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Anaxibius

(75 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Spartan nauarchos in Byzantium, when in 400 BC the remains of the army of the younger Cyrus entered Bithynia. Recalled from there in 400/399, A. was sent as harmost to Abydus in 389 to secure the Spartan position in the northern Aegean against Athens, but he fell in 388 in a battle against the Athenians under Iphicrates (Xen. An. 5,1,4; 6,1,16; 7,1.2; Diod. Sic. 14,30,4; Xen. Hell. 4,8,32 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Hippocles

(56 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἱπποκλῆς; Hippoklês). H. of Cyme on the island of Euboea, oikist (‘founder’) of the Italian Cyme together with Megasthenes of Chalcis. According to Strabo (5,4,4), the colony was named by mutual agreement after H.' hometown, but must be considered as a Chalcidian foundation. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. Bérard, La colonisation grecque, 1957, 38f.

Echestratus

(52 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐχέστρατος; Echéstratos). Legendary Spartan king, son of Agis I, father of Labotas and thus the third king from the house of the Agiads (Hdt. 7,204). According to Paus. 3,2,2, the Cynureans are said to have been expelled from the Argolis in the reign of E. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Agesandridas

(76 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀγησανδρίδας; Agēsandrídas) Spartan, son of Agesander, vanquished the Athenians under  Thymochares with a Peloponnesian fleet in 411 BC at Eretria, which caused Euboea (with the exception of Oreos) to secede from Athens (Thuc. 8,94 ff.). After the Spartan defeat at Cynossema (411), A. was sent with a contingent to the Hellespont, where he beat Thymochares again (Thuc. 8,107; Xen. Hell. 1,1,1). In 409/08 he was in Thrace (Xen. Hell. 1,3,17). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Herminafrid

(117 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] King of the Thuringians c. AD 507/511-531/2. Around 510 he married  Amalaberga, the niece of the king of the Ostrogoths  Theoderic the Great, and thus became involved in his policy of alliances (Anon. Vales. 12,70; Cassiod. Var. 4,1; Iord. Get. 299; Procop. Goth. 5,12,22). H. initially ruled with his brothers Baderic and Berthar. After their murder, he was sole ruler until he was overthrown by the king of the Franks  Theoderic c. 531/2. He died shortly afterwards. His territory became part of Franconia (Greg. Tur. Franc. 3,4-8; Procop. Goth. 5,13,1f.…

Hildericus, Hilderic

(135 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Son of  Hunericus and Eudocia [2], the daughter of Valentinian III (Theoph. 5964; 6026), king of the Vandals in AD 523-530 who ended the anti-Catholic policies of his predecessors and attempted to come closer to Byzantium (he minted coins with the image of Justin I [1. 94]), while the relationship with the East Goths deteriorated considerably. The Vandal opposition under the leadership of  Gelimer therefore took advantage of a defeat of H.'s troops against Arabs in Byzacena to dep…

Patronomos

(197 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (πατρονόμος, ‘guardian of the ancestral traditions’). Predominantly epigraphically attested title of a Spartan annual official, created in c. 227 BC by Cleomenes [6] III; the institution of this office was probably connected with the temporary abolition of the éphoroi and the limitation of the political influence of the  gerousía (Paus. 2,9,1). In the Roman period, the patronomos, attested from the 1st cent. BC as Sparta's eponymous magistrate, oversaw six sýnarchoi or synpatronómoi (cf. IG V 1,48; SEG XI 503 with [2]). The tasks of a patronomos, which were linked…

Damippus

(106 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Δάμιππος; Dámippos). Spartan in the service of Hieronymus of Syracuse to whom he gave the advice of adherence to the alliance with Rome in 215 BC (Pol. 7,5,3). Later he also served Epicydes; in 212 he was sent as envoy to Philip V of Macedonia, and in the process fell into the hands of the Romans. The negotiations for his release, in the course of which M. Claudius [I 11] Marcellus noticed a tower that was only poorly guarded by the Syracusans, ultimately led to the successful Roman attack on Epipolae (Liv. 25,23,8ff.; Plut. Marcellus 18; Polyaenus, Strat. 8,11). Meier, Mischa…

Hegesidamus

(22 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἡγησίδαμος; Hēgēsídamos). In the Suda s.v. Ἱππίας/ Hippías named as the teacher of  Hippias of Elis. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Euergetes

(325 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (εὐεργέτης; euergétēs, ‘benefactor’). An honorary title bestowed by Greek communities upon people who rendered particularly outstanding services to them. There is evidence of this term with this meaning from the 5th cent. BC (cf. Hdt. 8,136), but euergesia as an aspect of the ideal of generosity of the Greek aristocracy can be traced back to the Homeric period ( Euergetism). In Athens the work of individual citizens for the polis in the 5th cent. was still primarily regulated by  liturgies and it was expected of on…

Amphidamus

(71 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀμφίδαμος, Ἀμφιδάμας; Amphídamos, Amphidámas) Captain of the Eleans. In 218 BC A. was imprisoned by Philip V, but was released without payment of ransom after he promised to press the Eleans to form an alliance with Philip. His efforts failed, however; suspected of betrayal, A. had to flee Elis and returned to Philip (Pol. 4,75,6; 84-86).  Philippus Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography F. W. Walbank, Philip V of Macedon, 1967, 48 f.

Epeunaktai

(148 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐπευνακταί; Epeunaktaí). Literally ‘bedfellows’. According to Theopomp (FGrH 115 F 171 in Ath. 6,271c-d), Helots who during the 1st Messenian War were set free by the Spartans and received citizenship; they were supposed to unite with the widows of those who had fallen (cf. also Just. Epit. 3,5,6, who however dates the events in the second Messenian War). According to this, the E. would have been the fathers of the so-called  Partheniai, who appear in tradition as the founders of …

Aneristus

(100 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀνήριστος; Anḗristos). [German version] [1] Spartan (beginning of 5th cent. BC) Spartan. After the murder of the Persian envoy in Sparta, his son  Sperthias went willingly to atone for this debt to the great king, but was let go there (Hdt. 7,134 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Spartan, died 430 BC Spartan, son of Sperthias. According to Hdt. 7,137 A. conquered Halieis. In 430 BC he fell into the hands of the Athenians as a member of a Peloponnesian delegation on the way to the great king and was killed (Hdt. 7,137; Thuc. 2,67). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Eteonicus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐτεόνικος; Eteónikos). Spartan, campaigned under Astyochus against Lesbos in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,23); as  harmost of Thasos he was forced out by an anti-Spartan faction in 410 (Xen. Hell. 1,1,32). After the Spartan defeat at Arginusae in 406, E. took his ship and troops safely to Chios and stationed them there until Lysander's arrival (Xen. Hell.1,6,26; 35-38; 2,1,1-6; 10; Diod. Sic. 13,97,3; 100,5). He held a command at Aigospotamoi (405) (Diod. Sic. 13,106,5; Paus. 10,9,10). E. late…

