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Nicaea

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νίκαια; Níkaia). [German version] [1] Naiad Naiad, daughter of the Phrygian river god Sangarius and the goddess Cybele. As a huntress, N. spurns love and remains a virgin. In Memnon of Heracleia, she does not yield to Dionysus and so he resorts to a ruse and turns into wine the spring from which N. is accustomed to drinking. She becomes drunk and falls asleep. Dionysus overpowers her in her sleep and fathers with her 'satyrs and others' (Memnon FGrH 434 F 41, 8f.). In Nonnus, Dion. 15,169-16,405, the…

Colchi

(68 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with Trading city on the south-eastern coast of India, situated opposite  Taprobane (Ptol. 7,1,10; 7,1,95: Kolchikòs kólpos). Peripl. m. r. 58f. made reference to the fact that the coast of  Komarei up to and including C. was important for pearl fishing. C. was probably the city today known as Koṟkai. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Indo-Greeks

(114 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] The Greeks of Hellenistic Bactria ( Graeco-Bactria), who conquered southeastern Afghanistan (Paropamisadae and Arachosia) and northwestern India (modern Pakistan) in the 2nd cent. BC. After the first and most important kings ( Demetrius [10] and Menander) the kingdom disintegrated into several parts whose numerous rulers (almost 40) are mostly attested only by coins. The I. held on until the 1st cent. BC or even the 1st cent. AD, when territories were conquered by the  Parthians a…

Euthydemus

(540 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Cassin, Barbara (Paris) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Εὐθύδημος; Euthýdemos). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos 418/7 BC Athenian strategos of 418/17 BC. He took part in the Sicilian campaign, during which in 414/13 both he and Menander became commanders to serve alongside Nicias. They were defeated before  Demosthenes [1] even arrived. They failed in their attempt to force their departure out of Syracuse's great harbour (Thuc. 7,16,1; 69,4; Diod. Sic. 13,13,2-4; Plut. Nicias 20). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography D. Kagan, The Peace of Nicias and the Sicilian Expedition, 1981. [German version] [2] E. I. Greek ki…

Maesolus

(94 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Μαισῶλος; Maisôlos). Indian river, has its source in the Orudia mountain range (unclear according to [1]) and flows south to the Gulf of the Ganges (Ptol. 7,1,15; 37). Either modern Godavari or rather Kistna (Krishna) at whose delta the city of Masulipatam still lies today. Dey [2] also equates the name of the river M. with Old Indian Mahāósāla, a place of pilgrimage on the Godavari. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 O. Stein, s.v. Ὀρούδια, RE 18, 1526f. 2 N. L. Dey, The Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Mediaeval India, 1927.

Cabura

(62 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Κάβουρα, Ptol. 6,18,5, erroneously there also Károura), also called Ortospana; probably what is now Kabul on the  Cophen (Sanskrit Kubhā). In the Alexander histories, C. is never mentioned; following the  Bematistai however it is cited by Plin. HN 6,61 as Ortospanum. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s.v. Kabura, RE 10, 1452f. O. Stein, s.v. Ortospanum, RE 18, 1507f.

Maesolia

(73 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Μαισωλία; Maisōlía, Ptol. 7,1,15; Masalia, Peripl. m.r. 62); the land of the Maesolians (Ptol. 7,1,79; 93) on the east coast of India. For the name and the position see Maesolus. From an unnamed harbour there, the ships departed, according to Ptolemy, for Chryse Chersonesus (Malacca). Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 B. Chatterjee, The Point of Departure for Ships Bound for ‘Suvarnabhumi’, in: Journ. of Ancient Indian History 11, 1977-1978, 49-52.

Iabadiou

(61 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ἰαβαδίου; Iabadíou; Old Indic Yavadvīpa, modern Java or Sumatra). Large island in south-east Asia (Ptol. 7,2,29). The identification is still disputed but Ptolemy knew that the name meant ‘Island of Barley’ (Old Indic, yava, barley). Supposedly it was rich in gold and its capital was called Argyre. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography A. Herrmann, s.v. I. nesos, RE 9, 1175-77.

Hydraotes

(74 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ὑδραώτης/ Hydraṓtēs in Arr., Ὑάρωτις/ Hyárōtis in Str., Hiarotis in Curt. is based on a Middle Indian form for Old Indian Airāvatī/Irāwatī, probably passed down through Iranian and following Greek ὕδωρ/ hýdōr); one of the main rivers of the Punjab, modern Rāvī in Pakistan; originates in the western Himalayas, flows into the  Acesines [2] (Chenāb) and became known to the Greeks through Alexander's campaign. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography E. Kiessling, s.v. Hyarotis, RE 9, 23f.

