring'). Notes on the ancient concept of T. as a deity, although scanty and late, are unquestionable [1. 1681]: Schol. Aesch. PV 12c Harington mentions an (unidentified) sanctuary to T. and Anaideia in Athens; in App. Lib. 21 Scipio (Cornelius [I 71]) prays to T. and Phobos; Anth. Pal. 9,29,1-4 (Antiphilus [3] of Byzantium) addresses T. as the fateful inventor of sea travel (ambivalent: Anth. Pal. 7,529,1). Claudianus [2] presents the corresponding Latin …

Victoria

(690 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Roman goddess and personification of victory Roman goddess and personification of victory, etymologically derived from vincere, "to be victorious" [5. 2501]. In contrast to Nike, her Greek counterpart whom she followed closely in her personification and iconography (as winged goddess, often with cornucopia, wreath and palm leaf: [4. 239-269]), V. was worshipped early and independently in her cult as the symbol of victory achieved (mostly militarily, therefore the close connection to Mars, according to CIL III 4412; VII 220; V. in the pompa circensis: Cic. A…

Zenoposeidon

(168 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ζηνοποσειδών/ Zēnoposeidṓn). Ζηνο-/ Zēno- is the Doric form of Zeus, Z. is the interpretating Greek translation of Zeus Osogo(a) worshipped in the Carian city of Mylasa [2. nos. 319-327, 361-376; 4. 109-117] who, according to depictions on coins [3. vol. 2, 576-582], exhibited attributes and traits of Zeus (eagle, double axe) and Poseidon (crab, trident) [4. 117-126]; this is documented in the double name (with a humorous anecdote in Machon fr. 8 GA = Ath. 8,337c). The sanctuary which can be located close to (Ath. loc.cit.) or inside (Str. 14,2,23) the city (f…

Taraxippus

(146 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ταράξιππος/ taráxippos, 'confuser of horses', from híppos and the aorist stem of taráttein). The monument in the form of a round altar, which was associated with T. (v.i.), stood on the (long) eastern side of the Hippodrome in Olympia, near the nýssa (turning post); the horses often shied there, which may have been due to preparing to round the turning post, but was explained by divine action. Paus. 6,20,15-18 offers several identifications for T. and his monument and himself considers an altar to Poseidon Hippios likel…

Gelonus

(147 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Γελωνός; Gelōnós). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and the snake maiden Echidna Son of Hercules and the snake maiden  Echidna, brother of Agathyrsus and of  Scythes, eponym of the Graeco-Scythian Geloni (Hdt. 4,10). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] City of the Butini City of the Budini, mentioned only by Hdt. 4,108, according to the context of the highly contested passage, north of the Melanchlaeni on the upper Donec. Herodotus describes a city built of wood with Greek architecture and a Greek life-style. The inhabit…

Protesilaus

(380 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πρωτεσίλαος/ Prōtesílaos, Latin Protesilaus; approx. 'First Among the People', cf. Hom. Il. 2,702; [2. 938]; mythological interpretation of the name from his death before Troy in Eust. Hom. Il. 2,700 p. 325; in Hdt. 9,116 Πρωτεσίλεως). Son of Iphicles (Hom. Il. 2,704-707) or Actor (Hes. fr. 199,6 M.-W.); Astyoche (Eust. Il. 2,698 p. 323) and Diomedea (Hyg. Fab. 103) are named as his mother. Like his brother Podarces [1] (Hom. ibid.), he courted Helen (Helena I [1]) (Hes. fr. 199,5 M…

Myrmex

(177 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Μύρμηξ; Mýrmēx). [German version] [1] Father of the eponymous heroine of the Attican deme of Melite According to Philochorus FGrH 328 F 27 and Hes. fr. 225 M.-W. (= Harpocr. 202,7 Dindorf) he was the father of the eponymous heroine of the Attican deme of Melite. The legend of the Athenians' futile war against the máchimoi mýrmēkes (‘embattled ants’; Eubulus, Glaucus PCG V fr. 20) who guarded the gold dust on Mt. Hymettus, is likewise set in Attica and probably related to this myth. It became proverbial (Pl. Plt. 450b; Harpocr. 308,6 Dindorf). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2]…

