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Callimachus

(3,899 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lehnus, Luigi (Milan) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Καλλίμαχος; Kallímachos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 490 BC archon and supreme commander at Marathon Athenian, árchōn polémarchos ( Archontes) in 490 BC, supreme commander at  Marathon (490 BC). It is disputed if C. was appointed polémarchos by lot (Hdt. 6,109). Aristotle's claim (Ath. Pol. 22,5) that the archontes were first selected by lot in 487/86 appears preferable. But perhaps areas of responsibility were already distributed among them by lot after 509/8. C. only nominally held supreme command, but he was a voting mem…

Syn(n)ada

(97 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σύν(ν)αδα/ Sýn(n)ada; Lat. Synnas). City in Greater Phrygia (Diod. 20,107,3 f.; Cic. Fam. 3,8,3; 5 f.; 15,4,2; Cic. Att. 5,16,2; 5,20,1; Liv. 38,15,14; 45,34,11 f.; Synnas: Plin. HN 5,105,8; Tab. Peut. 9,4; Suda s. v. Συνᾴδων: Sýnada), modern Şuhut. At the village of Docimeum (Steph. Byz. s. v. Σ.: Dokímeia kṓmē) in S.'s territory there were quarries in which an alabaster-like marble (with map) was obtained, named by the local inhabitants after Docimeum, and by the Romans after S. (Str. 12,8,13 f.: Synnadikòs líthos). Roman necropoleis, rock graves, and r…

Erymanthus

(168 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Ἐρύμανθος; Erýmanthos). [German version] [1] Mountain ridge in the north west Pelopponese A mountain range extending up to 2,224 m in height and consisting of several chains stretching north-east to south-west; located in the north-western Peloponnese in the border area between  Elis and  Achaea, the earlier north-western mountain border of  Arcadia. Composed of layers of limestone, it drops away sharply for over 25 km in the north-west towards the flysch hills of Voundoukia; today also Olonos. The setting…

Pedasa

(285 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Persian Wars | Delian League (τὰ Πήδασα/ tà Pḗdasa, Πήδασος/ Pḗdasos). City of the Leleges in Caria in the mountainous country to the north of Halicarnassus (Str. 13,1,59; 7,7,2) near Gökçeler, to the east of the modern village of Bitez, which has preserved the name P. In individual cases accounts of P. give rise to doubt as to whether P., Pidasa or Pedason is meant (cf. [1. vol. 1, 535-538]). In 545/4 BC in the Lide mountains near P. (modern…

Plataniston

(46 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πλατανιστών; Platanistṓn). River in southern Arcadia (Paus. 8,39,1), rising on Mount Tetrazio (1389 m high), flowing north through  Lycosura and east of Calivia Carion into the left side of the Alpheius [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. P. (2), RE 20, 2335.

Tarusco

(74 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] City in Gallia Narbonensis City in Gallia Narbonensis in the territory of the Salluvii (Str. 4,1,3; 12: Ταρούσκων; Ptol. 2,10,15), modern Tarascon. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, Gallia Narbonensis, 1988, 300. [German version] [2] City in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages City in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages on the northern slopes of the Pyrenees (Pyrene [2]; Plin. HN 3,37), modern Tarascon sur Ariège. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Thermodon

(132 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] River in Boeotia (Θερμώδων; Thermṓdōn). River (Hdt. 9,43,2: potamós; Paus. 9,19,3: cheímarros, ‘torrent’) of uncertain location in Boeotia, between Tanagra and Glisas, probably closer to Glisas. Possibly the modern Kalamítis, which flows on the south side of the Hypatus mountains (modern Sagmatás) and passes Glisas to the south [1. 222f.]. Identification with the Haemon [6] (Plut. Theseus 27,6; Plut. Demosthenes 19) is incorrect. Fell, Martin (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey. [German version] [2] River in Asia minor Coastal river (modern Terme); r…

