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Europe

(982 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Εὐρώπη). [English version] [1] geographischer Begriff Urspr. der myth. Frauengestalt vorbehalten (E. [2]; vgl. Hes. theog. 357, 359), bezeichnete E. als geogr. Begriff anfangs Mittelgriechenland (vgl. Hom. h. ad Apollinem 251, 291) und den thrak.-maked. Norden (vgl. Hdt. 6,43; 7,8) in Absetzung zur Peloponnesos im Süden, den ion. Inseln im Westen und den ägäischen Inseln sowie zu der durch Aigaion Pelagos, Hellespontos, Propontis, Bosporos und Pontos Euxeinos abgeschiedenen asiat. Landmasse. Mit der im Verlauf der “Großen Kolonisation” wachsenden Kenntnis des Pontos Euxeinos als einer im Osten geschlossenen See (anders noch Mimnermos im 7. Jh.; vgl. Strab. 1,2,40) gestaltete sich die Abgrenzung von E. (immer häufiger stellvertretend für alles Land außerhalb von Asia gebraucht, vgl. Hekat. bei Hdt. 4,36) gegen Asia problematisch; denn nicht eindeutig setzten sich hier die beiden Bereiche gegeneinander ab: Die Ostgrenze von E. hat man im Tanais (Hdt. 4,45,2; Strab. 1,4,7; 7,4,5; 11,1,1), in der Maiotis (Hdt. 4,45,2; Strab. 7,4,5), im Kimmerischen Bosporos (vgl. Hekat. FGrH 1 F 212; Hdt. 4,45,2; Strab. 7,4,5; Aisch. Prom. 733-735, 790), im Phasis (Hdt. 4,45,2), im Kaukasos zw. Pontos Euxeinos und Kaspia Thalatta (Strab. 1,4,7), im Araxes (Hdt. 4,40) und in der Kaspia Thalatta (Hdt. 4,40) gesehen. Während sich die Abgrenzung von E. im Süden gegenüber Libye - teils zu Asia (Agathemeros 2,2; Sall. Iug. 17; Lucan. 9,411), teils aber auch zu E. (Sil.…

Hekabe

(679 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Ἑκάβη, lat. Hecuba). Gattin des troianischen Königs Priamos, Mutter zahlreicher Kinder (Hom. Il. 24,496; Eur. Hec. 421), unter ihnen Hektor, Paris/Alexandros, Kassandra, Polyxene …

Oreithyia

(220 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Ὠρείθυια). Bei Homer (Il. 18,48) als Nereide erwähnt, nicht jedoch im Nereidenkatalog des Hesiod (theog. 240ff., Apollod. 1,11f.). Ihr Name (“im Gebirge stürmend”) weist sie eher als “Windsbraut” aus. In die attische Myth. wird sie als Tochter des att. Königs Erechtheus und der Praxithea eingebaut. O. wird vom Windgott Boreas nach T…

Kreusa

(222 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Κρέουσα, lat. Creusa). [English version] [1] Tochter der Gaia und des Okeanos Tochter der Gaia und des Okeanos, die dem Flußgott Peneios Hypseus und Stilbe gebiert (Pind. P. 9,14f.; Diod. 4,69). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [English version] [2] Jüngste Tochter des Erechtheus Jüngste Tochter des Erechtheus und der Praxithea. Apollon zeugt mit ihr Ion [1], den sie aussetzt und den Hermes nach Delphi bringt. K. heiratet Xuthos (Hes. fr. nova 10a 20ff.), der nach Erechtheus' Tod König von Athen wird. Bei einer Befragung des delph. Orak…

Penelope

(1,002 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Πηνελόπη, homer.: Πηνελόπεια, lat. Penelope, Penelopa). Gattin des Odysseus. Seit der Ant. existieren zwei Deutungen ihres Namens. Nach der einen bedeutet P. “Weberin”, was auf die in der ‘Odyssee so…

Ismene

(202 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἰσμήνη). [English version] [1] theban. Heroine Theban. Heroine, die sich wegen ihrer Liebesbeziehung zu Periklymenos den Zorn der Athene zuzieht und von Tydeus getötet wird (Mimn. fr. 21 IEG; Pherekydes F…

Myrrha

(186 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Μύρρα). Tochter des kyprischen Königs Kinyras und der Kenchreis oder des assyrischen Königs Theias. Götterzo…

Rhoio

(132 words)

Deianeira

(371 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Δηιάνειρα). Mythische Tochter des Königs Oineus von Kalydon (Soph. Trach. 6f.) oder des Dionysos (Apollod. 1,64; Hyg. fab. 129) und der Althaia. D. behielt nach dem Tod ihres Bruders Meleagros, anders als ihre Schwestern, ihre menschliche Gestalt (Ov. met. 8,542ff.; Ant. Lib. 2 nach Nikander; Hyg. fab. 174). Der Flußgott Acheloos warb um sie, später kam auch Herakles als Freier hinzu, der Meleagros D. rühmen gehört hatte (Pind. fr. 249aSM; Bakchyl. 5,165ff. SM). Herakles besiegte Acheloos, der sich mehrfach verwandelt hatte (Archil. fr. 286ff. W; Soph. Trach. 9ff.; Diod. 4,35,3f.; Ov. met. 9,8ff; epist. 9,139f.; Sen. Herc. Oet. 495ff.; Apollod. 2,148; Hyg. fab. 31). Unter den Kindern des Paares sind Hyllos und Makaria am bekanntesten. Nach der Hochzeit siedelte das Paar in Herakles' Heimat Trachis über. An einem Fluß übergab Herakles D. dem Kentauren Nessos, der sie hinübertragen sollte. Als dieser sich an ihr vergreifen wollte, tötete ihn Herakles mit einem Giftpfeil. Sterbend riet Nessos der Braut, sein Blut als Liebeszauber aufzubewahren (Soph. Trach. 555f.; Ov. met. 9,101ff.; epist. 9,141f.; 161ff.; Sen. Herc. Oet. 500ff.; Hyg. fab. 34; etwas anders Archil. fr. 286ff. W; Diod. 4,36,2ff.). Das Paar zog weiter nach Trachis (Soph. Trach. 38ff.), von wo aus Herakles die Dryoper besiegte, wobei D. mitkämpfte (Apollod. 1,64; 2,153). Später eroberte er Oichalia und verliebte sich in die gefangene Königstochter Iole, die er nach Trachis mitnahm. D. geriet in Angst, Herakles an Iole zu verlieren, und bestrich das für Herakles bestimmte Opfergewand mit dem Blut des Nessos. Als Herakles es anzog, zerfraß ihn das Gift langsam, so daß er sich zur Selbstverbrennung entschloß. D. beging daraufhin Selbstmord (Hes. fr. 25,14ff. MW; Bakchyl. 16,23ff. SM; Diod. …

Andromeda

(173 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Ἀνδρομέδα). Tochter des Kepheus, des Königs der Kephenen oder Aithiopen, und der Kassiepeia (Apollod. 2,43), die sich rühmte, so schön wie die Nereiden zu sein. Darauf schickt der erzürnte Poseidon dem Land Hochwasser und ein Seeungeheuer. Ein Orakel verheißt Befreiung von der Plage, wenn A. dem Ungeheuer preisgegben werde. Kepheus läßt A. am Strand an einen Felsen binden, wo Perseus sie auf dem Rückflug vom Gorgonenabenteuer erblickt. Nach ihrem Versprechen, mit ihm zu ziehen, …

