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Metropolitan

(919 words)

Author(s): Schöllgen, Georg | Schneider, Johann
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Orthodox Canon Law I. Early Church The metropolitanate is an outgrowth of the emergence of synods, which in the late 2nd century slowly began to develop into the most important regional ecclesiastical authorities (see also Church polity: I, 3.a). As soon as synods began to assemble regularly on a provincial level (Ecclesiastical province), the bishop of the provincial capital acquired new authority, which increasingly became legally codified. At the beginning of the 4…

Pietismus

(3,072 words)

Author(s): Breul, Wolfgang | Waczkat, Andreas | Schneider, Johann
1. Evangelische Kirchen 1.1. Begriff und AbgrenzungDer aus dem lat. pietas (›Frömmigkeit‹) abgeleitete Begriff P. setzte sich seit der sog. Leipziger Bewegung um August Hermann Francke (1689/90) zur Bezeichnung der bedeutendsten religiösen Reformbewegung innerhalb des kontinentaleurop. Protestantismus nach der Reformation durch. Unter Aufnahme v. a. vorreformatorischer und radikaler Einflüsse des 16. und 17. Jh.s (Täufer; Spiritualisten) zielte der P. auf eine Weiterführung der Reformation der Lehre durch eine ›Reformation des Lebens‹.Trotz unterschiedlicher kon…
Date: 2019-11-19

Seelsorge

(3,694 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Möller, Christian | Schneider, Johann
1. EinleitungS. bezeichnet den Beistand kirchlicher Amtspersonen (Seelsorger) für Einzelne und Gruppen von Gläubigen in Fragen des Glaubens und der relig. Lebensgestaltung. In der Regula pastoralis (»Pastoralregel«, um 590) Papst Gregors I., der bis in die Nz. maßgeblichen S.-Anleitung, werden dafür die Begriffe cura pastoralis (lat.; »Hirtensorge«; davon engl. pastoral care, franz. la pastorale) und regimen animarum (»Seelenleitung«) verwendet. Das wörtliche lat. Äquivalent von S., cura animarum, begegnet erst im FrühMA und bestimmte von da an den kirchl. Spr…
Date: 2019-11-19

Pastoral care

(3,956 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Möller, Christian | Schneider, Johann
1. IntroductionPastoral care refers to the assistance church officials (pastors) provide for individuals and groups of the faithful in questions of faith and the religious conduct of life. The  Regula pastoralis (“Pastoral Rule,” c. 590) of Pope Gregory I, the normative guide to pastoral care well into the early modern period, uses the Latin terms  cura pastoralis (“pastoral care,” French  la pastorale) and regimen animarum (“guidance of souls”). The literal Latin equivalent of German Seelsorgecura animarum (“care/cure of souls”), does not occur until the earl…
Date: 2020-10-06

Pietism

(2,996 words)

Author(s): Breul, Wolfgang | Waczkat, Andreas | Schneider, Johann
1. Protestant churches 1.1. TerminologyThe term Pietism, from Latin  pietas (piety), came into use after the so-called Leipzig movement spearheaded by August Hermann Francke (1689/1690); it denoted the most significant religious reform movement within continental Protestantism after the Reformation. Adopting primarily pre-Reformation and radical 16th- and 17th-century ideas (Anabaptists; Spiritualism [Protestantism]), Pietism aimed to complement the reformation of doctrine with a “reformation of life.”Despite confessional, regional, and individual variati…
Date: 2020-10-06

Pfarramt

(1,951 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Weyel, Birgit | Oswalt, Julia | Schneider, Johann
1. Begriff und geschichtliche Entwicklung bis zum 15. Jh.P. bezeichnet zum einen das Amt des Pfarrers, zum anderen das Pfarrhaus als Verwaltungszentrum einer Pfarrei, die entweder die Gläubigen eines bestimmten Bezirks (Territorialgemeinde) oder einer bestimmten Gruppe (Personalgemeinde) umfasst (zur Etymologie der dt. Worte Pfarrei und Pfarrer vgl. [4. 153]).Die christl. Gemeinden der Antike, deren Territorium mit dem einer Stadt identisch war, wurden von einem Bischof unter Mithilfe weiterer Kleriker geleitet. Als das Christentum sich auch…
Date: 2019-11-19