Pons

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Waldherr, Gerhard H. (Regensburg) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Roads and bridges, construction of see Roads and bridges, construction of Eder, Walter (Berlin) [German version] [2] Voting bridge The term pons (generally in the plural form of pontes) was also used for the narrow 'voting bridges' in Rome which members of the comitia had to cross on the way to cast their votes. It is argued that the saying Sexagenarios de ponte (deicere) with its incitement to throw sixty-year olds from the bridge (Cic. Rosc. Am. 100; Fest. 452; Macrob. Sat. 1,5,10) stemmed from the demand by younger voters to bar older o…

Symaethum

(122 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σύμαιθος/ Sýmaithos, Latin Symaethum). Border river between Leontini and Catane (Thuc. 6,65,2) in the east of Sicily. It rises according to Str. 6,2,2 like the Pantacyas at Mount Etna (Aetna [1]) and flows into the sea to the north of Catane (Ptol. 3,4,9; cf. Plin. HN 3,89). The modern Simeto, however, which can without doubt be identified with the S., rises on Mount Nebrodes and its mouth is to the south of Catane; the displacement of the mouth can be explained by the activities of…

Sicily

(3,857 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Kunz, Heike (Tübingen)
(Σικελία/ Sikelía, Sicily). The largest island in the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum; cf. Str. 2,5,19; differently Hdt. 1,170 and Timaeus FGrH 566 F 65): 25,460 km2, including the offshore islands such as the Insulae Aegates, Ustica, the Aeoli Insulae, Cossura, Lopadusa (present-day Lampedusa), Aethusa (present-day Linosa) and Melite [7] 25,953 km2. [German version] I. Name The island was originally called Trinacria (Τρινακρία/ Trinakría, Hellanicus FGrH 51 F 79b), later Sicania (Σικανίη/ Sikaníē, Hdt. 7,170; Σικανία/ Sikanía, Thuc. 6,2,2) and only then Sicelia (Σικελία)…

Hodometron

(106 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (ὁδόμετρον; hodómetron). Hero (Dioptra 34) and Vitruvius (10,9) describe a mechanical device for distance measurement on land in which a connection of endless screws and sprockets mounted on different levels, driven by a cart wheel, transmits each rotation of the wheel to a display system in a retarding manner (Hero: pointer; Vitruvius: falling balls). The hodometron was sufficient for one day trip and then had to be put back to the initial position. Vitruvius knew of a corresponding device for sea trips based on a bucket wheel. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliograp…

Erythrae

(596 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Engelmann, Helmut (Cologne)
(Ἐρυθραί; Erythraí). [German version] [1] Boeot. city This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians Boeotian city mentioned as early as Hom. Il. 2,499 (Plin. HN 4,26; Steph. Byz. s.v. E.) on the northern slope of the  Cithaeron range east of Plataeae and Hysiae. Other references: Eur. Bacch. 751; Thuc. 3,24,2; Xen. Hell. 5,4,49; Paus. 9,2,1. According to Str. 9,2,12 mother city of the Ionian E. [2]. Before the battle of Plataeae (479 BC) the Persian camp stretched along the Asopus from E. over …

Hipparis

(63 words)

Author(s): Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] The bigger and northernmost of the two rivers that run into the south-west coast of Sicily near Camarina, modern Íppari ( Oanis), praised by Pindar (Ol. 5,12) as benefactor of Camarina, depicted on city coins as a horned youth. Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography J. B. Curbera, Onomastic of River-Gods in Sicily, in: Philologus 142, 1998, 59f.

Cleon

(1,003 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Κλέων; Kléōn). [German version] [1] The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC The most influential politician in Athens after 430 BC, as the operator of a tannery was the first important demagogue from the circle of tradesmen who were rising to political leadership. Sources paint a picture of a man who put his loyalty to the people ( dḗmos) before that to his friends, who cleverly exploited the moods prevalent among the people and procured a following for himself by promising material gains. C. opposed  Pericles at the beginning of the Pelo…

Insulae Gorgades

(124 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Unlocated archipelago mentioned by Pliny (HN 6,200; Mela 3,99: Dorcades), who refers to  Xenophon [8] of Lampsacus (location of the island two days' journey from the African west coast; name derived from the Gorgons who once lived there) and  Hanno [1] (characterization of the inhabitants as savages; their women are said to have hairy skin). In Hanno's report, which is available in a much altered form (Peripl. 18, GGM 1,1-14), the women of the Insulae Gorgades are called Goríllai (Γορίλλαι, possibly a misspelling of the Greek translation for Gorgades). Olshausen, Ecka…