Andromache

(216 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Ἀνδρομάχη). Tochter des Königs Eetion im hypoplakischen Theben, Gemahlin Hektors, Mutter des Astyanax-Skamandrios (Hom. Il. 6,395 ff.). Bei ihrer Hochzeit (Sappho fr. 44 Voigt) beschenkt Aphrodite sie (Hom. Il. 22,470). A. ist Hektor zärtlich zugetan, vor allem nach dem Tod ihrer Familie (Hom. Il. 6,370 ff.). Ihre Klage um den gefallenen Gatten ist eindrücklich (Hom. Il. 22,477 ff.; 24,723 ff.). Ihr Sohn wird nach der Eroberung Trojas ermordet (Iliupersis arg. fr. 5 PEG; Eur. Tr…

Praxithea

(230 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Πραξιθέα). [English version] [1] Gattin des Erechtheus Tochter oder Enkelin des Kephisos, die einerseits als Gattin des Erechtheus (Demaratos FGrH 42 F 4) und Mutter mehrerer Kinder (darunter Kreusa [2], Oreithyia, Prokris), andererseits als Gattin des Erichthonios [1] und Mutter des Pandion [1] (Apollod. 3,190; Φρασιθέα Tzetz. chil. 1,174) erscheint. Nach einem Orakel kann Erechtheus den Krieg gegen Eumolpos nur nach der Opferung einer Tochter gewinnen. Euripides läßt in seinem ‘Erechtheus P. die Entscheidung zur Opferung der Tochter ausführlich begründen, die beiden Schwestern der Todgeweihten folgen ihr freiwillig nac…

Helene

(1,204 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Hoesch, Nicola (München) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ἑλένη, Helena). [English version] [1] schöne Gattin des Menelaos Göttin, die an verschiedenen Kultplätzen in und um Sparta verehrt wurde, vor allem im Menelaion in Therapne (Hdt. 6,61; Paus. 3,15,3; Hesych. s.v. Ἑλένεια, [1]). Auf Rhodos hatte sie einen Kult als H. Dendritis (Paus. 3,19,10), in Kenchreai und auf Chios ist sie als Quellgottheit belegt (Paus. 2,2,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἑλένη). Für ihren Namen gibt es keine vollständig gesicherte Etym. [2. 63-80]. Zu den Zeugnissen über ihren Kult in histor. …

Hesione

(199 words)

Pandora

(513 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Πανδώρα). Ihr Name (“die alles Gebende”) wird als Epiklese chthonischer Gottheiten wie Gaia und Hekate verwendet (Orph. Arg. 974ff.; schol. Aristoph. Av. 971), ohne daß sich aus den überl. Mythenversionen eine klare Entwicklungslinie der Figur der P. ablesen läßt, die die Verbindung mit diesen Gottheiten klären würde. P. als Urfrau bzw. erste Frau findet sich erstmals bei Hesiod (theog. 570-591; Hes. erg. 57-105). P. wird auf Geheiß des Zeus von Hephaistos aus Erde und Wasser geformt, von Athena, den Charites, Hermes, Aphrod…

Nausikaa

(263 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Ναυσικάα). Junge Tochter des Phaiakenkönigspaars Alkinoos [1] und Arete [1]. Athena veranlaßt sie, mit ihren Dienerinnen zum Waschen und zum Picknick an die Flußmündung zu fahren, wo sie auf Odysseus trifft, der als Schiffbrüchiger an dieser Stelle angeschwemmt worden ist. Nackt und erschöpft bittet er sie um Hilfe. Im Gegensatz …

Atalante

(488 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Ἀταλάντη). [English version] A. Mythos Myth. Tochter des Schoineus oder des Iasios und der Klymene. In einer boiotischen Version darf sie Jungfrau bleiben, muß aber alle Freier im Wettlauf besiegen (Hyg. fab. 185). Hippomenes erhält von Aphrodite drei goldene Äpfel, die er während des Laufs vor A. hinwirft, welche sie aufhebt (Hes. fr. 72-76 M-W, Ov. met. 10.560-680), wodurch er gewinnt. Das Paar vereinigt sich darauf in einem Heiligtum der Kybele oder des Zeus und wird zur Strafe in Löwen verwande…

Alkestis

(199 words)

Aglauros

(270 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἄγλαυρος, auch Ἄγραυλος). [English version] [1] Tochter des ersten Königs von Attika Tochter des Aktaios, des 1. Königs in Attika, Gemahlin des Kekrops, Mutter des Erysichthon, der Aglauros [2], Herse und Pandrosos. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [English version] [2] Tochter d…

Eriphyle

(124 words)

Iokaste

(232 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Ἰοκάστη, in älteren Quellen auch Epikaste/ Ἐπικάστη). Tochter des Menoikeus, Schwester des Kreon, Gemahlin des Laios, Mutter und später Gattin des Oidipus. Trotz des negativen Orakelspruchs des Apollon in Delphi zeugt Laios mit I. Oidipus, der nach der Geburt ausgesetzt wird, später den Vater tötet und, nachdem er das Rätsel der Sphinx gelöst hat, die Mutter heiratet. In den älteren Quellen offenbaren die Götter den Inzest (Hom. Od. 11,271-280), worauf sich I. tötet. I. hat hier…

Aithra

(155 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Αἴθρα). Tochter des Pittheus, des Königs von Troizen, Mutter des Theseus von Aigeus oder Poseidon (Bakchyl. 17,33 ff. SM; Apollod. 3,208; 216; Hyg. fab. 37). Die Variante bei Paus. 2,33,1 erklärt die Gründung des Tempels der Athena Apaturia auf der Insel Sphairia durch A. Theseus vertraut A. die von ihm geraubte Helena an. Als die Dioskuren diese befreien, wird A. als Sklavin mitgenommen und gelangt später mit Helena nach Troia (Hom. Il. 3,144; Alkm. fr. 21 PMGF; Plut. Theseus 1…

Hippolyte

(215 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἱππολύτη). [English version] [1] Amazone, Tochter des Ares Amazone im Herakles- und Theseusmythos, Tochter des Ares und der Otrere. Herakles soll ihr im Auftrag des Eurystheus den Gürtel des Ares rauben (Apoll. Rhod. 2,778ff.; 966ff.; Hyg. fab. 30; Apollod. 2,98). In einigen Quellen tötet er dabei H. (Eur. Herc. 407ff.). Im Theseusmythos konkurriert H. mit Antiope [2] und Glauke [3] als Gemahlin des Theseus (Isokr. or. 12,193; Plut. Theseus 27,5,13). Theseus raubt H. und zeugt mit…

Alkmene

(269 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Ἀλκμήνη). Tochter des Königs Elektryon von Mykenai oder Tiryns und der Lysidike, Eurydike oder Anaxo (Hes.scut.3; Diod. 4,9,1; Apollod. 2,52). Sie heiratet Amphitryon, der den Elektryon tötet und mit A. fliehen muß. Die Ehe soll erst vollzogen werden, nachdem Amphitryon A.s im Krieg gefallene Brüder gerächt hat (Apollod. 2,55). Er zieht aus, Zeus kommt in seiner Gestalt zu A., berichtet vom Sieg und zeugt mit ihr Herakles (Pind. I. 7,5 ff.; Pherek. FGrH 3 F 69; Plaut. Amph.; Dio…