Kalokagathia

(309 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (καλοκἀγαθία; kalokagathía). ‘Excellence’, a combination of kalós k(aì) (‘and’) agathós, where kalós means ‘beautiful’, and agathós ‘good’. Because since Homeric times Greek aristocrats had been defining themselves with these two adjectives [1. 8f.], kalokagathia was thought to be an expression of aristocratic self-representation in the Homeric tradition (cf. e.g. [2]). However, this has proven to be false [3. vol. 1, 611ff.]: kalokagathia is not recorded as a set expression until the 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC (evidence: [4. 1054ff.; 107…

Archinus

(89 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀρχῖνος; Archînos). Athenian, around 404 BC initially an adherent of the political group around  Theramenes (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 34,3). Together with  Thrasyboulus in 404/3 he launched the struggle against the 30 Tyrants ( Triakonta) from  Phyle (Dem. Or. 24,135). After the victory he was a proponent of preserving the general amnesty and opposed to expanding Athenian citizenship (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 40,1 f.). The Ionian alphabet was introduced in Athens at his suggestion in 403/2 (Theop. FGrH 115 F 155; PA, 2526; Traill PAA, 213880. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Dorylaus

(227 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Δορύλαος; Dorýlaos). [German version] [1] Great-great-grandfather of Strabo, friend of Mithridates V From Amisus, great-great-grandfather of the geographer Strabo, recruited mercenaries in Thrace, Greece and Crete as anḕr taktikós and friend of Mithridates V of Pontus. In Knossos he was chosen as stratēgós and defeated the Gortynians. After the assassination of Mithridates in 120 BC he remained in Knossos (Str. 10,4,10). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Philetaerus, participated in the 1st Mithridatic War Son of Philetaerus, nephew of D. [1]. Raise…

Axiochus

(75 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀξίοχος; Axíochos). Uncle of  Alcibiades (Pl. Euthd. 275a), and accused together with him in 415 BC of the profanation of the Mysteries in the house of Charmenides, after which he fled from Athens (And. 1,16); his possessions were auctioned. On his alleged amorous adventures: cf. Ath. 12,534F-535A; 13,574E and [1. 20]. He appears in the pseudo-Platonic dialogue that is named after him. Traill, PAA 139755. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 W. M. Ellis, Alcibiades, 1989.

Rhetra

(758 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(ῥήτρα/ rhḗtra, Ionian ῥήτρη/ rhḗtrē, Elean ράτρα/ wrátra; related to εἴρειν/ eírein ('speak')). [German version] [1] Contract (general) Generally 'ceremonial utterance, something said with a claim to authority', figuratively also 'agreement, contract' (e.g., Hom. Il. 14,393; Syll.3 9, Elis, 6th cent. BC), later 'resolution, law' [1. 17-22; 2. 431; 3. 120283]. The phrase εὐθεῖαι ῥῆτραι/ eutheîai rhêtrai ('legal covenants') attested in Tyrtaeus fr. 1b,6 = °14,6 Gentili/Prato (2nd half of 7th cent. BC) expresses an ideal of a consensus extending to all po…

Maldras

(92 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Son of Massilia, was elevated to king of the Suebi by the king of the West Goths Theodericus II in AD 456 after the murder of Rechiarius, although he had to defend himself against other pretenders [1. 124]. In 457 he plundered Olisipo (Lisbon) and laid waste to Gallaecia, in 459 to Lusitania and Portumcale Castrum (Oporto). In the same year, he murdered his brother, was then killed himself in 460 (Chron. min. 2,29-31 Mommsen). PLRE 2, 704. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 D. Claude, Geschichte der Westgoten, 1970.

Endius

(106 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἔνδιος; Éndios). Spartan, son of Alcibiades. In 420 BC, E. attempted in vain as a delegate in Athens to prevent a symmachia between the Athenians and Argos, Mantineia and Elis (Thuc. 5,44-47). As ephor he voted in 413/2 on the advice of Alcibiades [3], who was banned from Athens and with whose family he was associated by proxenia, for a rapid shift of the war theatre to the territory of Athens' allies in Asia Minor (Thuc. 8,6; 17). After the Spartan defeat at Cyzicus (410 BC) E. attempted in vain to broker a peace in Athens (Diod. Sic. 13,52f.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Herpyllis

(120 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἑρπυλλίς; Herpyllís). Life companion (first as slave, then freed, but probably not second wife) of Aristotle [6] (died 322 BC), in whose will she was lavished with money, servants, and the right of residence in the philosopher's estates in Chalcis and Stageira because of her excellent care of him (ὅτι σπουδαία περὶ ἐμὲ ἐγένετο). In case of a future marriage, the executors were to take care that she would not be given to someone unworthy of her (Diog. Laert. 5,13). It is impossible…

Abascantus

(54 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀβάσκαντος; Abáskantos). Athenian from Cephisia, son of Eumolpus, from AD 135/6 34 years παιδοτρίβης δια βίου ( paidotríbēs dia bíou) (CIA 3,1112; 740 and passim), died after 169/70 Traill, PAA, 101125). His son A. (Traill, PAA, 101135) was κοσμητὴς τῶν ἐφήβων ( kosmētḕs tôn ephḗbōn) 192/3-200/1 (CIA 3, 1159). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Herostratus

(117 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἡρόστρατος; Hēróstratos). Arsonist, of unknown origin, involved in the destruction of the Temple of Artemis at  Ephesus in 356 BC. Under torture he confessed that he had been motivated by a thirst for glory, whereupon the Ephesians decided that his name should never again be mentioned. According to Valerius Maximus (8,14 ext. 5), only Theopompus did not abide by that (Ael. NA 6,40; Solin. 40,2-5; Str. 14,1,22 are based on him). In fact, other sources (collected in [1. 262ff.]) do …

Dekaprotoi

(303 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (δεκάπρωτοι; dekáprōtoi). College of the 10 highest ranked decuriones ( Decurio), attested from the middle of the 1st cent. AD for communities in the east of the Roman empire. The obligations of the dekaprotoi, the western equivalent of which were the  Decemprimi, varied according to region and in the course of time. As a rule they represented their communities before the Roman magistrates, received the sworn public accounts of departing municipal officials and administered the community treasury. From the 2nd c…

Anytus

(172 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀνυτος; Ánytos). Son of Anthemion, a well-to-do Athenian. In 409 BC A. was sent as commander with a fleet towards Pylos, but was forced to turn back by a storm; he was, however, cleared at the subsequent investigation -- allegedly through bribery (Diod. Si c. 13,64,6). In 404 he was banished by the ( Thirty), subsequently playing a large part in their overthrow when he joined  Thrasyboulus (Xen. Hell. 2,3,42;44), becoming like him one of the most influential Athenian politicians after 403 (Isoc. Or. 18,23). A lover of  Alc…