Reii

(166 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Celtic-Ligurian tribe in Gallia Narbonensis in the area of the modern French department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence with capital Alebaece (Plin. HN 3,36, cf. Str. 4,6,4: Ἀλβίοικοι/ Albíoikoi; Caes. B Civ. 1,34,4; 56,2; 2,2,6: Albici; modern Riez) [1] at the foot of the hill of Saint-Maxime between Forum Iulii (modern Fréjus) and Aquae [III 5] Sextiae (modern Aix-en-Provence), constituted beginning in Augustus' time as colonia Iulia Augusta Apollinaris Reiorum, with quattuorviri, aediles, flamen Romae et Augusti and pontifex (cf. inscriptions CIL XII 351;…

Hyporon

(28 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in Bruttium (bronze coins around 300 BC: HN 105), probably identical to Hipporum in It. Ant. 115. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 949.

Leucosyri

(273 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Λευκόσυροι; Leukósyroi, ‘White Syrians’, meaning and origin of the term are unclear). Indigenous inhabitants (App. Mith. 292; Σύριοι/ Sýrioi, Hdt. 1,6,1; 2,104; Ἀσσύριοι/ Assýrioi, Dionys. Per. 975) considered by the Greeks as an ethnic entity of the Anatolian northern part of the region Assyria (Λευκοσυρία/ Leukosyría, schol. vetera ad Apoll. Rhod. 196,9; 198,10; 201,6; Λευκοσυριακή/ Leukosyriakḗ, 200,1; Λευκοσυρική/ Leukosyrikḗ, 198,3). According to Ps.-Scyl. 89, the area where they lived extended from the river Thermodon (modern Term…

Nymphaeum

(1,502 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
I. Sanctuary [German version] A. Etymology and definition The word νυμφαῖον/ nymphaîon is first attested in the 4th cent. BC, on Delos (IG XI,2,144, A l. 91). It originally designated a sanctuary of the nymphs. A nymphaeum is first attested in Itanus on Crete in the 3rd cent. BC together with a water reservoir (ILS 9458). The Latinised form nymphaeum is first found in Pomponius Mela (first half of the 1st cent. AD, Mela 2,3), for a nymph sanctuary in Chersonessus. Conversely, Plinius (HN 35,151) used the word nymphaeum to describe a well with a statue in it (Corinth). The modern t…

Pharis

(113 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Φᾶρις, Φαραί; Phâris, Pharaí). Town in Laconica (Hom. Il. 2,582; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 117; Str. 8,5,1; the form Φαραί is used in later literature such as Paus. 4,16,8; Hierocles, Synecdemus 647,10; Liv. 35,30,9), c. 10 km south of Sparta, 2 km east of Amyclae [1], probably Vaphio with the well known Mycenaean beehive tomb, abandoned in the time of Pausanias [1. 76f.; 2. 168f.]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 H. Waterhouse, R.Hope Simpson, Prehistoric Laconia I, in: ABSA 55, 1…

Portus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Artificially extended harbour complex near Ostia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre An artificial harbour complex, created under the emperor Claudius (AD 41-54) to extend the harbour of Ostia (with plan) and enlarged under Trajan (AD 98-117), c. 3 km northwest of Ostia. The Claudian harbour basin ( c. 80 hectares) was protected from the sea by a mole structure (but not actually safe; in AD 62 almost 200 ships went down in a storm: Tac. Ann. 15,18) and marked by a lighthouse (cf. plan: 1) (according to Suet. C…

Hira

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ἱρή/ Hirḗ, Ἰρή/ Irḗ, Εἶρα/ Eîra). Mountain stronghold in the inaccessible ravined area in the south of the upper Neda on the northern border of Messenia, possibly on the 864 m high Hagios Athanasios near Kakaletri (traces of ancient fortifications).  Aristomenes [1] led the battle against the Spartans from here in 500-490/489 BC (Third Messenian War). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3,2, 357 F. Kiechle, Messenische Studien, 1959, 86ff.