Hipponous

(100 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἱππόνοος; Hippónoos). [German version] [1] Name of Bellerophontes According to schol. Hom. Il. 6,155 Dindorf, the old name of  Bellerophontes; schol. Hom. Il. 6,155 Erbse offers the name of Leophontes (Λεωφόντης). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Adrastus Son of Adrastus [1] who deliberately threw himself on the pyre with him (Hyg. Fab. 242). The same motif can be found in the story about Capaneus' and Evadne's fate. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [3] Father of Capaneus With Astynome, H. fathered  Capaneus (Apollod. 3,63 Wagner; Hyg. F…

Prometheia

(115 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Προμήθεια/ Promḗtheia). Attic festival of unknown date in honour of Prometheus, at which there were torch races from his altar in the Academy through the Kerameikos to an unrecorded finish (Paus. 1,30,2; Schol. Aristoph. Ran. 135). A torch race modelled on that of the P. was introduced or reorganised at the Hephaistia (Hephaestus II) in 421/20 BC (IG I3 82,32-35). Each phyle entered a team and a gymnasiarch (Isaeus 7,36) for the music agon of the men's and boys' choirs (IG II2 1138; Ps.-Xen. Ath. Pol. 3,4); their performance costs are given as 12 minai (Lys. 21,3). Scherf, J…

Pylos

(1,818 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg)
(Πύλος/ Pýlos). [German version] [1] Homeric P. Kingdom of Nestor In Homer, P. can designate both the domain and residence of Nestor [1] [3. 119-126]. The geographic information on the location of the palace - however concretely verifiable in the actual topography - given in Homer in the Iliad and the Odyssey each lead to different locations. In the tale of Nestor, the so-called Nestorís in the 11th book of the Iliad (cf. [2. 296-298] on Hom. Il. 11,670-762), the information clearly points to a place south of the Alpheius [1]. In the Odyssey, on the other h…

Hersilia

(241 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] Daughter of the noble Sabine Hersilius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,1). During the rape of the Sabine women, she is the only married woman who is abducted (Cass. Dio 56,5,5 is a reflection of this: H. teaches the Roman women tà gamiká, ‘what forms part of marriage’), she stays with her daughter, who was also abducted (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,45; Macrob. Sat. 1,6,16), and marries, according to some sources, a certain Hostilius in Rome and so becomes the grandmother of King Tullus  Hostilius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,1; Plut. Romu…

Pythia

(1,432 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Prophetess of the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi (Πυθία; Pythía). Prophetic seer of the oracle of Apollo Pythios at Delphi. In addition to her genuine designation as Pythía, her function is characterized by such epithets as mántis (Aesch. Eum. 29), prómantis (Hdt. 6,66), or prophȇtis (Eur. Ion 42). The P.'s establishment may have occurred after a period in which male priests were responsible for the promulgation (H. Hom. 3,393-396; [3. 215]). In the oracle's primeval period, the role of the seer was probably not fulfilled by…

Pandion

(379 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Πανδίων/ Pandíōn). [German version] [1] Attic King Mythical Attic king and eponymous hero of the Pandionis [2] phyle (with 11 demes [2. 370]). P. occupies the sixth place on the list of kings in Hellanicus [1 (FGrH 4, commentary, vol. 1, p. 449). this list was later expanded by duplications of P. and Cecrops, first detectable in the Marmor Parium (FGrH 239 A 1-17). Here, P. I occupies the fifth place, and P. II the eighth. Originally, the list probably only contained the kings Cecrops, P., Erechtheus and Aegeus, as only they were phyle heros while they were kings. P. is therefore one legendary …

Hippomenes

(246 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἱππομένης; Hippoménēs). [German version] [1] Victor in foot race against Atalante Boeotian from Onchestus, son of  Megareus (Hyg. Fab. 185) or Ares (schol. Theoc. 3,40) and Merope (Hyg. Fab. 185). The foot race between H. and  Atalante was already known to Hesiod (fr. 74 M.-W.). The most comprehensive account can be found in Ov. Met. 10,560-707 [1]: Upon his request, Venus gives him three apples which Atalante picks up during the race, causing her to lose. H. fails to perform the thanks-offering; Venus en…