Glauke

(332 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Γλαύκη). [English version] [1] Nereide Nereide (Hom. Il. 18,39; Hes. theog. 244; Hyg. praef. 8), deren Name die blauglänzende sowie vergleichbare Farbschattierungen des Meeres bezeichnet (Hom. Il. 16,34; Hes. theog. 440) und zu der Glaukos die männliche Entsprechung ist. G. wird an verschiedenen Orten auch als eine Nymphe dargestellt (Paus. 8,47,2f.; Tzetz. Theogonie 100-102). …

Auge

(154 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[1] s. Optik s. Optik Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [English version] [2] Königstochter aus Tegea …

Aerope

(141 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Ἀερόπη). Tochter des Katreus, Enkelin Minos' II. Aufgrund eines Orakels, daß Katreus durch A.s Kinder getötet werde, übergibt er sie und ihre Schwester Klymene dem Nauplios zum Verkauf (Apollod. 3,15) oder zur Tötung, evtl. wegen einer Liebesbeziehung mit einem Sklaven (schol. Soph. Ai. 1297 zu Euripides' ›Kreterinnen‹). Nauplios schont sie jedoch und gibt sie in Argos dem Pleisthenes zur Frau. Die beiden Söhne Agamemnon und Menelaos (Hes. fr. 195,3 ff. MW; Eur…

Themisto

(137 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Θεμιστώ; Themistṓ). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Lapith Hypseus Daughter of the Lapith Hypseus, third wife of Athamas (Herodoros 31 F 38 FGrH; Apollod. 1,84; Ath. 13,560d; Nonn. Dion. 9,305-307; Tzetz. Lykophr. 22), who is the father of her several children. Her predecessors were Nephele [1] and Ino. When the latter returns, T., tries to kill her children (Hyg. Fab. 4,239, otherwise in Fab. 1). By means of a change of clothing Ino causes T. to kill her own children, whereupon T. takes her own life. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Ancestor of the Arcadians Daught…

Electra

(491 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἠλέκτρα; Ēléktra). [German version] [1] Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys The daughter of  Oceanus and  Tethys; wife of Thaumas, mother of  Iris and the  harpies Aello and Ocypete (Hes. Theog. 265ff.; 349; Hom. H. 2,418; Apollod. 1,10). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Daughter of Danaus and the Naiad Polyxo The daughter of  Danaus and the Naiad Polyxo (Apollod. 2,19; Hyg. Fab. 170). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [3] Daughter of Atlas and Pleione The daughter of  Atlas and Pleione. One of the  Pleiades. E.'s place of birth is the Cyl…

Penelope

(1,077 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πηνελόπη/ Pēnelópē, Homeric: Πηνελόπεια/ Pēnelópeia, Latin Penelope, Penelopa). Wife of Odysseus. From antiquity, her name has been interpreted in two ways: according to one, P. means 'weaveress', in reference to the typical female activity which plays such a central role in the Odyssey, while according to the other, her name is derived from pēnélops ('duck'), with the explanation that she had allegedly been thrown into the sea by her parents and had been saved by ducks. For an etymological explanation of P.'s name, see [1]. P. was the daughter of the Arcadian ki…

Alcestis

(207 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἄλκηστις; Alkēstis). Daughter of  Pelias and Anaxibie (Hom. Il. 2,714). Her participation in the supposed rejuvenation of Pelias (Diod. Sic. 4,52,2; 53,2; Hyg. Fab. 24) does not fit with A.'s hand being asked of Pelias by  Admetus of Pherae -- which with Apollo's help was successful. Admetus can only escape the death he is to suffer, according to later sources (Apollod. 1,105) because of a neglected sacrifice, if someone dies in his place. Only A. declares herself prepared to do t…

Pandora

(543 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πανδώρα/ Pandṓra). Her name ('She who gives everything') is used as an epiclesis of chthonic deities such as Gaia and Hecate (Orph. A. 974ff.; schol. Aristoph. Av. 971). It is not possible to discern a clear development of the figure of P. in the transmitted versions of the myth that would clarify her connection with those deities. P. as the original or first woman can first be found in Hesiodus (Theog. 570-591; Hes. Op. 57-105). At Zeus' order, P. is formed from earth and water by Hephaestus, adorned and equipped with skills by Athen…

Iocaste

(232 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἰοκάστη/ Iokástē, in older sources also Ἐπικάστη/Epicaste). Daughter of  Menoeceus, sister of  Creon, wife of  Laius, mother and later wife of  Oedipus. In spite of the negative oracle of Apollo in Delphi, Laius fathers Oedipus with I. After his birth, Oedipus is abandoned, later kills his father and, after solving the puzzle of the  Sphinx, marries his mother. In the older sources, the gods reveal the incest (Hom. Od. 11, 271-280), whereupon I. kills herself. Here, I. usually has…

Aerope

(147 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀερόπη; Aerópē). Daughter of Catreus, granddaughter of Minos II. Because of a prophecy that Catreus will be killed by the children of A., Catreus hands her and her sister Clymene over to  Nauplius to be sold (Apollod. 3,15) or to be killed; possibly on account of a romantic attachment to a slave (schol. Soph. Aj. 1297 about Euripides' ‘Cretan Women’). Nauplius, however, protects them, and in Argus gives her to  Pleisthenes as wife. Both sons,  Agamemnon and  Menelaus (Hes. fr. 195…

Procris

(261 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πρόκρις/ Prókris, Lat. Procris). Daughter either of Erechtheus and Praxithea (Apollod. 3,196) or Pandion (Hyg. Fab. 189; 241) or Iphiclus (Serv. Aen. 6,445). Renowned hunter, married to the Athenian hunter Cephalus [1], who, disguised, tests her fidelity by seducing her with gifts (cf. Pherecydes acc. to Schol. Hom. Od. 11,321, Ov. Met. 7,690-865, Antoninus Liberalis 41). Ashamed, she flees to Minos or Artemis, her hunting companion (Callim. H. 3,209). From Artemis or Minos, P. rece…

Papyri, Literary

(5,168 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Harder, Annette
Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) Papyrus was the most important writing material in Antiquity [13]; it was also used for administrative and personal purposes (the so-called documentary papyri) and for the transcription of literary texts by Greeks who had settled in Egypt following the conquests of Alexander the Great. From ca. 300 BC to ca. 700 AD Greek texts were written on papyri in Egypt, and these papyri were preserved, re-used (for other texts or for use as wrap…

Myrrha

(212 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Μύρρα; Mýrrha). Daughter of the Cyprian king Cinyras and Cenchreis or of the Assyrian king Theias. The gods' anger causes her to fall in love with her father. She is able to have sexual intercourse with him without being recognized, and becomes pregnant. When he recognizes her he tries to kill her; Zeus or Aphrodite takes pity on her and transforms her into a tree; her tears are the resin of the myrrh tree. Later Adonis is born from that tree (Apollod. 3,183f. = Panyassis fr. 27 B…