Nedon

(60 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νέδων; Nédōn).The largest river in Messenia after the  Pamisus; it rises on Mt. Taygetus and, following a south-westerly direction, it traverses Denthaliatis (Denthalii) with its numerous wellsprings (cf. Tac. Ann. 4,43; Steph. Byz. s.v. Δενθάλιοι), then flows into the Messenian bay at Pherae (Str. 8,3,29; 4,4; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ν.). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3, 406.

Larinum

(123 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | (Λάρινα; Lárina). Town of the Dauni (Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.), afterwards of the Frentani (Ptol. 3,1,65) in Samnium on Monte Arone (475 m) to the right of the Tifernus (modern Biferno), south of Cigno, surrounded by a tributary of the Tifernus; 1 km east of modern Larino. Municipium, tribus Clustumina, regio II (Plin. HN 3,105; Mela 2,66). From the middle of the 3rd cent. BC, Greek (Campanian) and Latin (Apulian) bronze coins (HN 28f.). Considerable remains: city wall, bat…

Hellespontus

(520 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἑλλήσποντος; Hellḗspontos, Dardanelles, Turkish Çanakkale Boğazı). Strait, formed from a river valley during the glacial epoch, between the Propontis in the north and the  Aegean Sea in the south, the Thracian peninsula Chersonesus [1] in the west (Europe) and the Troad in the east (Asia; cf. Plin. HN 4,49), c. 65 km long, between 1.2 km (between Sestus and Abydus [1]) and 7.5 km wide, between 57 m and 103 m deep. As in the  Bosporus [1], a strong (maximum 5 knots; cf. Hom. Il. 2,845; 12,30; Hsch. s.v. Ἑ.; Aristot. Mete. 2,8; A…

Helisson

(214 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἑλισσών; Helissṓn). [German version] [1] River in Arcadia River in Arcadia with abundant water at all seasons, tributary of the Alpheius [1], rises on the north-west slope of the Maenalum range, firstly flows south, then, turning west, in a narrow gorge penetrates the central mountains of Arcadia, composed of lime, flows through the Megalopolis Basin and flows out to the west of this into the Alpheius (Paus. 5,7,1; 8,29,5; 30,1f.). An important connecting route to northern Arcadia (today the Tripolis-Vitina road) runs through the upper valley of the H. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Li…

Neoclaudiopolis

(211 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νεοκλαυδιόπολις/ Neoklaudiópolis, Latin Neoclaudiopolis). City in the Paphlagonian district of Phazemonitis to the east of the lower Halys, near the village of Phazemon (Φαζημών/ Phazēmṓn, OGIS 532, 40f.) in the territory of the neighbouring township of Andrapa (Ἄνδραπα/ A'ndrapa, Ptol. 5,4,6,4; Hierocles, Synekdemos 701,7; Nov. 28 praef.); founded by Pompey in 65 or 62 BC with the name Neapolis (Strab. 12,3,38) as part of the new province of Bithynia et Pontus [7. 33f., 38f., 71ff.], renamed N. under Claudius (IGR 3…

Ithome

(290 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἰθώμη; Ithṓmē). [German version] [1] Chalk mountain in Messenia This chalk mountain (modern Vurkano), rising to 802 m and dominating the Messenian plain, together with Eua, its southern secondary summit (modern Hagios Vassilios), forms the natural acropolis for the entire region of Messenia, and its centre in legend and history. The lengthy siege of Mt. I. was the main topic of Myron of Priene's prose novel on the First Messenian War (Paus. 4,9-13). During the major uprising of the helots in 464 BC, the…

Grudii

(64 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] One of the five tribes in Gallia Belgica dependent on the  Nervii (the others being the  Ceutrones [1],  Levaci,  Pleumoxii and  Geidumni: Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1). Their area of settlement lay in what is now Flanders. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography TIR M 31 Paris, 1975, 133 H. Boone, Ceutrones et Nervii, in: Mémoires de la Societé d'Emulation de Cambrai 73, 1926, 105-206.