Lambagae

(44 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] According to Ptol. 7,1,42, a people of north-western India, in the east of modern Afghanistan; Old Indian Lampāka. Its name is preserved in the modern Lamghan; several fragments of Aramaic inscriptions of king Aśoka were discovered there. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Abastani

(87 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ἀβαστάνοι; Abastánoi), also Abastanes. Indian people (Arr. Anab. 6,15,1), called ‘Sambastai’ at Diod. Sic. 17,102,1, ‘Sabarcae’ at Curt. 9,8,4-7, settled near the confluence of the  Acesines and the Indus rivers and were neighbours of the  Malli. Described as a warlike, yet democratic people, conquered by Perdiccas. Probably for Old Indian Ambaṣṭha (see [1. 87 f.]), a western people mentioned in the Aitareyabrāhmaṇa and in the Puranic̣ ethnic lists. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 P. H. L. Eggermont, Alexander's campaign in Southern Punja…

Arikamedu

(134 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Virapatnam). Village and archaeological site on the east coast of southern India, in the south of Pondicherry, the Podouke of Peripl. M. Rubr. and Ptol.; finds in A. created the basis for a chronology for southern Indian archaeology and also produced the first archaeological evidence of trading between the Romans and the Indians [1]. Roman coins and amphorae [2. 151 ff.] and terra sigillata [2. 134 ff.] dating from the first half of the 1st cent. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 J. M. Casal, G…

Nanaguna

(43 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ναναγούνας; Nanagoúnas). River in western India, rising in the Vindhya mountains (Οὐίνδιον; Ouíndion). Ptol. 7,1,32 (also 7,1,7 and 66). Perhaps modern Tapti. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography O. Stein, s.v. Ναναγούνας, RE 16, 1672f.  F.F. Schwarz, s.v. N., KlP 3, 1565.

Lysias

(2,221 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Λυσίας; Lysías). [German version] [1] Attic logographos, 5th/4th cent. BC Attic logographos , 459/8 or c. 445 to c. 380 BC Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] A. Life The main biographical facts can be gathered from L.'s speeches (esp. or. 12), from which the later vitae (Dion. Hal. de Lysia; Ps.-Plut. Mor. 835c ff.) and Byzantine learning (Phot. Bibl. 262; Suda s.v. L.) drew partly. Born probably around 445, L. left Athens at the age of 15 and together with his older brother Polemarchus settled in the Panhellenic colony o…

Tagara

(57 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Ταγάρα: Peripl. m. r. 51, Τάγαρα: Ptol. 7,1,82). Inland city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, modern Ter, where excavations have found e.g. lamps of an Hellenistic type. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography H. P. Ray, Monastery and Guild. Commerce under the Sātavāhanas, 1986, 69 f.

Carura

(190 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(τὰ Κάρουρα; tà Károura). [German version] [1] City in SW Asia Minor Town in south-western Asia Minor on the upper course of the  Maeander at the border between Caria and Phrygia (Str. 12,8,17; 14,2,29), near the modern Sarayköy. Thanks to its hot springs, C. was an ancient health resort; a medical school (in the tradition of  Herophilus [1]) was based near the sanctuary of Men Karu (Str. 12,8,20), halfway between C. and Laodicea [4] (2nd/1st cents. BC). Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) Bibliography Miller, 726 W. M. Ramsay, The Historical Geography of Asia Minor, 1890, 49 Ramsay 1, 164; 16…

Mauryas

(344 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Members of an Indian dynasty founded at the end of the 4th century BC by Chandragupta Maurya ( Sandracottus), whose territory soon included all of North India (see map). A military campaign by Seleucus I, who wanted to reconquer Alexander [4] the Great's Indian conquests, failed; in a treaty Chandragupta was granted all southeastern satrapies (including Arachosia) and Seleucus received 500 war elephants in exchange. Seleucus's emissary to Chandragupta was Megasthenes, whose Indiká (FGrH 715), preserved in countless fragments, became the standard work …

Indian Ocean

(184 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] The modern Indian Ocean (IO) was mostly known to the Greeks as   Erythrá thálatta [1] which actually only referred to the western part. With the increase in geographical knowledge, Erythrá thálatta was also used for the entire ocean (e.g. Peripl. m.r.) that was otherwise called the Indian Sea (Ἰνδικὸν πέλαγος/ Indikòn pélagos, Ptol. 7,1,1; 7,2,1) or IO (Ἰνδικὸς ὠκεανός/ Indikòs ṓkeanós, Agathemerus 2,4; Oceanus Indicus, Mela 1,9, Sen. Q Nat. 4,2,4). With the large gulfs (Sinus Gangeticus, Sabaracus and Perimulicus) it formed the southern bounda…

Epander Nicephorus

(31 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ἔπανδρος Νικηφόρος; Épandros Nikēphóros) Indo-Greek king in the 1st cent. BC. He is documented only by his coins (Middle-Indian Epadra). Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography Bopearachchi 103, 305f.

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…
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