Pastorate

(2,146 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Weyel, Birgit | Oswalt, Julia | Schneider, Johann
1. To the 15th centuryThe term “pastorate” in English refers to the office of pastor, but the German term Pfarramt encompasses in a kind of personal union both the pastorate and the  rectory or parish house as the administrative center of a parish, which comprises either the faithful within a specific area (territorial parish) or belonging to a specific group (personal parish). (On the etymology of the German words  Pfarrei, “parish,” and  Pfarrer, “pastor,” see [4. 153]).The Christian parish (Congregation) of Roman late antiquity, whose territory was coextens…
Date: 2020-10-06

Ordination and Post-Ordination Education and Training

(5,505 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Karl-Adolf | Rau, Stefan | Schneider, Johann | Pobee, John
[German Version] I. Early Church and Middle Ages – II. Protestantism (Germany) – III. Roman Catholic Church after Trent – IV. Orthodox Church – V. Non-Catholic Churches outside Germany I. Early Church and Middle Ages The New Testament contains scattered statements about the personal qualifications required of someone holding ministerial office in the church (e.g. 1 Tim 3:2–13; Tit 1:6–9) but says nothing about their training. Since the gospel implies understanding and address persons, the question of the theological education and…

Clothing and Vestments

(3,745 words)

Author(s): Berlejung, Angelika | Köpf, Ulrich | Allen Jr., Horrace T. | Schneider, Johann | Miletto, Gianfranco
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Christianity – III. Judaism I. Religious Studies 1. General Clothing fulfills the need for ornamentation and presentation, protection against the weather, and, in certain cases, magic. Appearance and materials follow climatic conditions, economic and technical capabilities (sewing, weaving, etc.), social or fashion conventions, and can be specified according to function (professional attire) or situation (festal attire). Clothing increases the complexity of the optical appearance of its ¶ wearer. It visualizes and makes m…

Piety

(3,477 words)

Author(s): Jödicke, Ansgar | Sparn, Walter | Koch, Traugott | Seiferlein, Alfred | Weismayer, Josef | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Piety (recently often also “spirituality”) is understood, first, as the forms of expression of lived religiosity; research in this area is particularly the subject of folklore studies and church history for the idividual, secondly, piety has to do with particular qualities of feeling, such as reverence, with which the psychology of religion (Gruehn, Sundén) is concerned. Objective and subjective components are combined in various ways in the historical developme…

Church Polity

(28,214 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich | Dingel, Irene | Ohst, Martin | Weitlauff, Manfred | Pirson, Dietrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Middle Ages – III. Reformation – IV. Modern Period – V. Present – VI. Practical Theology I. Early Church The church polity projected and in part realized in early Christianity is one of the most significant institutional inventions of Late Antiquity. Since it has survived into the present, with many modifications and variations, it also represents an element of continuity between the ancient world and the modern world. Church polity as used here means all the institutions affecting the external organization of early Ch…

Episcopal Titles

(878 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm | Ohme, Heinz | Müller, Ludger | Pree, Helmuth | Schima, Stefan | Et al.
[German Version] I. Auxiliary Bishop – II. Chorbishop – III. Regional Bishop – IV. Suffragan Bishop – V. Titular Bishop – VI. Vicar Bishop I. Auxiliary Bishop An auxiliary bishop is a bishop appointed at the request of a diocesan bishop to assist him in administration of the diocese. His rights, duties, and official functions are defined by canon law ( CIC cc. 403–411) and his letter of appointment. An auxiliary bishop is a member of the Bishops' Conference. Unlike a coadjutor, an auxiliary bishop does not have the right of succession. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography J. Listl, “Koadjutor-…

Clergy and Laity

(3,439 words)

Author(s): Neuner, Peter | Schneider, Johann | Winkler, Eberhard | Guder, Darrell | Denis, Philippe | Et al.
[German Version] I. European Christian Churches – II. Churches Worldwide – III. Islam I. European Christian Churches 1. Catholic Church A division of the church into clergy and laity does not coincide with New Testament evidence. The designation “laity” derives from laikós, the adjective form of λαός/ laós, “people.” In the Septuagint (LXX), this term describes the people of Israel in contrast to the (pagan) nations. In all important passages in the NT, it describes the people of God consisting of believers and dis…

Laity

(5,415 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Karrer, Leo | Schneider, Johann | Plasger, Georg | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Practical Theology – V. North America – VI. Missiology I. Religious Studies Generally speaking, the term laity (from Gk λαος/ laós, “people”) denotes adherents of a religious tradition who do not act as religious specialists or function within a defined socio-religious class (Priesthood, Monasticism). The use of the term is therefore inappropriate in religions without religious specialists, for example Islam. In some religions, the laity, who…
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