Nonacris

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Νώνακρις; Nōnakris). [German version] [1] Place in Arcadia Place in Arcadia (Paus. 8,18,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ν.; Suda s.v. Ν.; Hesych. s.v. Ν.; IG V 2, p. 83) in the valley of the upper Crathis [1] on the north-eastern slope of Aroania Ore (modern Helmos), famous because of the Styx waterfall, which was located in the N. area; N. is mentioned in classical literature only in this connection. If in the 5th cent. BC it was still an independent town (Hdt. 6,74), in the 4th cent. BC N. Belonged to Pheneus. I…

Vologesocerta

(75 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Zenobia (Plin. HN 6,122; Ptol. 5,20,6: Οὐλογαισία/ Ou ologaisía; Amm. Marc. 23,6,23: Vologessia; Tab. Peut. 11,4: Volocesia; Steph. Byz. s. v. Βολογεσσίας/ Bologessías). City in Babylonia, founded by the Parthian king Vologaeses I on the Naarmalcha near Seleucia [1] and in competition with it; presumably at modern Abū Ḫalafīya. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. Oppenheimer, Babylonia Judaica in the Talmudic Period (TAVO Beiheft B 47), 1983, 198-207.

Peirus

(66 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πεῖρος; Peîros). River in western Achaea, the source is on the northern slopes of the Erymanthus [1], flows past Phara and into the Gulf of Corinth 2 km northeast of Dyme [1], today again called P. (formerly Kamenitsa). Cf. Hdt. 1,145; Str. 8,3,11; Paus. 7,18,1f.; 22,1. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 72-74  Müller, 822.

Cabira

(136 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hellenistic states (Κάβειρα; Kábeira). The residence of Mithridates VI, king of Pontus, on the southern slope of the Paryadres. Pompey elevated C. to city status as Diospolis and then embellished it. C. received numerous new names (Sebaste, Neocaesarea, Hadrianopolis); today, it is Niksar/Turkey with ruins of a large castle that reveals Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Seldshukian building phases. There are also inscriptions, a milestone on the g…

Ionia

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἰωνία; Iōnía, Ἰωνίη; Iōníē). West Anatolian countryside between Aeolis in the north, Lydia in the east, the Aegean in the west and Caria in the south; it includes the settlement area in Asia Minor of the  Iones, who moved in there in connection with the post-Mycenaean migration and since about 700 BC were amalgamated in the Panionian Amphiktyonia (cf. the descriptions of I. in Str. 14,1; Plin. HN 5,112-120) with the cities of (cf. Hdt. 1,142-148; Aesch. Pers. 771) Miletus, Myus, Pri…

Selinus

(1,320 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
(Σελινοῦς/ Selinoûs). Name of several rivers and towns. [German version] [1] Tributary of the Alpheius [1] Southern tributary of the Alpheius [1] which enters west of Olympia, modern Krestena (Xen. An. 5,3,8; Paus. 5,6,6). Lienau, Cay (Münster) [German version] [2] River in Achaea River in Achaea, which originates on Mount Erymanthus near Leontium close to modern Vlasia, flows through the territory of Aegium and enters the Corinthian Gulf east of modern Valimitika. Today again known as S. (Str. 8,7,5 [1. 82 f.]; Paus. 7,24,5). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. Baladié, Le P…

Cyane

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κυάνη). Small stream steeped in legend that has its origin about 9 km south-west of Syracusae (as the crow flies) in a source of the same name and that after about 20 km, together with the Anapus, flows through a wide swampy area into the Great Harbour of Syracusae; modern Ciani. According to Ovid (Met. 5,413ff.), the nymph C., the wife of Anapus, tried to stop Hades (Pluto) when he was deflowering Kore and dissolved in tears on the spot where he split the earth and went down int…

Historical geography

(3,973 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Definition (CT) Historical geography (HG) is a branch of geography or, to be precise, historiography and is concerned with the ever changing relationship between human beings and the landscape. As well as verbal (literary, epigraphic, numismatic) and representational (archaeological) evidence of the past, its main source is the topographical framework of historical events. Nowadays, HG is essentially characterized by two different paths of scholarly rese…