Scylla

(385 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Σκύλλα/ Skýlla, Σκύλλη/ Skýllē, Lat. Scylla). [German version] [1] Sea monster Sea monster, daughter of Crataeis or Hecate and Phorcys; originally a young woman, transformed by Circe, Amphitrite or Poseidon into a monster (Hom. Od. 12,73-92; Anaxilas fr. 22,4 PCG 2; Verg. Ecl. 6,74-77; Verg. Aen. 3,426-432; Isid. Orig. 11,3,32; Them. Or. 22,279b-d compares the various depictions) out of jealousy when she was wooed by Glaucus [1] (Ov. Met. 13,900-968; 14,1-74; Hyg. Fab. 199). S. lived in a cave opposite Ch…

Antiope

(495 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἀντιόπη; Antiópē). [German version] [1] Daughter of the river god Asopos In epics, the daughter of the river god Asopus (Hom. Od. 11,260 ff.; Apoll. Rhod. 1,735), according to Euripides' Antiope (in Hyg. Fab. 8) daughter of the Theban king Nycteus and Polyxo (Apollod. 3,111; Paus. 2,6,1). Zeus falls in love with her and unites with her in the form of a satyr [1. 857]. For fear of her father, A. flees and marries king Epopeus of Sicyon; according to Paus. 2,6,2 ff. she was kidnapped by him. Her father Nycteus thereupon goes to war against E…

Tilphusa

(100 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Τιλφοῦσα, Τέλφουσα; Tilphoûsa, Télphousa). Boeotian well nymph, who does not allow Apollo to build his oracle temple at her well, and sends him to Delphi so that she herself can preserve her area of influence. Apollo later fills in her well and in its place builds an altar to himself (Hom. H. 3,244-276; 3,375-387). According to Apollod. 3,84 Teiresias meets his death after drinking from her well; his grave was marked for a long time (Str. 9,2,27; 9,2,36). T. is also known in Arcadia (Paus. 8,25,1-3). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography E. Wüst, s. v. T., RE 6 …

Laodice

(2,285 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Λαοδίκη; Laodíkē). I. Mythology [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Priamus and Hecuba Daughter of Priamus and Hecabe; her husbands are given as Helicaon (Hom. Il. 3,122-124; 6,252), through whom she was spared enslavement after the fall of Troy (Paus. 10,26,3), or Acamas (Parthenius 16 MythGr), Demophon [2] (Plut. Thes. 34,2) or Telephus (Hyg. Fab. 101). According to Apollodorus (Epit. 5,25), after the fall of Troy she was swallowed up by a cleft in the earth (cf. also Lycoph. 316f.; Tryphiodorus 660f.). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Agamemnon …

Thallo

(69 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Θαλλώ; Thallṓ). One of the Horae, the daughters of Zeus and Themis (Hes. Theog. 901-903; Hes. Op. 74 f.). The assignment of T. to the Horae or to the Charites is controversial, as are the number and names of the Horae (Hyg. Fab. 183; Paus. 9,35,1-4; Poll. 8,106). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography A. Lesky, s. v. Th., RE 5 A, 1214 f.  V. Machaira, s. v. Horai, LIMC 5.1, 502 f.; 5.2, 344-368.

Glauce

(354 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Γλαύκη; Glaúkē). [German version] [1] Nereide Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,39; Hes. Theog. 244; Hyg. Praef. 8), whose name describes the glossy blue as well as comparable colour shades of the sea (Hom. Il. 16,34; Hes. Theog. 440) and whose masculine counterpart is  Glaucus. G. is also represented as a nymph at various locations (Paus. 8,47,2f.; Tzetz. Theogony 100-102). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Spring nymph, bride of Jason Spring nymph in Corinth, equated by some authors with the daughter of the local king  Creon, who otherwise is called  Creus…

Hesione

(209 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἡσιόνη; Hēsiónē). [German version] [1] Oceanid Oceanid, wife of  Prometheus (Aesch. PV 558). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Wife of Nauplius Wife of  Nauplius, mother of  Palamedes (Apollod. 2,23). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [3] Progenitor of the Trojan royal house Wife of  Atlas [2], mother of  Electra [3], progenitor through her grandson  Dardanus [1] of the Trojan royal house. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [4] Sister of Priamus Daughter of the Trojan king  Laomedon, who has to deliver her up to a sea …

Deianira

(390 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Δηιάνειρα; Dēiáneira). Mythical daughter of king Oeneus of Calydon (Soph. Trach. 6f.) or of Dionysus (Apollod. 1,64; Hyg. Fab. 129) and  Althaea. After the death of her brother  Meleager, D., unlike her sisters, retained her human form (Ov. Met. 8,542ff.; Ant. Lib. 2 after Nicander; Hyg. Fab. 174). The river god Achelous wooed her; then  Heracles, who had heard Meleager singing D.'s praises, also arrived on the scene as a suitor (Pind. Fr. 249aSM; Bacchyl. 5,165ff. SM). Heracles d…

Arsinoe

(1,871 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀρσινόη; Arsinóē). I. Myth [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Leukippos Daughter of Leucippus, sister of the Leucippids, who were abducted by the Dioscuri, she was the mother by Apollo of the Messenian Asclepius (Hes. fr. 50; Apollod. 3,117f.; Paus. 2,26,7; 4,3,2). In Sparta A. had a shrine (Paus. 3,12,8); on the agora of Messene there was an A. spring (Paus. 4,31,6), in the Messenian Asclepieum there was, amongst other things, a painting of A. (Paus. 4,31,11f.). The relationship of the Messenian to the …

Aglaurus

(296 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἄγλαυρος, also Ἄγραυλος; Áglauros, Ágrauros). [German version] [1] Figure of Greek myth: Daughter the first king in Attica Daughter of  Actaeus, the first king in Attica, spouse of  Cecrops, mother of  Erysichthon, of   Aglaurus [2],  Herse and  Pandrosus. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Figure of Greek myth: Daughter of Actaeus [1] and of Cecrops Daughter of Actaeus [1] and of Cecrops. Athena entrusts Erichthonius to A. and her sisters in a chest guarded by snakes, forbidding them to open it, which A. and Herse do nonetheless. T…

Auge

(160 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Αὔγη; Aúgē). Daughter of king Aleus of Tegea, who had made her a priestess of Athena [1. 368-385] in order to force her into chastity, as an oracle had predicted that her son would murder her brothers. She was raped by  Heracles (Hes. fr. 165 Merkelbach-West, Apollod. 2,146f.). Aleus discovered her pregnancy and had her thrown into the sea, together with her son  Telephus. Washed ashore in Mysia, she married king Teuthras (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 29a, b). According to Soph. and Eur., Tel…

Rhoeo

(132 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ῥοιώ; Rhoiṓ). Daughter of Staphylus and Chrysothemis [1], sister of Molpadia [1] and Parthenus [2]. After the sisters fail to guard their father's newly produced wine, they throw themselves into the sea and are rescued by Apollo, who fathers Anius with R. Staphylus locks the pregnant R. in a chest, which comes ashore in Delos (or Euboea, Tzetz. Lycoph. 570), where Apollo tends to his son (Diod. 5,62 f.; Dion. Hal. De Dinarcho 11,17; Lycoph. 570). In the story of the Argive Lyrcus,…

Laonome

(90 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Λαονόμη; Laonómē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Guneus Daughter of Guneus, wife of Alcaeus [1] (other names are also mentioned), mother of Amphitryon (Paus. 8,14,2; Apollod. 2,50). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Daughter of Amphitryon and Alcmene Daughter of Amphitryon and of Alcmene, sister of Heracles [1], wife of the son of Poseidon Euphemus (schol. Pind. Pyth. 4,79). In Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 13) she is associated with the god of the Underworld Hodoedocus. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography K. Meuli, s.v. L. (1)-(2), RE 12, 758.

