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Khomyakov, Aleksey Stepanovich

(471 words)

Author(s): George, Martin
[German Version] (May 13, 1804, Moscow – Oct 5, 1860, Ternovskoe, Kazanʾ), was a Slavophile philosopher of history and a lay theologian who exerted considerable influence on the Russian spiritual life of the 19th century through his conception of the unity of the church; the after-effects of his ideas in the Russian philosophy of religion also had an impact on the early ecumenical movement in the 20th century. After studying mathematics as well as natural sciences, philosophy, history, and theolog…

Solovyov, Vladimir Sergeyevich

(894 words)

Author(s): George, Martin
[German Version] ( Jan 16/28, 1853, Moscow – Jul 31/Aug 13, 1900, Uzkoe, near Moscow), mystic, poet, pamphleteer, and theologian; still the most significant religious philosopher produced by Russia. Growing up in a devout and cultured family, Solovyov began to engage in ascetic exercises while still a child. He studied the natural sciences in Moscow from 1869 to 1872. His personal involvement with the philosophy of Plato, B. Spinoza, F.W.J. Schelling, A. Schopenhauer, and E. v. Hartmann brought hi…

Kireyevsky, Ivan Vasilyevich

(422 words)

Author(s): George, Martin
[German Version] (Mar 22, 1806, Moscow – Jun 11, 1856, St. Petersburg), literary critic, journalist, and philosopher, and together with A. Khomyakov the founder of the Russian Slavophiles. He was also a European thinker who wished to overcome the tensions between Russia and Europe as well as the antagonism between reason and faith in Western and Eastern Europe by reclaiming and spreading the synthesis of the Greek church fathers. After studying literature and philosophy in Moscow and under G. Hegel, F.D.E. Schleiermacher, and F. Schelling in 1831, he founded the journal Evropeec in or…

Zenkovsky, Vasily Vasilyevich

(181 words)

Author(s): George, Martin
[German Version] (Jul 4/17, 1881, Proskurov [today Khmelnytskyi], Ukraine – Aug 5, 1962, Paris), Orthodox philosopher, theologian, psychologist, and journalist. Appointed professor of psychology at the University of Kiev, upon emigrating in 1920 he became professor of philosophy in Belgrade; after 1926 he taught at the Russian Orthodox Institut St. Serge in Paris. His history of Russian philosophy is still the richest and most subtle study of Russian philosophy from the 18th century to 1950, espec…


(2,868 words)

Author(s): Klauck, Hans-Josef | Leppin, Volker | George, Martin | Sparn, Walter
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Church History – III. Theology I. New Testament 1. The term ἀντίχριστος appears in Christian literature only in 1 John 2:18, 22; 4:3; 2 John 7, and, dependent on these texts, Pol. Phil 7:1. There it refers to someone who turns against Christ and the confession of Christ, not – as would be linguistically possible – someone who seeks to take the place of Christ; in context, it refers to theological opponents collectively. …


(13,709 words)

Author(s): Sundermeier, Theo | Frankemölle, Hubert | Feldtkeller, Andreas | Collet, Giancarlo | George, Martin | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Christianity – III. Judaism – IV. Buddhism – V. Islam I. Religious Studies 1. Overview. Mission is not a fundamentally universal phenomenon in the history of religions; neither is every form in which religion is passed on eo ipso mission. “Primary,” tribal religions are not missionary religions. Their domain is coterminous with their society and its way of life; they are handed down from one generation to the next in the course of natural life. The question of truth does not arise. An indivi…

Human Beings

(18,165 words)

Author(s): Gregersen, Niels H. | Grünschloß, Andreas | Figal, Günter | Janowski, Bernd | Lichtenberger, Hermann | Et al.
[German Version] I. Natural Sciences and Psychology – II. Religious Studies – III. Philosophy – IV. Old Testament – V. New Testament – VI. Church History – VII. Dogmatics and Ethics – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam I. Natural Sciences and Psychology 1. Evolution From the perspective of the natural sciences, the theory of evolution offers the most comprehensive framework for understanding human beings. It views the human species as a late product of a biogenetic process that began with the origin of life (VI) on earth some 3.8 billion …