Hunericus, Huneric

(191 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Eldest son of  Geisericus and his successor in AD 477-484. King of the Vandals ( rex Vandalorum et Alanorum; Victor Vitensis 2,1). H. was first married to a daughter of the Visigoth king Theodoric I (Iord. Get. 184), and from 456 to Eudocia [2], the daughter of Valentinian III (Procop. Vand. 3,5,6), a marriage that was probably decided upon when H. was staying with him as a hostage, in order to ensure adherence to the treaty of 442 between the Romans and the Vandals (Procop. Vand. 3,4,13). H. sough…

Messenian Wars

(351 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Conflicts between the Spartans and the Messenians ( Messana, Messene [2]) are already attested at the end of the 8th cent. BC (Paus. 4,4,2f.). Repeated assaults by Spartan nobles against Messenians culminated ca. 700/690-680/670 (the older date, based on the list of Olympic victors for 736-716 [1. 9ff.; 2. 34] is not tenable, cf. [3; 4. 91ff.]) in the 1st Messenian War, which resulted in Spartan control over large parts of Messenia [4. 70-91]. A Messenian uprising ca. 640/30-600, …

Opera

(3,186 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] A. Early Period - General Characteristics (CT) Any attempt to trace the heritage of ancient drama in modern opera must focus less on the continuation of ancient genres in the post-medieval world than on a series of changing ideas and projections that have accompanied the history of opera and have on several occasions played a decisive role in its development; however, there are no historical or genre-specific links with ancient drama. When around 1600 a group of po…

Exarchate

(352 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] The term refers to those Byzantine territories in Italy and North Africa which after the reorganization under  Mauricius (AD 582-602) were administered by an exarch (ἔξαρχος; éxarchos, patricius et exarchus). As a direct representative of the emperor, the exarch ─ similar to the later theme structure;  Theme ─ exercised both civilian and military power and could intervene in Church politics (e.g. by confirming the election of a pope). This unusual concentration of power was the result of fighting against the …

Acrotatus

(173 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀκρότατος; Akrótatos). [German version] [1] Older son of  Cleomenes II (2nd half of 4th cent. BC) Older son of  Cleomenes II, Agiad, left Sparta in 315/14 BC without the permission of the ephors in order to conduct for the banned Syracusians and their allies the war against  Agathocles [2]. In the course of this A. is supposed to have been very savage and debauched without achieving larger military successes; he was therefore expelled and died soon thereafter in Sparta even before his father (Diod. Sic. 19,70 f.; Paus. 1,13,5; 3,6,2; Plut. Agis 3). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) …

Eurysthenes

(203 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Εὐρυσθένης; Eurysthénēs). [German version] [1] Legendary Spartan king, descendant of Heracles Legendary Spartan king, according to tradition a son of Aristodemus, descendant of Heracles. E. was held to be the progenitor of the Agiads (Hdt. 4,147; 6,52; 7,204; Cic. Div. 2,90). Hellanicus (FGrH 4 F 116) makes him author of the Spartan constitution, along with his brother Procles, ancestral father of the Eurypontids; Ephorus ascribes to him the dividing-up of the Lacedaemonian settlement districts (FGrH 70 F…

Epicydias

(97 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἐπικυδίδας; Epikydídas). Spartiate, who, in 394 BC, delivered to King Agesilaus the order of the Ephoroi to return to Sparta from Asia Minor (Xen. Hell. 4,2,2; Plut. Agesilaus 15,2). He was probably a troop commander in the battle of Aigospotamoi (405) for which he was honoured in Delphi with a memorial (Paus. 10,9,10, although the name was transmitted in a corrupt form). He fell in 378 in Boeotia under Agesilaus (Xen. Hell. 5,4,39). He is probably not identical with a troop commander of the same name mentioned in Thuc. 5,12f. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Abrote

(49 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀβρώτη; Abrṓtē). According to Plut. Mor. 295a, the canny wife of  Ninus, the king of Megara. In her memory, he is supposed to have introduced her official dress ἀφάβρωμα ( aphábrōma) to the Megarean women; its abolition was supposedly forbidden by an oracle. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Cerrinius

(94 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
Roman gentilicium (also Cerinius) of Oscan origin, derived from Ceres; frequently attested in Pompeii and the surrounding area [1. 467f.]. [German version] [1] Initiates in the Bacchic mysteries, 2nd cent. BC According to Liv. 39,13,9, Minnius and Herennius Cerrinii were the first men to be initiated into the Bacchic mysteries, by their mother, a priestess of Dionysus. After the Senate, seeing the cult as a conspiracy, had banned the so-called  Bacchanalia in 186 BC (CIL I2 581), Minnius, as its leading figure, was arrested in Ardea (Liv. 39,17,6; 19,2). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibl…

Hipponicus

(147 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἱππόνικος; Hippónikos). Son of  Callias and  Elpinice, the (half)sister of  Cimon, rich Athenian (And. 1,130; Lys. 19,48) from the family of the Kerykes, in the office of dadoûchos in Eleusis like his father ( Mysteria). As stratēgós in 427/6 BC, he led the successful campaign against the Tanagraeans alongside Eurymedon [4] (Thuc. 3,91,4f.; And. 1,115; Diod. Sic. 12,65,3ff.). He died shortly before 422. In her first marriage, his wife was married to  Pericles (Plut. Pericles 24,8, where it is falsely assumed that …

Hellanodikai

(252 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἑλλανοδίκαι; Hellanodíkai, also Ἑλληνοδίκαι; Hellēnodíkai), the supervisors and judges at the competitions of Olympia, Nemea (IG IV 587) and the Asclepiea in Epidaurus (IG IV 946; 1508). The hellanodikai of the Olympic Games were chosen in Elis from the local aristocracy for one festival in each case. The office (official oath: Paus. 5,24,10), the sacred components of which are still reflected in a cleansing ritual of the hellenodikai (Paus. 5,16,8), probably involved large financial outlays. The number of hellenodikai was initially restricted to one or tw…

Canidius

(126 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] C. Crassus, P., of unknown descent. In 43 BC, he served as legate of  Lepidus in Gaul (Cic. Fam. 10,21,4). Probably holder of a command position under M.  Antonius [I 9] in the Perusine War (App. B Civ. 5,50; MRR 2,373). Cos. suff. at the end of 40 BC; from 36 BC, he fought successfully in Armenia and in the Caucasus, and took part in Antony's Parthian campaigns. In the winter 33/32 BC, he returned to Antony from a command in Armenia, was in charge of the land forces at Actium; after the defeat, he fled to join Antony in …

Lamis

(131 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Λάμις; Lámis). From Megara, leader of a party of Megarian colonists who, probably together with settlers from Chalcis [1], went to Sicily around 730 BC. There the Megarians separated from the Chalcidians, and, the latter already having occupied the most favourable locations (Naxos, Catana, Leontini), founded Trotilum. They accepted an invitation from Leontini to drive out the Sicels ( Siculi) and live in the polis, but they were soon driven out themselves, founding Thapsus (moder…