Olenus

(266 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Ὤλενος; Ṓlenos). City in Achaea between Dyme [1] and Patrae (Plin. HN 4,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὠ.), in whose territory the Peirus debouched into the Bay of Corinth (cf. Paus. 7,6,1; 7,18,1f.; 7,22,1); this can be presumed to be in the coastal plains near the modern villages of Kaminia and Tsoukalaika (cf. the distance data in Str. 8,7,4; Paus. loc. cit.). O. was one of the twelve Achaean cities existing in the Mycenaean period and was a member of the old Achaean League (Hdt. 1,145; Pol. 2,41,7; damiourgoi from O. me…

Crathis

(340 words)

Author(s): Parra, Maria Cecilia (Pisa) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
(Κρᾶθις; Krâthis). [German version] [3] River in Bruttium that rises near  Consentia and flows into the sea near Thurii, today known as Crati. Legend held that its water could be used to dye the hair of people and animals blond (Eur. Tro. 228; Ael. NA 12,36; Aristot. Mir. 169). The valley of C. formed the main connection between inner Bruttium and the plains of  Sybaris. The river received its name from Achaean colonists after the name of a river in their homeland (Hdt. 1,145); according to other sou…

Rhion

(196 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ῥίον; Rhíon). Flat coastal projection in Achaea, about 8 km to the northeast of modern Patras [1. 226-227; 2. 199 f.], modern Rhio, which, with Antirrhion (or also R. or Ῥίον τὸ Μολυκρικόν/ Rhíon tò Molykrikón after Molycrium; modern Antirio) to the north across the approximately 2 km wide sound (also called R., cf. Pol. 4,64,2; Liv. 27,29,9; Mela 2,52), forms the western entrance to the Gulf of Corinth (Corinth, Gulf of) (Thuc. 2,86,3; Ps.-Scyl. 35; 42; Scymn. 478; in Str. 8,2,3, as in Ptol. 3,15,5 incorrectly…

Menophanes

(284 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μηνοφάνης; Mēnophánēs). [German version] [1] General of Mithradates VI, 88 BC General of Mithradates VI. In the first Mithradatic War, in 88 B.C., he defeated Roman troops under M'. Aquillius [I 4] (Memnon FGrH 434 F 1,22,7). It is doubtful whether this was the battle at Proton Pachion mentioned by Appianus (Mith. 72) [3. 110127]. According to Pausanias (3,23,3-5), in the same year, either on orders of the King or on his own initiative, M. conquered, plundered and destroyed Delos, killed the foreigners and Delian men there, and enslaved their wive…

Pontus

(931 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(ὁ Πόντος/ ho Póntos, Lat. Pontus). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] I. Location Region on the south coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) between Paphlagonia (west), Colchis (east) and Cappadocia (south), divided into a narrow northern coastal plain with various Greek towns (cf. Amisus, Cotyora, Pharnaceia, Trapezus) and an interior south of the northern Anatolian frontier mountain range around Iris [3] and Lycus [19], still known into the 1st cent. BC as Καππαδοκία ἡ περὶ τὸν Εὔξεινον/ Kappadokía hē perì tòn Eúxeinon (Pol. 5,43,1; cf. ἡ πρὸς τῷ Πόντῳ Καππαδοκία/ hē …

Drepanon

(501 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
(Δρέπανον; Drépanon). Name of several foothills; the external shape of the mountain may have given rise to the name D. (‘sickle’). [German version] [1] Vorgebirge an der Nordküste von Westkreta On the north coast of western Crete (Ptol. 3,15,5), known in antiquity and today as D. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography M. Guarducci, Inscript. Cret. 2,10. [German version] [2] Nördlichster Vorsprung der Peloponnesos in den Korinth. Golf Northernmost outcrop of the Peloponnese into the Corinthian Gulf, 7 km north-east of Rhion (with which i…

Zenodotium

(84 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζηνοδότιον; Zēnodótion). City in Osroene near Nicephorium (Arr. FGrH 156 F 33; Plut. Crassus 17,6: Ζηνοδοτία/ Zēnodotía; Cass. Dio 40,13,2), not more precisely locatable. When the pro-consul M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus marched across the  Euphrates [2] against the Parthians in the autumn of 54 BC, he felt compelled to capture the city, which was under the tyranny of a Greek called Apollonius, by force, and for this the army proclaimed him imperator. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 10 A, 19.

