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Adeimantus

(325 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀδείμαντος; Adeímantos). [German version] [1] Corinthian (5 cent. BC) Corinthian, son of Ocytus, fled in a cowardly manner, according to Herodotus (8,94), in the war against Xerxes with the Corinthian contingent before the naval battle at  Salamis in 480 BC. In fact, he was probably supposed to guard an area apart from the scene of the battle, namely the western entrance to the gulf, and then became involved in the battle (cf. ML 24; Dio Chrys. 37,1…

Epicrates

(390 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἐπικράτης; Epikrátēs). [German version] [1] Democratic Athenian c. 400 BC Athenian who fought with the democrats against the oligarchy in 403 BC. In 397 he and  Cephalus advocated collaboration with Persia and a clean, quick break with Sparta, even at the risk of a new war (Hell. Oxy. 10, 1-2 Chambers). After Conon's victory in the Aegean in 394, he accompanied Phormisius to the Persian king as emissary of Athens. On his return he was accused of corruption but acquitted. In 392/1 he went to Sparta as an …

Lelantine War

(412 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] Modern term for a military dispute between the Euboean cities of Chalcis [1] and Eretria [1] over the Lelantine Plain (

Agesias

(150 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Ἀγησίας; Agēsías). [German version] [1] Seer and captain in the service of Hieron I of Syracuse (5th cent. BC) Son of Sostratus, stemming from one of the branches of the Jamides, who had migrated from Stymphalus (in Arcadia) to Syracuse and functioned in Olympia as priests of Zeus. Active as a seer a…

Aristocracy

(1,692 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Neumann, Hans (Berlin) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
The term aristocracy, when used for ancient societies, must be distinguished from the term aristocracy used in the Middle Ages and in modern times. The aristocracy of antiquity is lacking lordly property as the basis of rule over people who work the land, and also, in principle, an authority that can justify aristocratic status. Heredity and exclusive class thinking are especially weakly pronounced in the Greek areas, even if often through the handing down of property and personal connections, e…

Melanthius

(610 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Μελάνθιος/ Melánthios). [German version] [1] Treacherous goatherd of Odysseus (also Μελανθεύς/ Melantheús

Harmodius

(193 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Ἁρμόδιος; Harmódios). [German version] [1] Harmodius of Athens Tyrantmurderer, 514 BC …

Pyrilampes

(119 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Πυριλάμπης; Pyrilámpēs). Son of Antiphon from Athens, born c. 480 BC, was the second husband of Perictione, the mother of Plato [1], and hence his stepfather (Pl. Chrm. 158a). P. was considered a friend and follower of Pericles [1] (Plut. Pericles 13). In the 440s he travelled as ambassador e.g. to Pe…

Aristogiton

(407 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Ἀριστογείτων; Aristogeítōn). [German version] [1] Athenian 'Tyrant killer' (514 BC) A. and  Harmodius, both of the family of Gephyraei, plotted with others to kill the tyrant  Hippias and his brother  Hipparchus at the Panathenaic festival of 514 BC. The plot miscarried; only Hipparchus was assassinated, Hippias remained unharmed. His tyranny was only ended in 511/510 BC, with Sparta's military support. Harmodius was killed immediately after the assassination. A. was arrested, tortured and then executed …

Archias

(769 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Ἀρχίας; Archías). [German version] [1] Corinthian, founder of Syracuse 733 BC Son of Euagetes of Corinth, probably belonging to the family of the  Bacchiadae. He left Corinth f…

Cedon

(138 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Κήδων; Kḗdōn). [German version] [1] Athenian, attempted before 514 BC to topple the tyrannis of the Peisistratids Athenian, possibly of the  Alcmaeonid family, attempted in vain before 514 BC to topple the tyrannis of the  Peisistratids. This glorious deed was later commemorated at symposia with a  scolion (Aristot. Ath. pol. 20,5). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Col…

Alcmaeon

(821 words)