Gorgidas

(139 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Γοργίδας/ Gorgídas, or Γοργίας/ Gorgías in Diodorus). The most important Theban politician and commander of the 4th cent. BC (cf. Diod. Sic. 15,39,2) alongside  Epaminondas and  Pelopidas, Hipparchus in c. 383. After the Spartan seizure of the Cadmeia, G. remained in contact with Theban fugitives in Athens (Plut. Mor. 578BC; 576A). He is said to have organized the resistance against Sparta by forming the ‘holy throng’ ( hieròs lóchos, ἱερὸς λόχος) (Plut. Mor. 594AB; Plut. Pel. 12; 18f.; Polyaenus, Strat. 2,5,1; in Ath. 13,602a attributed to Epami…

Diadochi, wars of the

(935 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] The term refers to the wars between the former companions and generals of king Alexander [4] ( Diadochi and Epigoni) for his inheritance, lasting from his death in 323 BC to the formation of the Hellenistic state system. The period of the D. can be roughly divided into two periods: the wars leading up to the death of  Antigonos [1] Monophthalmos (301 BC), who championed most forcefully the unity of the empire, and the subsequent phase, beginning as early as c. 305, in which the Hellenistic successor states of Alexander's empire slowly took on the characteris…

Byrebista(s)

(164 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Βυρεβίστας; Byrebístas, Βοιρεβίστας; Boirebístas). King of the Dacians, c. 60 BC founded a coherent kingdom, which at times extended from the Hungarian low plain to the Julian Alps. His conquests included Scordisci, Taurisci and Boii; his attacks on Thracian territories in the western Pontus region also led to heavy plundering of Greek colonies (i.a. Apollonia). Pompey negotiated with him in 48 for military support (Syll.3 762,22-42). In 44 Caesar planned a campaign against B. (Str. 7.3.5), but almost simultaneously with his assassination the …

Papianilla

(55 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Daughter of the West Roman emperor Avitus [1], sister of Ecdicius, married the poet Sidonius Apollinaris before AD 455. She brought great wealth to the marriage and was supposedly opposed to her husband's charitableness (Sidon. Epist. 2,2,3; 2,12,1f.; 5,16; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,21f.). PLRE 2, 830 (P. 2) with stemma 14. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Agias

(130 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] Elean, brother of the seer Teisamenus (5th cent. BC) Elean, son of Antiochus, received as a result of the activity of his brother, the seer Teisamenus, together with him Spartan citizenship (Hdt. 9,33; 35). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Elean, seer in Sparta (5th cent. BC) Elean, son of Agelochus, grandson of Teisamenus. As a seer, A. is supposed to have predicted for  Lysander the victory at Aegospotami (in 405) (Paus. 3,11,5 f.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [3] Companion of  Aristomachus [4] II (3rd cent. BC) Companion of  Aristo…

Mesotes

(494 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (μεσότης, mesótēs: ‘middle’, ‘mean’, understood in the positive sense). Key concept of a Greek ethical (and resulting political) maxim, which - according to the classical definition of Aristotle (see below) - postulates an orientation toward the mean between ‘too much’ ( hyperbolḗ) and ‘too little’ ( élleipsis). A diffuse mesótēs ideal is perceptible since the Archaic period, and was already propagated by Hesiodus (Op. 694) and ascribed primarily to the Delphic oracle or the Seven Sages ( mēdén ágan: ‘nothing too much’, supporting documents in [1. 11f.]). A…

Hypomeiones

(120 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (οἱ ὑπομείονες/ hoi hypomeíones, literally: the ‘lesser ones’). In the context of the conspiracy of  Kinadon in 398 BC, the hypomeiones are named along with the  helots, the   neodamṓdeis and the   períoikoi as a group of Spartans with limited rights (Xen. Hell. 3,3,6). This was probably not a technical term but rather a collective designation for former   Spartiátai , who for various reasons and in different ways had fewer rights than the   hómoioi : cowardice in battle (cf.   trésantes ) caused the hypomeiones to be socially stigmatized, and loss of wealth or failure in the   a…

Nauarchos

(183 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ναύαρχος; naúarchos). Title of a Spartan naval commander, first evidence of use during the Persian Wars in 480 BC, when Sparta commanded the Greek forces, including the fleet, and the establishment of military offices became necessary. The first naúarchos was Eurybiades (Hdt. 8,2; 8,42). The office of nauarchía then only became significant again in the Peloponnesian War, where it appeared as a one-year office, which any Spartiate could hold only once; this stipulation could be evaded, however, by appointing a competent military commander, e.g. Lysander [1], as epis…

Geisericus (Geiseric)

(718 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Regarding the name [5. 394]. King of the Vandals and Alani AD 428-477, successor to his half-brother  Gundericus. In 429 G. crossed from the south of Spain to north Africa with 80,000 others (Victor Vitensis 1,2), possibly called in by the Comes Africae  Bonifatius [1], who fell from grace in 427, but ultimately he went because the wealth of the country. Neither Boniface nor an eastern Roman auxiliary corps commanded by Aspar ( Ardabur [2]) were able to stop the Vandals' advance; in 431 G. conquered H…

Eudamidas

(170 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Εὐδαμίδας; Eudamídas). [German version] [1] Spartan, general about 380 BC Spartan, the brother of Phoebidas. E. was supposed to lead a campaign in 382 BC together with Amyntas of Macedonia against Olynthus, but was defeated because of his weak forces and probably killed (Xen. Hell. 5,2,24f.; Diod. Sic. 15,20f.; Dem. Or. 19,264). Maybe he is identical with the early 4th-cent. ephor mentioned in IG V 1, 1232. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Spartan king about 330 BC E. I, Spartan king, Eurypontid, the son of Archidamus III, since 331 or 330 successor of his …

Gundicharius

(146 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Gundahar, Gundihar, Guntiar). Traditionally the son of Gibica; king of the Burgundians. In AD 411 with the king of the Alanians Goar, G. elevated the Gaulish senator  Jovinus in Mainz to the status of emperor (Olympiodorus FHG 4, 61 fr. 17). After the latter's death in 417, he entered into a   foedus with  Honorius (Chron. min. 1,467; 2,155 Mommsen), but in 435 invaded the province of Belgica I where  Aetius [2] defeated him (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,234f.). In 436 G., allegedly with 20,000 Burgundians, was killed in…

Anaxander

(132 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀνάξανδρος; Anáxandros). [German version] [1] Spartan king at the time of the second Messenian war According to Paus. 3,3,4 and 4,15,3 Spartan king at the time of the second Messenian war, Agiad, son of Eurycrates (Hdt. 7,204). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Leader of the Thebans at  Thermopylae (480) According to Aristophanes of Boeotia (FGrH 379 F 6) leader of the Thebans at  Thermopylae (480). Cf. Hdt. 7,233, who names Leontiades in this position. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [3] Theban, mercenary commander in the Peloponnesian War Theban, 411 BC m…