Taurokathapsia

(140 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ταυροκαθαψία/ Taurokathapsía: CIG 3212, Smyrna). From taúros ('bull') and katháptein ('hang on to'). A form of bull-fighting at the Eleutheria in Larisa [3] (IG IX 531; 535; 536), in which a rider swung himself on to the bull grabbing its horns and tried to throw it to the ground (as in Heliod. 10,28-30; cf. Anth. Pal. 9,543); a relief from Smyrna and coin images from Larisa have been preserved [1. 221-224]. In inscriptions, taurokathapsia is suggested for cities of the Greek East (Aphrodisias: CIG 2759b; Ancyra: CIG 4039; Sinope: CIG 4157); it is c…

Glaucus

(2,298 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Γλαῦκος; Glaûkos). The name means ‘glossy blue’, also ‘luminous’ [1];  Glauce: Hom. Il 16,34). [German version] [1] Sea demon A sea demon, into which a Boeotian fisherman from Anthedon was transformed after consuming a magical herb. The place of his jump into the sea after the transformation, Γλαύκου πήδημα ( Glaúkou pḗdēma, ‘Glaucus' jump’), was indicated (Paus. 9,22,6-7). Representations are known by Evanthes, Hedyle and Nicander (Ath. 7,295b-297c), by Callimachus (Suda s.v.), Q. Cornificius (Macrob. Sat. 6,5,13) and Cicero (Plut. Cic. 2,3,86…

Cecrops

(658 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Κέκροψ; Kékrops). Indigenous (Apollod. 3,177) Attic first king, who was revered cultically on the acropolis of  Athens, where his grave also lay (Antiochus-Pherecydes FGrH 333 F 1). The Cecropion (building inscription Erechtheion IG I3 474,56. 56-63) is presumably identical with the structure at the south-west corner of the Erechtheion, which was taken into consideration during the construction of the temple, and can be dated before the  Persian Wars (Hecatompedon inscription IG I3 4B, 10-11). An inscription of the Augustan period names a priest of …

Lycus

(2,142 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Λύκος; Lýkos). Mythology and religion: L. [1-9], historical persons: L. [10-13], rivers: L. [14-19]. [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno [1] (Ps.-Eratosth. Katasterismoi 23), only Apollod. 3,111 mentions his translation to the Islands of the Blessed, possibly to differentiate him from L. [6], with whom he is connected by Hyg. Fab. 31, 76 and 157 in spite of the descent from Poseidon. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Prometheus and Celaeno Son of Prometheus and Celaeno [1], on whose tomb in th…

Pandareus

(297 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πανδάρεος, -εως; Pandáreos, -eōs). Son of Merops [5], from a city named Miletus (schol. V Hom. Od. 19,518); according to Paus. 10,30,2, from Cretan Miletus [3]. His descent from Hermes and Merope (schol. B Hom. Od. 19,518) probably derives from the motif of theft: P. steals the golden hound posted by Zeus to guard his sanctuary in Crete and takes him to Tantalus for safekeeping; through Hermes, Zeus demands the hound back and has Tantalus killed by being cast from Mt. Sipylus for de…

Midas

(755 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Μίδας/ Mídas). [German version] I. Historical King of Phrygia, son of Gordius [1]. Assyrian sources document him as Mit-ta-a, ‘king of the land of Muski, ’ for 718-709 BC. In the epichoric inscriptions of Yazılıkaya (‘city of Midas’) the name M. is found in conjunction with the titles laagtei and anaktei. The name M. is more likely Old Anatolian than Phrygian. According to Assyrian sources M. conspired with the Luwian kings of Atuna (Tyana), Karkemiš, Gurgum and Malida against Sargon II, until he - snubbing Urarṭu and fearing the Cimmerians - placed hi…
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