Author(s): Schachter, Albert (Montreal) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Bodnár, István (Budapest)
(Ἀλκμαίων; Alkmaíōn). [German version] [1] Figure of Greek myth: son of Amphiaraus Son of Amphiaraus and  Eriphyle (Apollod. 3,81; Hes. fr. 198 M-W, cf. 197; traditions, see [1; 2]). He avenged his father with his younger brother Amphilochus by murdering Eriphyle. A. went insane and wandered erratically through the Peloponnese and north-western Greece (Eur. TGF 65, 87). In Psophis he was healed by Phegeus, and married his daughter Arsinoe, to whom he gave Eriphyle's ill-fated necklace and veil. The land became infertile and he went to Achelous, in Psophis, to be purified by him. There he was married to Psophis' daughter Callirrhoe, who demanded the necklace and veil. He attempted by a trick to hold her back, was discovered and killed by Phegeus' sons (Apollod. 3,86-90; Paus. 8,24,7). In Corinth he had two children with  Manto, the daughter of Teiresias: Amphilochus and Tisiphone. Their foster mother, the wife of Creon, later sold the girl without his knowledge to her father. A. found Amphilochus again, the future founder of Amphilochian Argus (Apollod. 3,95). Associated with this is the story of how Diomedes …

Elpinice

(129 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἐλπινίκη; Elpiníkē). Daughter of Miltiades and sister or stepsister of  Cimon. A number of scandalous tales grew up around her. Intimations of an incestuous relationship with Cimon are already found in Eupolis (PCG, fr. 221). Another tradition assumes a legal marriage, which would have been entirely possible between stepsiblings; however, there is no doubt that E. was married to  Callias (Nep. Cimon 1). She was supposed to have had an affair with the painter  Polygnotus (Plut. Cim…

Alcmaeonids

(699 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἀλκμαιονίδαι; Alkmaionídai). Influential aristocratic family, which in archaic times and across several generations played a prominent role in the history of  Athens.  Megacles [1], the first verifiable A., defeated around 630 BC  Cylon's attempt to achieve the tyrannis. The killing of Cylon's supporters represented a sacral outrage ( Alcmaeonid curse), for which the entire family was sentenced a short while later by a special court and sent into exile (Hdt. 5,71; Thuc. 1,126; Plu…

Cleinias

(469 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Κλεινίας; Kleinías). [German version] [1] Friend of Solon, heard of the seisáchtheia in advance and was able to unjustly enrich himself One of  Solon's, friends, who heard of the   seisáchtheia

Dromocleides

(88 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Δρομοκλείδης; Dromokleides). [German version] [1] Athenian archon 475/4 BC Athenian archon 475/4 BC. (Diod. Sic. 11,50,1). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian demagogu…

Lycomidae

(193 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Λυκομίδαι; Lykomídai). Priestly family from Athens, responsible for a cult of Demeter. Pausanias (1,22,7; 9,30,12) reports of a hymn that can be read in the Pinakotheca at the entrance to the Acropolis which the L. sang in honour of the goddess. The L. had a sanctuary in Phlya in whi…

Cimon

(972 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Κίμων; Kímōn).…

Lycomedes

(382 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Λυκομήδης; Lykomḗdēs). [German version] [1] King of the Dolopes on Scyros King of the Dolopes on Scyros, father of Deidamia [1]. Because Achilles is predestined to die in Troy, his mother Thetis disguises him as a girl at the court of L. where Achilles fathers a son Neoptolemus by Deidamia (Apollod. 3,174; schol. Hom. Il. 9,668). Later Odysseus and Phoenix persuade L. on behalf of the Greeks to allow Neoptolemus to come to Troy (Soph. Phil. 343ff.; only Odysseus in Hom. Od. 11,506ff. and in The Ilias P…

Nicias

(1,775 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Νικίας; Nikías). [German version] [1] Important commander in the Peloponnesian War, c.470-413 BC Son of Niceratus of Athens, born c.470 BC, died 413; one of the most important commanders in the Peloponnesian War. After the death of Pericles, N. competed with Cleon [1] for influence in the popular assembly and the assignment of military commands. His policy was directed towards ending the aggressive Athenian politics of expansion and towards reconciliation with Sparta. From 427, N. was regularly elected stratēgós . He led expeditions against Minoa [4] (427) when it was besieging the coast of Megara [2], against Tanagra (426), C…
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