Anaxandridas

(126 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀναξανδρίδας; Anaxandrídas). [German version] [1] Son of the Spartan king Theopompus According to Hdt. 8,131 son of the Spartan king Theopompus, Eurypontid; his historicity is doubtful. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Spartan king around the middle of the 6th cent. BC Spartan king around the middle of the 6th cent. BC, Agiad. Under the reign of A. and of Ariston Tegea formed an alliance with Sparta. A report, according to which Aeschines, the tyrant of Sicyon, was expelled by A. and  Chilon when the latter was ephor (556…

Chersicrates

(50 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Χερσικράτης; Chersikrátēs). Corinthian; descendant of the Bacchiads (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 80). According to Str. 6,2,4 C. was left behind by  Archias, founder of Syracuse, on the way to Sicily, and settled Corcyra. The credibility of these inherently contradictory statements must be doubted. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Agasicles

(97 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀγασικλῆς; Agasiklês), Ion. Hegesicles. [German version] [1] Spartan king (1st half of 6th cent. BC) Spartan king, Eurypontid, father of Ariston. During the basileia of A. and of Leon (first half of the 6th cent. BC) the Spartans suffered a defeat against Tegea (Hdt. 1,65; otherwise Paus. 3,7,6, who claims that A. did not wage any wars). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Scythes (4th cent. BC) Son of Scythes, achieved Attic citizenship through bribery.  Dinarchus directed a speech against him (Dion. Hal. Dein. 10; cf. also Hyp. Eux. 3). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Othryadas

(169 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ὀθρυάδας/ Othryádas, Ὀθρυάδης/ Othryadēs). When, during their conflict over the territory of Thyreatis around 550 BC, the Argives and Spartans had agreed to hold a decisive battle with 300 selected warriors on either side, O. was the only Spartiate to survive. While the two Argive survivors were reporting the outcome in their homeland, O. robbed his fallen enemies of their weapons. Both sides claimed victory, so that a great battle did nonetheless take place, in which Sparta was vic…

Epigraphy

(47 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Epigraphy, from Greek ἐπιγράφειν ( epigráphein, ‘to write on something’). The term refers to ancient texts that were documented on various, mostly permanent materials (stone, bronze, etc.), as well as to the respective sub-discipline of archaeology.  Inscriptions; Epigraphy Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Chirisophus

(237 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Χειρίσοφος; Cheirísophos). [German version] [1] Spartan commander under Cyrus Spartiate; on the instructions of his polis, at Issus in 401 BC he joined the army of the younger  Cyrus with 700 hoplites (Xen. An. 1,4,3; Diod. Sic. 14,19,4f.); after Cyrus' death at Cunaxa C. was sent by  Clearchus to Ariaeus, to offer him the Persian throne (Xen. An. 2,1,4f.). After Clearchus had been imprisoned and put to death, C. received supreme command of the entire remaining army (Diod. Sic. 14,27,1), and led the ret…

Gildilas

(57 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Eastern Goth, comes Syracusanae civitatis in AD 526/7, commander of the province of Sicilia, known from two letters of  Athalaric (Cassiod. Var. 9,11; 14) who threatened the comes Gotharum G. with dismissal from office because of serious irregularities in the levying of taxes and in legal decisions. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Eurylochus

(228 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Εὐρύλοχος; Eurýlochos). [German version] [1] Relative and companion of Odysseus Close relation and ambivalent companion of  Odysseus. He is the only one not to accept the invitation of  Circe, and so escapes being transformed into a pig (Hom. Od. 10,205-274; Apollod. Epit. 7,14-15; Ov. Met. 14,287). When E. later incites the companions against Odysseus, he is threatened with punishment by death (Hom. Od. 10,429-448). Together with  Perimedes he takes part in the sacrifice to the dead before Odysseus ente…

Ecdicius

(201 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
(Ĕκδίκιος; Ekdíkios) [German version] [2] Son of the Emperor Avitus, 5th cent. AD Arvernian from a senator's family, son of the emperor  Avitus [1], brother-in-law of Sidonius Apollinaris, received an excellent education (in Clermont). Around AD 469, he was probably at the court of  Anthemius [2]; probably in 471 he organized the defence of Clermont against the Visigoths using his own means. During a famine in Burgundy in 473, he supplied the (suffering) population with food. In 474, Iulius Nepos awarded the patricius title to him for his achievements and probably made him a magister utr…

Cannutius

(170 words)

Author(s): Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] P. Orator, 1st cent. BC C. is mentioned in Cic. Brut. 205 as copyist (ed.?) of the speeches of P. Sulpicius and as an extremely eloquent orator (positive, in Cic. Clu. 29, 50, 73f.), whereas Aper in Tac. Dial. 21,1 regards him as too old. He was not a senator, but appeared in the trial of Oppianicus (Clu. 58). The passive use of admirari in the only quote in Prisc. Gramm. 2,381,12f. leads to the conclusion that C. was an analogist.  Histrio Calboli, Gualtiero (Bologna) Bibliography Edition: ORF4, 371f. Literature: Münzer, s.v. C. 2, RE 3, 1485 A. E. Douglas, Comm. in Cicero…

Evagon

(118 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Εὐάγων / Euágōn, in MSS also as Εὐγαίων / Eugaíōn, Εὐγέων / Eugéōn). Of Samos, hailed by Dionysius of Halicarnassus as one of the earliest of the Greek historiographers (De Thucydide 5) and the first Samian historian (last third of the 5th cent. BC), the author of Hôroi Samíōn, which was still referred to by Aristotle; Thucydides, too, used it. In the course of a 2nd cent. BC territorial dispute with Priene, the Samians cited an old border agreement (early 7th cent.), mentioned by E. ─ who thus is one of the earliest local …

Dekadarchia

(482 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(δεκαδαρχία; dekadarchía). [German version] [1] Rule by ten c. 400 BC ‘Rule by ten’; commissions of ten men, used in 405/04 BC by the oligarchically inclined Spartan Lysander, especially in the former Athenian sphere of influence; according to Diodorus (14,13,1), besides dekadarchia he also set up oligarchies, but according to Xenophon (Hell. 3,5,13; 6,3,8), Plutarch (Lys. 13) and Nepos (Lys. 1,4-2,1) dekadarchia persisted ‘everywhere’. This is improbable, as Sparta had proclaimed freedom and autonomy as its goal in the war against Athens, and in Greek constitutional conceptions d…

