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Luke, Gospel of

(1,234 words)

Author(s): Bovon, François
1. Author As the language of the Gospel of Luke indicates, its author came from educated pagan circles, probably in the North Aegean. At the time of writing he had become a Christian and belonged to a group of missionaries a generation after the death of Peter and Paul. His work, which may date to about 80–90, is evidently that of a historian of the day (Historiography 2), a convert (Conversion 1) anxious to defend the faith, and an evangelist with a zeal to impart it. The author aimed his work at…

Ascension of Christ

(782 words)

Author(s): Bovon, François
1. Luke is the only NT author to tell the story of the ascension (which is mentioned in Barn.  15:9 and Gos. Pet.  9:35–42, as well as in the Old Latin codex Bobiensis [MS k] at the beginning of Mark 16:4). There are two short accounts, whose surprising differences can be explained by their respective literary functions. The first account, at the end of Luke (24:50–53), focuses on Jesus blessing his disciples (note the repetitions in vv. 50 and 51) and parting from them at the end of his life. The disciples, who feel protected, fall down before the risen Lord in worship …

Acts of Andrew

(167 words)

Author(s): Bovon, François
[German Version] ( Acts And.). The Acts of Andrew recounts the missionary journeys of the apostle Andrew from Pontus to Achaia. The theme of his preaching, which is accompanied by healings and exorcisms, is a world-denying and ascetic form of Christianity. His conversion of Maximilla, the wife of the Roman governor Aegeas, enrages the latter. Facing crucifixion at Patras, he sings the praises …

Apocryphal Acts

(893 words)

Author(s): Bovon, François
[German Version] I. Form and Genre – II. Literature I. Form and Genre In terms of form the Apocryphal Acts (AA) resemble the canonical Gospels, especially John, rather than the Acts of the Apostles. Like Jesus in the Gospels, the respective apostle introduces himself as a mediator of divine revelation. At the end of his ministry, like Jesus, he endures martyrdom (crucifixion for Andrew, Peter and P…

Hebrews, Gospel of the

(307 words)

Author(s): Bovon, François
[German Version] A Gospel of the Hebrews is mentioned by Papias (Eus. Hist. eccl. III 39.17) and Hegesippus (Eus. Hist. eccl. IV 22.8) and is cited by representatives of the Alexandrian school, Clement ( Stromata, II 9.45; IV 14.96), Origen ( Comm. Jo. II 12; Hom. Jer. XV 4), and Didymus ( Comm. Ps. 33 [34].1). It is the document of a Jewish Christian community, probably from Egypt. It must be differentiated from both the Gospel of the Egyptians and the Gospel of the Ebionites (Ebionites, Gospel of the). Jerome frequently cites a Gospel of the Hebrews read by the Nazoreans, a Jewish-Christ…


(2,145 words)

Author(s): Klauck, Hans-Josef | Satran, David | Bovon, François | Attridge, Harold W.
[German Version] I. Terminology – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament– IV. New Testament Apocrypha from Nag Hammadi I. Terminology Etymologically, “apocryphal” means “hidden, secret,” while “pseudepigraphal” indicates that a document has been falsely attributed to an author. In the modern period, the usage of both terms has been burdened by confessional preconceptions, since the extent of the canon (Bib…