Meliboea

(423 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Μελίβοια/ Melíboia, Latin Meliboea). [German version] [1] Heroine Heroine, known within the Leto cult of Argos as Chloris [2] (on the aition: Paus. 2,21,9f.). In the Demeter cult of Hermion(e), Kore ( Persephone) bears the byname M. (Ath. 14,624e, the passage is textually disputed). M. first appears in Hom. Od. 11,281-287 as the daughter of Amphion [1], later also as the daughter of Niobe (Apollod. 3,47) and spouse of Neleus (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 117). Ath. 13,557a mentions her as the spouse of Theseus. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography R. Carden, The Papyrus Fragments of …

Pero

(125 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Πηρώ; Pērṓ). [German version] [1] Daughter of Neleus and Chloris Daughter of Neleus [1] and Chloris [4], with twelve brothers, including Nestor [1]. Neleus demands Iphiclus' cattle as a bride price for P. Melampus [1] delivers the cattle for his brother Bias [1], who is given P. as his bride (Hom. Od. 11,281-297; 15,231-238; Apoll. Rhod. 1,120f.; Paus. 4,36,3; 10,31,10). Several of the couple's sons are part of the Argonaut campaign (Apoll. Rhod. 1,118-120). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Mother of the river god Asopus Mother by Poseidon of the river god Aso…

Penthesilea

(299 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πενθεσίλεια/ Penthesíleia, Lat. Penthesilea). Amazon (Amazons), daughter of Ares and Otrere (Aithiopis argumentum, fr. 1f. PEG I), who to expiate blood guilt - in some sources the murder of her sister Hippolyte [1] (Apollod. Epit. 5,1; Quint. Smyrn. 1,20-32) - enters the Trojan War and supports the Trojans after the death of  Hector (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 149; Diod. Sic. 2,46,5). She kills a number of Greeks (Prop. 3,11,14f.; Quint. Smyrn. 1,238-246) but is then defeated by Achilles […

Danae

(243 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Δανάη; Danáē). Mythical daughter of  Acrisius, the king of Argus, and Euridice or Aganippe (Hom. Il. 14,319f.; Hes. fr. 129; 135MW; Hyg. Fab. 63). She was imprisoned by her father to keep her from any contact with the outside world following a pronouncement by the oracle that he would be killed by his grandson. Zeus approached D. in the form of a shower of gold and she became pregnant with  Perseus (Pind. Pyth. 10,44f.; 12,9ff.; Soph. Ant. 944ff.; Isocr. 10,59; Ov. Met. 4,610f.). …

Hecale

(317 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ἑκάλη; Hekálē). [German version] [1] Att. Heroine, hostess of Theseus Heroine of the like-named Attic deme on Pentelicon, who takes in  Theseus, who has been surprised by a storm on his way to fight the Bull of Marathon, very hospitably despite her poverty. As he returns after his victory, he finds her dead and out of gratitude establishes a cult to her and  Zeus Hekal(ei)os, at which the surrounding demes meet for an annual sacrifice.  Callimachus (Hecale fr. 230-377) and Plut. Thes. 14,6b-c (= Philocho…

Molpadia

(114 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Μολπαδία; Molpadía). [German version] [1] Daughter of Staphylus and Chrysothemis Daughter of Staphylus and Chrysothemis [1]. Together with her sister Rhoeo, she was charged with guarding the wine, which had just been invented. However, they fell asleep and pigs overturned the jug. Out of fear, the sisters leapt into the sea. Apollo rescued them and took M. as Hemithea to Castabus in the Carian Chersonesus of Knidos (Diod. 5,62f.). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Amazon Amazon who killed Antiope [2], who was fighting alongside Theseus, after which sh…

Eriphyle

(138 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἐριφύλη; Eriphýlē). Daughter of Talaus; sister of  Adrastus and wife of the seer  Amphiaraus in Argus, who were reconciled after a feud and were willing to submit to E.'s judgement in case of future quarrels. Amphiaraus, in anticipation of his death, refused to take part in Adrastus' campaign against Thebes. Bribed by  Polyneices with Harmonia's necklace, E. forced him to participate. He instructed his sons to avenge him regarding E. (Hom. Od. 11,326f.; Stat. Theb. 4,187-213; Apol…

Ismene

(210 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἰσμήνη; Ismḗnē). [German version] [1] Theban heroine Theban heroine, who because of her romantic connection with  Periclymenus incurs the wrath of Athene and is killed by  Tydeus (Mimn. Fr. 21 IEG; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 95). In the 5th cent. BC she was integrated into the Oedipus myth by the tragedians: as the daughter of  Oedipus and  Jocasta or  Eurygane, as the sister of  Antigone [3],  Eteocles [1] and  Polynices, she survives with Antigone the attack of the Seven Against Thebes (Aeschyl. Sept. 861f…

Nausicaa

(287 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ναυσικάα; Nausikáa). Young daughter of the Phaeacian royal couple Alcinous [1] und Arete [1]. Athena causes her to go with her serving maids to wash and picnic at the mouth of the river, where she comes across Odysseus, who had been washed ashore at this spot after being shipwrecked. Naked and exhausted, he appeals to her for help. In contrast to her companions, who run off in fright, she listens to him and gives him food, clothes, oil for anointing himself, and precise instructio…

Europe/Europa

(1,029 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Εὐρώπη; Eurṓpē). [German version] [1] Geographic concept Originally reserved for the female mythological figure ( E. [2]; cf. Hes. Theog. 357, 359), as a geographical term E. initially referred to central Greece (cf. Hom. H. ad Apollinem 251, 291) and the Thracian-Macedonian north (cf. Hdt. 6,43; 7,8), as opposed to the Peloponnese in the south, the Ionian Islands in the west and the Aegean islands, and separated from the Asiatic land-mass by the Aegean Sea, the Hellespont, Propontis, the Bosporus and Pontus Euxinus. As awareness grew during the ‘great colonisation’ that the…

Aethra

(161 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Αἴθρα; Aíthra). Daughter of Pittheus king of Troezen, mother of  Theseus by  Aegeus or Poseidon (Bacchyl. 17,33 ff. SM; Apollod. 3,208; 216; Hyg. Fab. 37). The variant at Paus. 2,33,1 explains the founding of temples of Athena Apaturia on the island Sphaerea by A. Theseus entrusts  Helen to A. who had been abducted by him. When the  Dioscuri release her, A. is taken as a slave and she later reaches Troy with Helen (Hom. Il. 3,144; Alcm. fr. 21 PMGF; Plut. Theseus 16b; Apollod. 3,…

Dirce

(224 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Δίρκη; Dírkē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Ismenus Daughter of Ismenus (Callim. H. 4,75ff.), wife of king  Lycus. Both are hostile to Lycus' niece  Antiope [2]; after Antiope had failed in her attempt to escape, D. and Lycus handed her over to her twin sons  Amphion and Zethus, whom she had abandoned at birth, to have her dragged to death by a bull. However, the sons recognize their mother just in time and then proceed to make D. suffer that very punishment (Eur. in Hyg. Fab. 7f.; Plaut. Pseud. 19…