Gannys

(141 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Γάννυς; Gánnys). G. was raised in the house of  Iulia Maesa and had a relationship with her daughter  Iulia Soaemias, who made him the tutor of her son  Elagabalus [2] (Cass. Dio 79,6,1f. Boissevain). G. and  Valerius Comazon had the troops elevate Elagabalus to emperor in Emesa in May AD 218 (Cass. Dio 78,31,2-4). Despite a lack of military experience, G. defeated  Macrinus in June, but was eliminated in the winter of 218-219 by Elagabalus, who had toyed with the idea of marrying…

Ermanaric,

(184 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (H)ermanaricus (also Ermenrichus, Hermenerig). King of the East Goths who, as the first historically documented  Amal, already belongs to the 10th generation of the Amal family tree (Iord. Get. 79 from Cassiodorus). He was the youngest son of Achiulf, brother of Ansila, Ediulf and Vultuulf, and was regarded as the founder of the ‘younger’ family line which, in AD 515, rejoined the 'older' line, founded by Vultuulf, as a result of the marriage of  Eutharicus with  Amalasuntha (Iord…

Epicteta

(384 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπικτήτα; Epiktḗta). Widow of the aristocrat Phoenix from Thera. Under the instruction of her son Andragoras, who died two years after his father, she completed the construction of a shrine to the Muses (mouseion) that Phoenix had started, as a memorial to their son Cratesilochus, but had not been able to finish. In her will (early 2nd cent. BC, preserved epigraphically: IG XII 3,330, l. 1-108), E. entrusted the mouseion to her ‘heiress’ (  epikleros ) daughter Epiteleia. In the will she provided for the setting up of an association o…

Godigisclus

(92 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Godigisel, Godegisel). Burgundian king, son of  Gundiok, lived from c. AD 474 in Geneva, always in the shadow of his older brother  Gundobad (Ennod. Vita Epiphanii 174). In 500, together with the king of the Franks, Chlodovechus ( Clovis I), he defeated Gundobad at Dijon, but in 501 he was killed by the latter when Chlodovechus had to turn against the Visigoths (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,32f; Chron. min. 2,234 Mommsen). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography PLRE 2, 516 (Godigisel 2) Stein, Spätröm. R., 2, 144 with n. 2.

Eutharicus, Eutharic

(142 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Grandson of Berimund of the Amal dynasty, called to Italy by Theoderic the Great in AD 515 and married to  Amalasuntha in order to secure the succession (Iord. Get. 298). He was later adopted by Justin as his son-at-arms, received Roman citizenship; at the assumption of his consulate in 519 ─ on the occasion of which Cassiodorus had written a speech (MGH AA 12,465ff.) and probably also compiled his chronicle ─, he was called Flavius E. Cillica (CIL VI 32003). When he responded rig…

Gentunis

(56 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Genzon). Son of  Geisericus, brother of Hunericus, father of Gunthamundus, Gelaridus, and Thrasamund (Procop. Vand. 1,5,11; 8,6-8; 9,6). In AD 468, he participated in the naval battle against  Basiliscus (Procop. Vand. 1,6,24), only to die in 477, preceding his father in death. PLRE 2,502-503 (Genton 1). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Peace, concept of

(30 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] A unified notion of peace, comparable to the modern concept, was unknown in Antiquity. Eirene; Koine Eirene; Pax. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Agasias

(235 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀγασίας; Agasías) [German version] [1] Lochagos in the mercenary army of the younger Cyrus From Stymphalus. Lochagos in the mercenary army of the younger Cyrus, friend of Xenophon, who praises A. for his courageous demeanour, bravery in battle and resolute advocacy for his own soldiers (cf. especially Xen. An. 6,6,7 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Sculptor from Ephesus, 1st cent. BC Son of Menophilus, sculptor from Ephesus. In the early 1st cent. BC, created portrait statues for Romans in Delos and in Tenos, according to base inscript…

Gesalicus

(147 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gesalech; also Gesalecus, Gisaleicus). Illegitimate son of  Alaricus [3] II; after the latter's death at Vouillé in AD 507 he was elected king of the Visigoths, as his legitimate half-brother  Amalaricus, grandson of the Ostrogothic king Theoderic, was still a minor (Procop. Goth. 5,12,43). G. was soon forced to retreat to Spain by the Burgundians and Franks (Chron. min. 1,665f. Mommsen). When Theoderic contested his leadership on behalf of Amalaricus (Procop. Goth. 5,12,46), G. …

Fritigern

(180 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Dux ( reiks) of the  Tervingi; in AD 376, with the permission of  Valens and under threat from the Huns, he led his tribe as dediticiideditio ) across the Danube to Thrace (Amm. Marc. 31,4,8; Iord. Get. 134), where the Arian won over parts of the indigenous population. After conflicts with the Romans the Goths defeated the Romans on 9 Sept. 378 in the battle of Hadrianople (Amm. Marc. 31,6,3-5; 11,5; 12,8 [1. 133-139]). F., who was not able to take advantage of the victory because his …

Canuleius

(321 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Name of a plebeian gens, attested from the 5th cent. BC (variant Canoleius; Greek Κανουλήϊος; Kanoulḗïos); from the 1st cent. AD, the name becomes rare (ThlL, Onom. 2,148f.). [German version] [1] C., C. Tribunus plebis 445 BC tribunus plebis of 445 BC, who is said to have introduced a plebiscitum Canuleium de conubio, repealing the bar to marriage between patricians and plebeians (Cic. Rep. 2,63; Liv. 4,1,1-6). As it is hard to imagine that a people's tribune of the 5th cent. BC could so decisively intervene in the legislative process, the reliab…

Duenos inscription

(465 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] An inscription in archaic Latin on the so-called ‘Vasculum Dresselianum’, a ceramic vessel discovered in Rome, south-east of the Quirinal, in 1880 by H. Dressel. The triangular object with rounded tips and concave sides (length of sides: 10,3-10,5 cm; max. height: 4,5 cm; cf. [1. 55]) has a round opening at each tip. The inscription is on the outer side, written in three lines to be read from right to left (see fig.; other fig. in [1; 2. 134f., 140]; a version of transcription in [3. 70]). The dating of the text ranges from the 7th to the late 3rd cent. BC; ar…

Gesimund

(87 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of Hunimund the Elder, first Gothic king under Hunnish rule. In AD 376 he helped the Hunnish king Balamber to victory over the Amalian Vinitharius (Iord. Get. 248). Perhaps identical to Gensimund, who, although the kingship was offered to him as Amalian magister militum, declined in favour of the legitimate successors (Cassiod. Var. 8,9). PLRE 2,510 and [1. 26f.] consider the two to be identical; contrary [2. 254f.]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Heather, Goths and Romans 332-489, 1991 2 H. Wolfram, Die Goten, 31990.

