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Revolution 1848/49

(2,776 words)

Author(s): Langewiesche, Dieter
Da sie im März ausbrach, wird die dt. R. von 1848 auch »Märzrevolution« genannt. Diese Bezeichnung ist jedoch ungenau, denn die revolutionären Bestrebungen und Ereignisse im dt. Sprachraum dauerten vielerorts bis 1849.1. Zwei Revolutionen: Ziele, Akteure, Handlungsmuster Verfassungs-Staat – Nationalstaat – Gesellschaftsreform: Vor diesen Aufgaben stand die dt. Revolution 1848/49. Es ging um institutionelle Modernisierung. Nur diese Linie wird erinnert, wenn diese Revolution von der Gegenwart für Demokratietraditionen in Anspruch genommen wird. Doch neben der In…
Date: 2019-11-19

German Revolution (1848/9)

(3,274 words)

Author(s): Langewiesche, Dieter
Because it broke out in March, the German Revolution of 1848 is also, particularly in Germany, called the “March Revolution.” However, such a term is imprecise, for many of the revolutionary actions and events in the German lands lasted into 1849. 1. Two revolutions: aims, participants, actions The German Revolution of 1848/49 had three aims: establishing a constitutional state, establishing a nation state, and social reform. One key issue was institutional modernization, and only this issue is remembered when present-day democrats lay claim…
Date: 2019-10-14


(4,291 words)

Author(s): Langewiesche, Dieter | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm | Zenkert, Georg | Gräb, Wilhelm
[German Version] I. History – II. Philosophy – III. Social Sciences and Ethics – IV. Religion I. History 1. General Since the 18th century, European liberalism has fought for a civil society, demanding three kinds of civil rights: (1) equality before the law, guaranteed by the rule of law; (2) equal opportunity for political participation, made possible by the right to vote and free access to the public arena; (3) provision of basic social opportunities. Legal equality was the first of these demands put forward…

Vormärz (Pre-March 1848 Revolution Period)

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Langewiesche, Dieter | Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm
[German Version] I. History The term Vormärz is usually employed in reference to the period of German history spanning the years 1830 to 1848. Unlike the competing designations Biedermeier and Restoration, it evokes the atmosphere of change in German society that finally erupted in revolutionary uprisings against the political authorities in March 1848 – events that hastened the pace of social reforms, although the possibilities of political participation remained extremely limited. The constitutional crisis of the 1840s, i.e. the Vormärz in the strict sense, manifested it…