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Mons Melibocus

(91 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Μηλίβοκον ὄρος/ Mēlíbokon όros). According to Ptol. (2,11,7), the most northerly and important mountain range in Germania, which stretched over several degrees of longitude; the southern frontier of the Cherusci and the Chamavi. Its precise identification is disputed. Recently the Thuringian Forest and the Erzgebirge mountains have been put forwards. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography A. Franke, s.v. Melibocus mons, RE 15, 509  G.Chr. Hansen, in: J. Herrmann (ed.), Griechische und lateinische Quellen zur Frühgeschichte Mitteleuropas bis z…

Vacalus

(63 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (modern Waal). A slow-flowing (Tac. Ann. 2,6,3 f.) left bank distributary of the Rhenus [2] (modern Rhine); it incorporates the Mosa [1] (modern Maas) to form the Insula Batavorum (Caes. Gall. 4,10,2; Tac. Ann. 2,6: Vahalis; Serv. Aen. 8,727: Vahal) and the Rhenus Bicornis ('with two horns';  cf. Verg. Aen. 8,727). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography P. Goessler, s. v. V., RE 7 A, 2018-2024.

Colonia Ulpia Traiana

(399 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae Roman colony on the left side of the Lower Rhine, modern Xanten, on a low terrace between two Rhine branches in an area only suited to a limited extent for cultivation. While early signs of settlement from the 4th or 3rd cents. BC indicate no continuity with the Roman period, a favoured central location of the  Cugerni already arose there at the turn of the millennium because of the proximity of the legion camp of  Vetera. According to Tac. Hist. 4,22,1, the settlement was set up in the 60s of the 1st cent. AD ‘in the style of a   mu…

Nava

(222 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] A left hand tributary of the Rhine. It flows into the Rhine near Bingium (Auson. Mos. 1: ‘the rushing N.’), present-day Nahe. In early Roman times the Celtic Treveri tribe lived in the area of the N., where there is evidence of some oppida. Under Augustus the Germanic Vangiones were settled along the middle and lower N. The area was then added to the upper Germanic army district. The region by the upper reaches of the N. was part of Belgica. In the middle of the 5th cent. AD the Franci settled mainly in the lower valley of…

Mattiaci

(416 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] A tribe that settled in Wetterau and Taunus during the Imperial period. The Celtic name is associated with Mattium, the main city of the Chatti (cf. Ptol. 2,11,14: Ματτικόν; Mattikón). It is debated whether the M. were a sub-tribe of the Germanic Chatti which had already separated from them during the Augustan period, and settled in the above-mentioned area with Roman permission (for earlier research, cf. [1; 2. 52-57; 3]), or whether the M. are those mentioned as having defected because of the destruction of…

Laur(i)um

(131 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Station in the territory of the Batavi (Tab. Peut. 2,3) on one of two roads between Ulpia Noviomagus and Lugdunum Batavorum (modern Katwijk), modern Woerden. Roman finds from about 50 to the 3rd cent. AD, a fort only from the Flavian period onwards (AD 69-96). Initially garrison of the cohors XV voluntariorum, after the middle of the 2nd cent. AD of the cohors III Breucorum. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography H. Schönberger, Die röm. Truppenlager der frühen und mittleren Kaiserzeit zw. Nordsee und Inn, in: BRGK 66, 1985, 439 B 6 J. K. Haalebos, Ausgrabungen in Woer…

Rigodulum

(115 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Town located on the right shore of the Mosella, present-day Riol; its name is Celtic. In AD 70, during the Batavian Revolt, it was the location of the battle between the entrenched Treveri under Iulius [II 43] Civilis and the Romans who had been brought there from Mogontiacum (Mainz) by Petilius [II 1] Cerialis. During this battle, the most prominent of the Belgae were taken prisoner by the Romans (cf. Tac. Hist. 4,71,4 f.). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. Keune, s. v. R., RE 1 A, 803 f.  H. Heubner, P. Co…

Tabernae

(247 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] Township in the territory of the Nemetes Township in the territory of the Nemetes on the Roman road on the west bank of the Rhenus [2] (It. Ant. 355; Amm. 16,2,12; Not. Dign. Occ. 41,16; Tab. Peut. 3,3), modern Rheinzabern. There is evidence  of brickworks of the legions of upper Germania from about AD 45 until c. AD 80; a fort, however, is not certain. After the withdrawal of the military brickworks, everyday and fine ceramics were made there for civilian needs. In about the middle of the 2nd cent. AD, a factory was developed for t…

Kastel

(469 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Roman fort and vicus called Castellum Mattiacorum on the right bank of the Rhine, in the region of the Mattiaci, today Mainz-Kastel. A bridgehead of timber and earth had probably safeguarded the Rhine crossing from the time of Augustus. No later than the time of Tiberius (AD 14-37) a bridge on wooden piles spanned the river here ( c. 700 metres long). Its conversion to a stone bridge had perhaps already begun in the time of Claudius and Nero (AD 41-68). The military complex was probably destroyed in the year of four emperors (AD 69), but…

Marsigni

(61 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] German tribe settling ‘in the back of’, i.e. to the north or north-east of the Marcomanni and Quadi (Tac. Germ. 43,1). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography E. Schwarz, Germanische Stammeskunde, 1956, 164 G. Perl, Tacitus, Germania, in: J. Herrmann (Ed.), Griechische und lateinische Quellen zur Frühgeschichte Mitteleuropas bis zur Mitte des 1. Jahrtausends unserer Zeitrechnung, part 2, 1990, 245.