Daochus

(157 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Δάοχος; Dáochos). [German version] [1] D.I. Tagos of the Thessalian koinon 431-404 BC from Pharsalus, son of Agias, was the   tagos of the Thessalian koinon for 27 years ( c. 431-404 BC?); his tageia was reputedly a time of peace and prosperity (Syll.3 273) [1. 110f.]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] D. II. Thessalian, envoy of Philip II 338 BC high-ranking Thessalian, grandson of D. [1]. In 338 BC, Philip II sent him together with others to the Thebans to procure support against Athens (Pol. 18,4,4; Dem. Or. 18,211…

Column/Monumental column

(1,889 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Meier, Hans-Rudolf
Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] A. Interpretatio Christiana ofIillustrated Columns (CT) Whether in architectural contexts or isolated as monumental columns, scarcely any building element in post-classical times is linked so closely with reference to Antiquity as the column. This is true both positively, in the sense of a conscious renovatio of Classical or Christian Antiquity, and negatively, in connexion with idols as the embodiment of vanquished paganism. Columns with standing ‘idols’, mostly nude, became almost a topos in the art of the later Midd…

Gundiok

(112 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gundovech). King of the Burgundians in AD 457-470, from the family of  Athanaric [1. 44], married a sister of Ricimer (Malalas 374-75; Johannes Antiochenus fr. 209), his sons are Gundobad, Godigisclus, Chilperic and Godomer (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,28). As an ally of Theoderic II he attacked in 455 with his brother Chilperic I the Suebians in Gaul and settled there after the victory of Theoderic in 457. In 463 he was magister utriusque militiae (per Gallias); in the same year he informed Pope Hilarius about the irregular administration of the bishop of  Vienna (Hilarius Ep…

Euricus, Euric

(323 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (also Eurichus, Euarix). King of the Visigoths in AD 466-484, son of Theoderic I, succeeded to the throne after the murder of his brother Theoderic II (Iord. Get. 190; Hydatius Lemiensis 237). E.'s reign was marked by the constant endeavour to expand the area of his kingdom (originally Aquitania II, Novempopulana and parts of Narbonensis I) and to weaken the dependence on Rome, which is clear from the termination of the   foedus with the Romans. From 468 he advanced against the Suebi and in the following years conquered almost the e…

Eraricus, Erarich

(95 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐράριχος; Erárichos). A Rugian, AD 541 king of the Ostrogoths in succession to Ildibad. Officially, E. negotiated with Justinian a withdrawal of the Goths to the region north of the Po, but secretly he offered to abandon the whole of Italy in return for a large sum of money and the status of patricius. While his ambassadors were still negotiating, E. was eliminated after having reigned for only five months; his successor was Totila (Procop. Goth. 3,2; Jord. Rom. 378f.; Chron. min. 2,106f. Mommsen). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Guntharith

(133 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Guntharis, Gundarus, Gontharis). Bucellarius of  Solomon I, magister militum and dux Numidiae from AD 545 (Iord. De origine actibusque Romanorum 384). G., whom Solomon had sent out in advance to Bagae on the River Abigas with an army to fight the Moors, escaped defeat only through the latter's rapid assistance (Procop. Vand. 2,19,6-16). In a secret alliance with the prince of the Moors Antalas, G. decided in 546 to remove  Areobindus [3], which also occurred (Procop. Vand. 2,25,1-28). G. oc…

Aristocrates

(485 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Legendary king of the Arcadian Orchomenus (2nd half 7th cent. BC) Legendary king of the Arcadian Orchomenus (Apollod. FGrH 244 F 334; according to Paus. 4,17,2; 8,5,13 king of Trapezus) at the time of the Second Messenian War (2nd half of the 7th cent. BC); according to Diog. Laert. 1,94, he ruled, together with his son, over almost all of Arcadia. As leader of the Arcadians, on several occasions A. supposedly betrayed his Messenian allies under the leadership of  Aristomenes to Sparta (Paus. 4,17,2-8; 22,1-6), and he was finally stoned …

Fredericus

(243 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Frederick). [German version] [1] Son of the West Gothic king Theodoric I, co-ruler of Theoderic II about AD 450 Son of the West Gothic king Theoderic I, brother and co-ruler of Theoderic II, whom he helped to the throne in AD 453 after the murder of the eldest brother Thorismud (Chron. min. 1,483; 2,27 Mommsen; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,7); after successful battles against the Spanish Bagauds (probably as magister militum, cf. Chron. min. 2,27; in this regard [1. 690f.]) he was involved in 455 in the rise of  Avitus [1] to the position of emperor (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,…

Cornelius Bocchus

(122 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Mentioned by Pliny the Elder as the source for parts of his Naturalis historia (Plin. HN 16,216; 37,24; 97; 127); Solinus also repeatedly draws on a C.B. as a source for chronological details (cf. Solin. 1,97; 2,11; 2,18); still the identity of this C.B. with that referred to in Pliny (suspected by [1. XIV]) cannot be proved [2. 646f.]. The inscriptions CIL II 35 and 5184 (=ILS 2920 and 2921) from Lusitania (1st cent. AD), according to which a Lucius CB was flamen provinciae and tribunus militum legionis III Augustae, however probably do relate to Pliny's source. PIR2 C. 133…

Ervig, Ervigius

(99 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] King of the West Goths, AD 680-687. As comes at the court of Wamba, E. was not free of involvement in the latter's deposal and he had himself anointed king without any election. In 681 he had a new version of the law of the West Goths issued. His policy of strengthening the kingship came to grief in 683, when he was obliged to make concessions to the aristocracy at the 13th Council of Toledo. In 687, seriously ill, he designated his bitter rival Egica as his successor. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Carrinas

(416 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman family name, presumably of Etruscan origin (in Greek also Καρείνας, Καρρείνας; Kareínas, Karreínas), reliably attested from the 1st cent. BC (ThlL, Onom. 2,209f.). I. Republican Age [German version] [I 1] C., C. Follower of Marius Follower of Marius, in the Civil War sent to Picenum against  Pompeius in 83 BC (Plut. Pompeius 7); he was praetor in 82 BC , and suffered a number of defeats in northern and central Italy. After the flight of the consul Cn.  Papirius Carbo to Africa, the remaining Marian military leaders united their troops with the Samn…

Androcles

(281 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough)
(Ἀνδροκλῆς; Androklês). [German version] [1] Messenian king shortly before the outbreak of the first Messenian War Son of Phintas, according to ancient tradition together with his brother Antiochus Messenian king shortly before the outbreak of the first Messenian War (Paus. 4,4,4). A. was supposed to have conducted, after the differences between Sparta and Messenia had already come to a crisis due to the murder of the Spartan king  Teleclus, in a new conflict with Sparta a moderate politics aimed at peaceful eq…

Godigiselus

(102 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] King of the Vandal Hasdingians around AD 400, father of  Gundericus and  Geisericus. Under G. the Hasdingians moved from Pannonia via Vindelicia and Noricum to the Rhine-Neckar area where G. fell in battle in 406 fighting the Franks, who were defending the Roman Rhine border (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9); Procop. (Vand. 3,3,2; 22f.) and Theophanes (5931; 6026) erroneously report that G. led the Hasdingians to Spain. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography PLRE 2, 515f. F. Clover, The Late Roman West and the Vandals, 1993 Chr. Courtois, Les vanda…