Antigone

(839 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἀντιγόνη; Antigónē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Thessalian  Phere Daughter of Thessalian  Phere and mother of the Argonaut Asterion (Hyg. Fab. 14,1). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Daughter of king Eurytion of Phthia Daughter of king Eurytion of Phthia, wife of  Peleus, by whom she has a daughter Polydora (Pherec. FGrH 3 F 61a). Peleus accidentally kills Eurytion and therefore flees to Acastus at Iolcus, who exculpates him. Acastus' wife Astydameia tries in vain to win him for herself and then in reve…

Hippolyte

(238 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Ἱππολύτη; Hippolýtē). [German version] [1] Amazon, daughter of Ares  Amazon in the myth of Heracles and Theseus, daughter of  Ares and of Otrere. Heracles was ordered by  Eurystheus to rob H. of the belt of Ares (Apoll. Rhod. 2,778ff.; 966ff.; Hyg. Fab. 30; Apollod. 2,98). According to some sources, he kills H. in the process (Eur. HF 407ff.). In conflicting versions of the myth of Theseus, H.,  Antiope [2] or  Glauce [3] appear as the wife of Theseus (Isoc. Or. 12,193; Plut. These…

Philomeleides

(61 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Φιλομηλείδης; Philomēleídēs). Mythical king of the island of Lesbos, who challenged those sailing by to a wrestling match. Odysseus defeated him, according to Hom. Od. 4,343 = 17,134 in the fight, but according to Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 150 by deceit together with Diomedes [1]. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography H. von Geisau, s.v. P., RE 19, 2519f.

Alope

(122 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀλόπη; Alópē). Daughter of king  Cercyon of Eleusis (Pherec. FGrH 3 F147), loved by Poseidon, to whom she bears  Hippothoon. She abandons the child; it is suckled by a mare and is found by shepherds, who bring the dispute about the valuable identification marks before the king. He recognizes the marks, locks A. up, and lets her starve. The child is abandoned a second time, again nurtured by the mare and brought up by shepherds. Poseidon transforms A. into a spring (Hyg. Fab. 187; …

Clytaemnestra

(349 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Κλυταιμήστρα; Klytaimḗstra, earlier form of the name Klytaimnestra/Κλυταιμνήστρα; Lat. Clytaem(n)estra). Daughter of  Tyndareos and  Leda, sister of  Helena [1] and the  Dioscuri, wife of  Agamemnon, who killed her first husband  Tantalus, son of  Thyestes. She had several children by Agamemnon:  Chrysothemis [2],  Laodice [I 2] or  Electra [4],  Iphianassa [2] or  Iphigenia and  Orestes. Labouring under Aphrodite's curse of infidelity (Hes. fr. 176; Stesich. fr. 223 PMG) and afte…

Hecabe

(713 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἑκάβη/ Hekábē, Lat. Hecuba). Wife of the Trojan king  Priamus, mother of numerous children (Hom. Il. 24,496; Eur. Hec. 421), among them  Hector,  Paris/Alexander,  Cassandra,  Polyxene and  Troilus. Her parentage is unclear, in Hom. Il. 16,718f. she is the daughter of king  Dymas [1], in Eur. Hec. 3 of king Cisseus (cf. also Hyg. Fab. 91; 111; 243), and in Apollod. 3,148 of Sangarius. Her mother is mentioned in Suet. Tib. 70,3. In Homer, at Hector's urging, she goes to Athena's te…

Clymene

(225 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Κλυμένη; Klyménē, Clymene). [German version] [1] Mother of Atlas [2]  Oceanid, wife of  Iapetus, who by her fathered  Atlas [2],  Prometheus and Epimetheus (Hes. Theog. 351; 507ff.; Hyg. Fab. praef. 11,31). In Euripides (Phaethon 1ff.; 45ff. Diggle; cf. also Ov. Met. 1,750ff.; Hyg. Fab. 152a; 154; 156) she is the mother of  Phaethon. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Nereid  Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,47; Hyg. Fab. praef. 8), who according to Pausanias (2,18,1) had with  Dictys [1] an altar in Athens as saviour of Perseu…

Laothoe

(84 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Λαοθόη; Laothóē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Thespius Daughter of Thespius, by Heracles [1] mother of Antiphus (Apollod. 2,163). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Lover of Apollo Lover of Apollo, by whom she bears Thestor, grandmother of Calchas (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 108). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [3] Concubine of Priamus Concubine of Priamus, by whom she bears Lycaon and Polydorus (Hom. Il. 21,34f., 85-96; 22,46-48). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography O. Scherling, s.v. L. (1)-(3), RE 12, 761.

Creusa

(223 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Κρέουσα; Kréousa, Latin Creusa). [German version] [1] Daughter of Gaia and Oceanus Daughter of Gaia and Oceanus, who bears  Hypseus and Stilbe to the river god Peneius (Pind. Pyth. 9,14f.; Diod. Sic. 4,69). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Youngest daughter of Erechtheus The youngest daughter of  Erechtheus and  Praxithea. Apollo begat  Ion [1] with her, whom she abandons but whom Hermes took to Delphi. C. marries  Xuthus (Hes. fr. nova 10a 20ff.), who becomes king of Athens after Erechtheus' death. When consulting th…

Andromache

(220 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀνδρομάχη; Andromáchē). Daughter of king Eetion in Hypoplacian Thebes, wife of  Hector, mother of  Astyanax-Scamandrius (Hom. Il. 6,395 ff.). At her wedding (Sappho fr. 44 Voigt) Aphrodite gives her gifts (Hom. Il. 22,470). Hector is affectionate towards A., especially after the death of her family (Hom. Il. 6,370 ff.). Her lament for her fallen spouse is impressive (Hom. Il. 22,477 ff.; 24,723 ff.). Her son is murdered after the conquest of Troy (Ilioupersis arg. fr. 5 PEG; Eur. …

Phyllis

(201 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Φυλλίς; Phyllís). [German version] [1] Eponymous heroine of the territory on the lower Strymon Eponymous heroine of the territory on the lower Strymon (Struma), which she brings as the dowry to her marriage with Acamas the son of Theseus. When he is unfaithful to her she curses him and he dies. The legend illustrates the great interest of Athens in the region with its rich mineral sources (Aeschin. 2,31 with schol.; Thuc. 1,100,3; 4,102; Androtion FGrH 324 F 33; Tzetz. ad Lycoph. 495). P. hangs herself and i…

Polyclea

(100 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Πολύκλεια/ Polýkleia). Heroine from the family of the Heraclidae, who received an oracular prediction that the first person to cross the Achelous [1] would become ruler of the Boeoti, who were at the time living in Thessalia. She asked her brother Aeatus to carry her over the river, broke away shortly before reaching the other bank and was the first to set foot there; her brother then married her to secure power for his family and they had a son, Thessalus (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,44). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography G. Radke, s. v. Polykleia (1), RE 21, 1695-1698.