Segni

(78 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic people, mentioned only by Caesar (Caes. Gall. 6,32,1 f.) together with the Condrusi, between the Treveri and the Eburones, who assured him by means of an embassy in 53 BC, that they would not make common cause with the Germani on the left bank of the Rhine. Their presumed place of settlement was in the Luxemburgish and Belgian Ardennes. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. B. Keune, s. v. S., RE 2 A, 1075 f.  Ch.B. Rüger, Germania inferior, 1968, 35 f.

Kalkriese

(495 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Kalkriese In the course of systematic archaeological investigations since 1987 in K. near Bramsche, district of Osnabrück, several Roman period finds have come to light, attesting to an extensive battleground between the Romans and the Germani (see illustration). By the end of 1997, a total of almost 3,000 objects had been recovered, among them some 1,300 coins and 1,600 ‘militaria’ in the broadest sense attributable to the Romans. In addition t…

Teutoni

(592 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe, settled, according to Pytheas [4] (Plin. HN 37,35) on the western coast of Jutland, probably neighbouring the Cimbri (= C.), in conjunction with whom they are often named (cf. Vell. Pat. 2,8), most scholars (cf. e.g. [1. 232 note 71]) therefore supposing that the two tribes migrated southwards together to the Danube (Ister, Istrus [1]), to Noricum (victory over Papirius [I 8] Carbo at Noreia in 113 BC) and thence through the region of the Helvetii to Gaul (Gallia).…

Lopodunum

(464 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] modern Ladenburg in the lower reaches of the Nicer (Neckar). The Celtic place name, earlier also interpreted as ‘stronghold of Lo(u)pos’, means something like ‘swamp fortress’ [1]. Few archaeological traces of the former Celtic population are preserved. From about the Tiberian period (AD 14-37), Suebi from the Germanic Elbe area settled in the region of the lower river. It is assumed that the Romans themselves settled them, or at least tolerated their settlement, in order to secure the territory on the eas…

Lesura

(92 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Left-hand tributary of the Moselle (Auson. Mos. 365), which flows into the Moselle near Bernkastel, modern Lieser. L. or Lesora is the name of a mountain in the Cevennes, modern Lozère (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 24,44; cf. Plin. HN 11, 240), Lesuros (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 48) a river on the east coast of Spain. There is also a Lieser in Carinthia (Austria). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography F. Cramer, s.v. L., RE 12, 2138 L. Weisgerber, Erläuterungen zur Karte der römerzeitlich bezeugten rheinischen Namen, in: Rheinische Vierteljahresblätter 23, 1958, 15.

Iuliacum

(169 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Roman posting station (It. Ant. 375,8; 378,7; Tab. Peut. 2,5) in Germania inferior on the road from Cologne to Tongeren at the crossing of the Rur, the modern Jülich. Epigraphically attested is [vic]ani [Iuliac]enses on the base of a Jupiter column from the early 2nd cent. AD [1. 195 no. 196]. Bricks of the legio VI Victrix, a dedication by one of its soldiers (CIL XIII 7869), and a funerary relief confirm the presence of the military. I. was the central place of a fertile settlement landscape with many villae rusticae. In the early 4th cent., I. was fortified with a …

Saxones

(589 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Σάξονες/ Sáxones, the Saxons). Association of Germanic tribes, first mentioned at Ptol. 2,11,11. According to him, they settled in Holstein to the northeast of the lower Elbe; in the west their territory bordered the sea (Ptol. 2,11,31: three Saxon islands). Presumably the S. originated from the Reudigni and the Aviones (Tac. Germ. 40,2) [1]. They may have become known to the Romans earlier, possibly in 5 AD when a fleet sailed to the Cimbrian peninsula, yet Tacitus does not menti…

Cugerni

(311 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (Cuberni). Presumably a part of a tribe, certainly one of the groups succeeding the  Sugambri resettled by the Romans in 8 BC on the lefthand side of the Rhine (on the motives [1]). According to Pliny (HN 4,106: Cuberni) they lived between the  Ubii in the south and the  Batavi in the north and probably already created in the 1st cent. AD a   civitas based on peregrine law. On the basis of an extant fragmentary inscription (AE 1981, 690 = AE 1984, 650) from AD 68, Cib[ernodurum] was developed close to the later  Colonia Ulpi…

Vetera

(975 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Legio | Legio | Limes | Limes | Batavian Revolt Roman camp on the Rhine at the 60th milestone downstream from Colonia Agrippinensis (modern Cologne; Tac. Ann. 1,45,1) between the modern towns of Birten and Xanten. The camp originated from the early Imperial period. The name, probably indigenous, refers to an archaeologically unattested earlier settlement nearby (cf. Tac. Hist. 4,18,3: castra quibus Veterum nomen est, 'camp with the name V.', quite often in accounts of the Batavian Revolt; Ptol.…

Sitones

(65 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] People neighbouring the Suiones, ruled at the time of Tacitus (Tac. Germ. 45,6) by a woman. Their area of settlement cannot be ascertained, possibly in modern Finland. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography A. A. Lund (ed.), P. Cornelius Tacitus, Germania, 1988, 237 f.  G. Perl, Tacitus, Germania, in: J. Herrmann (ed.), Griechische und lateinische Quellen zur Frühgeschichte Mitteleuropas ..., vol. 2, 1990, 257 f.  J. B. Rives, Tacitus, Germania, 1999, 321.
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