Cornelianus

(163 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Addressee of Pliny Ep. 6,31 Addressee of Pliny Ep. 6,31, cf. [1]. PIR2 C 1301. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. N. Sherwin-White, Comm. ad loc. [German version] [2] Ab epistulis Graecis under Marcus Aurelius and Commodus Ab epistulis Graecis in the imperial chancellery under Marcus Aurelius and Commodus. Phrynichus dedicated his eclogues to C., and acclaimed him as reviving classical rhetoric (pp. 55, 306, 474-75, 482, 492-93 Rutherford). He can probably not be identified with the C. named in Fronto (ad Am. 1,1; 1,2, cf. [1.…

Adeimantus

(325 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀδείμαντος; Adeímantos). [German version] [1] Corinthian (5 cent. BC) Corinthian, son of Ocytus, fled in a cowardly manner, according to Herodotus (8,94), in the war against Xerxes with the Corinthian contingent before the naval battle at  Salamis in 480 BC. In fact, he was probably supposed to guard an area apart from the scene of the battle, namely the western entrance to the gulf, and then became involved in the battle (cf. ML 24; Dio Chrys. 37,18; Plut. Mor. 870b-871a). His son Aristeas (Aristeus) c…

Eclectus

(133 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἔκλεκτος; Éklektos, also Electus, Eiectus). E. from Egypt, freedman of Verus, later lived in the palace of Marcus Aurelius (SHA Ver. 9,5f.) after whose death he became cubicularius of that emperor's nephew M. Ummidius Quadratus. When the latter was executed in AD 182, Commodus took on E. (Herodian. 1,16,5; Cass. Dio 72,4,6) with whom he appeared in gladiator games (SHA Comm. 15,2; Cass. Dio 72,19,4). In 193, together with the praetorian prefect Aemilius Laetus and Marcia, the concubina of Commodus, he instigated the murder of the Emperor (Hdn. 1,17,6; 2,1…

Eutherius

(221 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Εὐθήριος; Euthḗrios). [German version] [1] Slave at the court of Constantine I An Armenian pagan eunuch, who had come to the court of Constantine I as a slave, later served under Constans, and under Julian rose to praepositus sacri cubiculi (AD 356-360). In Milan in 356/7, E. appeared before Constantius II to defend Julian against Marcellus' accusations (Amm. Marc. 16,7,2f.); after Julian had been made Augustus in 360, he became his envoy with Constantius (Amm. Marc. 20,8,19; 9,1-4; Zos. 3,9,3f.); In 361, Julian recalled him once ag…

Euclidas

(205 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover)
(Εὐκλείδας; Eukleídas; Paus. 2,9,1; 3: Epicleidas). [German version] [1] Spartan king about 227-222 BC Spartan king c. 227-222 BC, son of Leonidas II, Agiad. His brother Cleomenes III elevated him as king after the murder of the Eurypontid Archidamus III to formally preserve the double monarchy. Tradition attributes the Spartan catastrophe against Antigonus [3] Doson (222) at Sellasia to his tactical incompetence. E. was killed in this battle (Plut. Cleom. 11,5; 28,3; 6f.; Phil. 6; Paus. 2,9,1; 3; Pol. 2,65-68). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Syracusan die cutter…

Hegesilochus

(145 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἡγεσίλοχος; Hēgesílochos). [German version] [1] Rhodian, middle of 4th cent. BC Rhodian, exploited the conflict between Rhodes and Athens ( Social Wars [1]) in 356/5 BC, in order to take over power in Rhodes at the head of an oligarchical clique with the support of  Maussollos of Caria. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography R. M. Berthold, Rhodes in the Hellenistic Age, 1984, 31, with n. 41 (sources and bibliography). [German version] [2] Rhodian prytanis and envoy, 2nd cent. BC (also: Ἀγησίλοχος; Agēsílochos). Son of Hagesias, Rhodian, moderate friend of Rome, who as prytanis (17…

Gundobad

(229 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of Gundiok, king of the Burgundians in AD 474-516, Arian. On the side of  Ricimer he, as magister utriusque militiae in 472, killed Anthemius [2] (Chron. min. 1,306 Mommsen), administered the western empire and in 473 elevated Glycerius to the status of Augustus (Chron. min. 1,664). In 474 he ─ in the meantime comes and patricius ─ returned to Gaul and succeeded Ricimer in Vienna. He defeated the Alemanni and around 490 invaded Liguria (Ennod. 80). In 496 he married his son Sigismundus to Areagni, a daughter of Theoderic. In 501 he defeated…

Archedemus

(200 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Hülser, Karl-Heinz (Constance)
(Ἀρχέδημος; Archédēmos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician of c. 400 BC Athenian politician of c. 400 BC. Archedemus was close to  Socrates and  Criton (Xen. Mem. 2,9). As administrator of the diobelia, after the battle of the Arginusae in 406 BC he accused the strategos  Erasinides of misappropriation of funds and faults in the performance of his official duties (Xen. Hell. 1,7,2), thus initiating the so-called trials of the generals at Arginusae. As a demagogue, he was mocked in comedies (cf. Aristoph. Ran. 416 ff. with schol.; PA, 2326; Traill PAA, 208855. Meier, Mischa (Bie…

Gastaldi

(91 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Administrators of goods and representatives of the king's interests in the Lombardic kingdom, first attested under Authari (AD 584-590). Since the 7th cent. they watched over the dukes (cf. Edictus Rothari 23); in the 8th cent. they could preside over courts of law. They were directly subject to the king in their non-inheritable office. In the Duchies of Spoleto and Benevent they administered the most important towns for the dukes. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography C. G. Mor, Lo stato longobardo nel VII secolo, 1969, 1, 271ff.

Gunthamundus

(60 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of Gentunis, king of the Vandals in AD 484-496 (Iord. Get. 170; Procop. Vand. 1,8,6f.), fought successfully against the Moors. In 491 his attempt to reconquer Sicily failed (Ennod. Panegyricus 70). He showed tolerance to the Catholics after initially persecuting them. PLRE 2, 525f. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography H.-J. Diesner, Das Vandalenreich, 1966, 84-88.

Dagisthaeus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Δαγισθαῖος; Dagisthaîos). As a young Roman commander D., who probably was of Gothic origin, unsuccessfully besieged Persian-occupied Petra in the area of the Lazi in AD 548/9 (Procop. Pers. 2,29 especially 33-43). On account of this he was later taken to court under Justinian on the charge of pro-Persian sentiments and arrested by the emperor (Procop. Goth. 4,9,1-4). For the Narses campaign to Italy he was released from custody and took part in the decisive battle against Totila a…
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