Helena

(1,535 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ἑλένη; Helénē, Lat. Helena). [German version] [1] Beautiful wife of Menelaus ('Helen of Troy') Goddess who was worshipped at various cult sites in and around Sparta, especially in the Menelaion in  Therapne (Hdt. 6,61; Paus. 3,15,3; Hsch. s.v. Ἑλένεια, [1]). In  Rhodes she had a cult as H. Dendritis (Paus. 3,19,10), in  Cenchreae and  Chios she is attested as a deity of springs (Paus. 2,2,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἑλένη). There is no completely reliable etymology for her name [2. 63-80]. For evidence of her cult i…

Niobe

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Νιόβη/ Nióbē, Lat. Nioba). [German version] I. Mythology Daughter of Tantalus and Dione or Euryanassa (Hyg. Fab. 9, schol. Eur. Or. 4) and wife of Amphion [1] (Hes. fr. 183 M./W.). The oldest version of the myth is found in Hom. Il. 24,602-617 in the form of a comparison by which Achilles seeks to induce Priam to overcome his grief over his son's death just as N. did. N.'s children, the Niobids (Νιοβίδαι/ Niobídai, Lat. Niobidae), were killed by Apollo and Artemis after N. boasted of her superiority to their mother, Leto, because Leto had borne only two children, whil…

Atalante

(536 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Ἀταλάντη; Atalántē). [German version] A. Myth Mythological daughter of Schoeneus or of Iasius and Clymene. In a Boeotian version she is allowed to remain a virgin, but to do so she has to defeat all suitors in a race (Hyg. Fab. 185).  Hippomenes receives three golden apples from Aphrodite, which he drops in A.'s way during the competition, and which she picks up (Hes. fr. 72-76 M-W, Ov. Met. 10.560-680), whereby he wins. The pair consummate their union in a sanctuary of Cybele or Zeus and are, as pu…

Hermione

(132 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἑρμιόνη; Hermiónē). Daughter of  Helene and  Menelaus (Hom. Od. 4,12ff.), sister of Nicostratus (Hes. fr. 175 M-W). According to one version of the myth, Menelaus promises her to  Neoptolemus outside the gates of Troy (Hom. Od. 4,3ff.), in another version she is promised to  Orestes before the war (Soph. Hermione TrGF 4, 192f.; Eur. Andr. 966ff.; Ov. Epist. 8, slightly different in Eur. Or. 1653ff.). Neoptolemus abducts her but is killed by Orestes (Eur. Andr. 993ff.; 1085ff.; Hyg…

Andromeda

(183 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀνδρομέδα; Androméda). Daughter of  Cepheus king of the Cephenes or Aethiopians, and  Cassiepea (Apollod. 2,43), who boasted that she was as beautiful as the Nereids. This angered Poseidon, who sent tidal waves and a sea monster onto the shore. An oracle then promises release from the plague, if A. would surrender herself to the sea monster. Cepheus then has A. bound to a rock at the shore, where  Perseus sees her on his return after the Gorgon adventure. After she promises to go …

Praxithea

(249 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Πραξιθέα/ Praxithéa). [German version] [1] Wife of Erechtheus Daughter or granddaughter of Cephisus; on the one hand, she is the wife of Erechtheus (Demaratus FGrH 42 F 4) and mother of several children (amongst them Creusa [2], Oreithyia, Procris); on the other, the wife of Erichthonius [1] and mother of Pandion [1] (Apollod. 3,190; Φρασιθέα/ Phrasithéa Tzetz. Chil. 1,174). According to an oracle, Erechtheus can only win the war against Eumolpus after sacrificing one of his daughters. In his play 'Erechtheus', Euripides allows P. to give detailed …

Galatea

(385 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Γαλατεία; Galateía). [German version] [1] Nereid Nereid, daughter of  Nereus and  Doris (Hom. Il. 18,45; Hes. Theog. 250; Apollod. 1,11), whose name probably refers to the milky-white colour, i.e. either to sea-foam or milk in its important role in pasture farming (Lucian 14,3; Eust. 1131,5 ad Hom. Il. 18,42). In Sicily, G. was venerated as the protector of herds (Duris FGrH 76 F 58). The love story between the Cyclops  Polyphemus and G. also originates from Sicily (Prop. 3,2,7f.; Nonnus, Dion. 39,25…

Lanassa

(170 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Λάνασσα; Lánassa). [German version] [1] Ancestress of the Molossian dynasty Daughter of Cleodaeus, granddaughter of Hyllus, great-granddaughter of Hercules [1], ancestress of the Molossian dynasty of Epirus (Plut. Pyrrhus 1,2; Lysimachus, FGrH 382 F 10). Neoptolemus abducts her from the Zeus temple of Dodona, marries her and has eight children with her, among them Pyrrhus (Iust. 17,3,4). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography P. Levêque, Pyrrhos, 1957, 643 M. Schmidt, s.v. L., RE 12, 617. [German version] [2] Wife of Pyrrhus and Demetrius Poliorcetes, 3rd cent. BC Daughter…

Alcmene

(274 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Ἀλκμήνη; Alkmḗnē). Daughter of king Electryon of Mycenae or Tiryns and of Lysidice, Eurydice or Anaxo (Hes.scut.3; Diod. Sic. 4,9,1; Apollod. 2,52). She marries  Amphitryon, who kills Electryon and has to flee with A. The marriage is to be consumated only after Amphitryon has avenged A.'s brother, who died in battle (Apollod. 2,55). He leaves, and Zeus comes in his form to A., tells of the victory and conceives  Hercules with her (Pind. Isthm. 7,5 ff.; Pherec. FGrH 3 F 69; Plaut. …

Tecmessa

(108 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[German version] (Τέκμησσα/ Tékmēssa, Latin Tecmessa). Phrygian princess, given to Ajax [1] as a prize (Hom. Il. 1,138). With her he fathers Eurysaces. In Soph.  Aj. the character of T. is developed for the first time, her relationship with Ajax is defined by mutual respect and fidelity (Dictys 2,18; Quint. Smyrn. 5,521-567). Roman tragedy writers also took an interest in the subject, as did Horace (Carm. 2,4,5f.) and Ovid (Ars am. 3,517-520). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography J. Boardman, s. v. T., LIMC 7.1, 832  E. Oberhummer, s. v. T. (1), RE 5 A, 157 f.  K. Synodinu, T…

Lanassa

(156 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Λάνασσα). [English version] [1] Vorfahrin des moloss. Königshauses Tochter des Kleodaios, Enkelin des Hyllos, Urenkelin des Herakles [1], Ahnfrau des molossischen Königshauses von Epeiros (Plut. Pyrrhos 1,2; Lysimachos, FGrH 382 F 10). Neoptolemos raubt sie aus dem Zeustempel von Dodona, nimmt sie zur Frau und hat mit ihr acht Kinder, darunter Pyrrhos (Iust. 17,3,4). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography P. Levêque, Pyrrhos, 1957, 643  M. Schmidt, s.v. L., RE 12, 617. [English version] [2] Frau von Pyrrhos und Demetrios Poliorketes, 3. Jh. v. Chr. Tochter des Agathokles…

Arsinoë

(1,686 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bieberstein, Klaus (Fribourg) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀρσινόη). I. Mythos [English version] [I 1] Tochter des Leukippos Tochter des Leukippos, Schwester der von den Dioskuren geraubten Leukippiden, von Apollon Mutter des messenischen Asklepios (Hes. fr. 50; Apollod. 3,117f.; Paus. 2,26,7; 4,3,2). In Sparta hatte A. ein Heiligtum (Paus. 3,12,8), auf der Agora von Messene war eine Quelle A. (Paus. 4,31,6), im m…

Laodike

(1,953 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Λαοδίκη). I. Mythologie [English version] [I 1] Tochter von Priamos und Hekabe Tochter des Priamos und der Hekabe; als ihre Gatten werden Helikaon (Hom. Il. 3,122-124; 6,252), durch den ihr eine Versklavung nach der Eroberung Troias erspart bleibt (Paus. 10,26,3), oder Akamas (Parthenios 16 MythGr), Demophon [2] (Plut. Theseus 34,2), Telephos (Hyg. fab. 101) angegeben. Nach Apollodor (epit. 5,25) wird sie nach der Eroberung Troias von einer Erdspalte verschluckt (vgl. auch Lykophr. 316f.; Tryphiodoros 660f.). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [English version] [I 2] Tochter …

Danae

(224 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Δανάη). Mythische Tochter des Akrisios, des Königs von Argos, und der Eurydike oder Aganippe (Hom. Il. 14,319f.; Hes. fr. 129; 135MW; Hyg. fab. 63). Aufgrund d…

Philomeleides

(51 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Φιλομηλείδης). Mythischer König auf Lesbos, der die Vorüberfahrenden zum Ringkampf herausfordert. Odysseus besiegt ihn nach Hom. Od. 4,343 = 17,134 im Kampf, nach Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 150 zusammen mit Diomedes [1] durch eine List. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography H. von Geisau, s.v. Ph., RE 19, 2519f.

Molpadia

(111 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Μολπαδία). [English version] [1] Tochter des Staphylos und der Chrysothemis Tochter des Staphylos und der Chrysothemis [1]. Zusammen mit ihrer Schwester Rhoio soll sie den eben erfundenen Wein bewachen. Sie schlafen jedoch ein, und Schweine stoßen den Krug um. Aus Angst stürzen sich die Schwestern ins Meer. Apollon rettet sie und versetzt M. als Hemithea nach Kastabos in der karischen Chersonesos von Knidos (Diod. 5,62f.). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [English version] [2] Amazone Amazone, welche die an der Seite des Theseus kämpfende Antiope [2] tötet und dann s…

Hekale

(298 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ἑκάλη). [English version] [1] Att. Heroine, Gastgeberin des Theseus Heroine des gleichnamigen att. Demos am Pentelikon, die Theseus, der auf dem Weg zum Kampf mit dem marathonischen Stier von einem Sturm überrascht wird, trotz ihrer Armut sehr gastfreundlich aufnimmt. Als er nach seinem Sieg zurückkehrt, findet er sie tot und stiftet ihr und Zeus Hekal(ei)os aus Dankbarkeit einen Kult, zu dem die umliegenden Demen für ein Jahresopfer zusammenkommen. Auf ältere Atthidographen greifen Kallimachos (Hekale …

Polyxene

(373 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Πολυξένη, lat. Polyxena). Tochter des Priamos und der Hekabe. In den ‘Kyprien (PEG I fr. 34) wird sie von Odysseus und Diomedes [1] getötet und von Neoptolemos [1] begraben. Eine andere Trad. berichtet von ihrer Opferung durch die Griechen an Achilleus' [1] Grab (Iliupersis argumentum PEG I p. 89; Hyg. fab. 110; Apollod. epit. 5,23), da dessen Geist das Opfer verlangt (Eur. Hec. 37-41; 107-115; Ov. met. 13,441-448; Q. Smyrn. 14,234-245) und droht, die griech. Flotte an der Heimkeh…

Pero

(118 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Πηρώ). [English version] [1] Tochter des Neleus und der Chloris Tochter des Neleus [1] und der C…

Polykleia

(89 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Πολύκλεια). Heroine aus dem Geschlecht der Herakleidai, der ein Orakel vorhersagt, daß der, welcher zuerst den Acheloos [1] überschreite, Herrscher der damals in Thessalien ansässigen Boioter werde. Sie bittet ihren Bruder Aiatos darum, sie durch den Fluß zu tragen, macht sich kurz vor dem anderen Ufer los und betritt dieses als erste, worauf ihr Bruder sie heiratet, um die Herrschaft für seine Familie zu sichern, und mit ihr Thessalos zeugt (Polyain. 8,44). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography G. Radke, s. v. P. (1), RE 21, 1695-1698.

Phyllis

(188 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Φυλλίς). [English version] [1] eponyme Heroine der Landschaft am unteren Strymon Eponyme Heroine der Landschaft am unteren Strymon, die sie als Mitgift in die Ehe mit dem Theseus-Sohn Akamas einbringt. Als er ihr untreu wird, kommt er durch ihren Fluch ums Leben. Die Sage illustriert das große Interesse Athens an der Gegend mit den reichen Bodenschätzen (Aischin. 2,31 mit schol.; Thuk. 1,100,3; 4,102; Androtion FGrH 324 F 33; Tzetz. ad Lykophr. 495). Ph. erhängt sich und wird in einen Baum verwandelt. Bei…

Klymene

(227 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Κλυμένη, Clymene). [English version] [1] Mutter des Atlas Okeanide, Gattin des Iapetos, der mit ihr Atlas [2], Prometheus und Epimetheus zeugt (Hes. theog. 351; 507ff.; Hyg. fab. praef. 11,31). Bei Euripides (Phaethon 1ff.; 45ff. Diggle; vgl. auch Ov. met. 1,750ff.; Hyg. fab. 152a; 154; 156) ist sie Mutter des Phaethon. Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [English version] [2] Nereide Nereide (Hom. Il. 18,47; Hyg. fab. praef. 8), die nach Pausanias (2,18,1) mit Diktys [1] in Athen einen Altar als Retterin des Perseus hatte. Nach Verg…

Dirke

(199 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Δίρκη). [English version] [1] Tochter des Ismenos Tochter des Ismenos (Kall. h. 4,75ff.), Gattin des Königs Lykos. Beide sind dessen Nichte Antiope [2] feind und übergeben sie nach einem gescheiterten Fluchtversuch deren Söhnen Amphion und Zethos, die diese nach der Geburt ausgesetzt hat, zur Schleifung durch einen Stier. Die Söhne erkennen ihre Mutter rechtzeitig, lassen D. diese Strafe erleiden (Eur. bei Hyg. fab. 7f.; Plaut. Pseud. 199f.; Apollod. 3,43f.; Petron. 45,8) und werfen D.s Leichnam in de…

Penthesileia

(288 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
[English version] (Πενθεσίλεια, lat. Penthesilea). Amazone, Tochter des Ares und der Otrere (Aithiopis argumentum, fr. 1f. PEG I), die zur Reinigung von einer Blutschuld, in einigen Quellen vom Mord an ihrer Schwester Hippolyte [1] (Apollod. epit. 5,1; Q. Smyrn. 1,20-32), in den Troianischen Krieg eintritt und die Troianer nach dem Tod Hektors unterstützt (Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 149; Diod. 2,46,5). Sie tötet einige Griechen (Prop. 3,11,14f.; Q. Smyrn. 1,238-246), wird dann von Achilleus [1] besiegt, de…
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