Lacus Fucinus

(190 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Bove, Annalisa (Pisa)
[German version] A lake that often overflows because it has no outlet (155 km2, 655 m above sea level) in the area of the Marsi between Sulmona and the national park of Abruzzo. Caesar contemplated draining it (Suet. Iul. 44), Augustus prevented it (Suet. Claud. 20), Claudius realized it in part by laying a 5.65 km long drainage to the Liris (Suet. Claud. 20f.), under Nero the project was stopped (Plin. HN 36,124). According to CIL IX 3915, renewed flooding in AD 117 made it necessary to reclaim the borderin…

Nauplia

(433 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Ναυπλία/ Nauplía, Byzantine τὸ Ναύπλιον/ tò Naúplion or τὸ Ἀνάπλι/ tò Anápli, present-day Nafplio). [German version] I. Position Port on a rocky peninsula near the Kolpos Argolikos (Str. 8,2,2; Scyl. 49; 6,11; Ptol. 3,16,11) on the northern slope of the town’s mountain, Akronafplia (formerly Iç Kale, 85m high). Greater parts of the Hellenistic acropolis wall lie under the later Byzantine- Venetian- Turkish fort. It lies to the north-west of the Palamidi (215 m high) which is surmounted by a fortress built by the Venetians in 1711-1714. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stutt…

Senonia

(68 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] At the end of the 4th cent. AD a province (officially Lugdunensis S.: Notitia Galliarum 4,1; Notitia Dign. Occ. 3,31; 22,19; Senonica: ibid. 1,117; cf. Laterculus 2,16) of the Septem Provinciae dioikesis of the Galliae praefectura with the civitates of Senones (as a centre of administration, formerly Agedincum), Autessiodurum, Tricasses, Meldi, Parisii, Carnutes and Autricum (modern Chartres) and Aureliani (modern Orléans). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Sauconna

(60 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of the river usually called Arar, modern Saône, literarily attested only since Late Antiquity (cf. Amm. Marc. 15,11,17: Ararim quem Sauconnam appellant, 'Arar which is called S.'; Avitus, Epist. 83 = MGH AA 6,2). The name had been recorded earlier, however, e.g. as a term for dea Souconna in Châlon-sur-Sâone (ILS 9516). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Lycus

(2,142 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Λύκος; Lýkos). Mythology and religion: L. [1-9], historical persons: L. [10-13], rivers: L. [14-19]. [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno [1] (Ps.-Eratosth. Katasterismoi 23), only Apollod. 3,111 mentions his translation to the Islands of the Blessed, possibly to differentiate him from L. [6], with whom he is connected by Hyg. Fab. 31, 76 and 157 in spite of the descent from Poseidon. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Prometheus and Celaeno Son of Prometheus and Celaeno [1], on whose tomb in th…

Pedasum

(39 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πήδασον; Pḗdason). Small settlement (πολίχνιον/ políchnion) in the territory of Stratoniceia in Caria (Str. 13,1,59); its precise location has yet to be established [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 W. Ruge, s.v. Pedasa (2), RE 19, 27.

Phoenix

(1,747 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Nünlist, René (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Φοῖνιξ/ Phoînix, Latin Phoenix). Persons P. [1-4], the mythical P. bird [5], the date palm P. [6], geographical locations P. [7-9]. [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sidon or Tyrus Mythical king of Sidon or Tyrus, son of Agenor [1] and Telephassa (Apollod. 3,2-4), brother of Europe [2],  Cadmus [1] and Cilix, according to others also their father (Hom. Il. 14, 321); other children: Phineus (Apoll. Rhod. 2, 178), Carne (Antoninus Liberalis 40). Eponym of the Phoenicians and the Poeni ( Poeni; cf. Phoenicians, Poeni). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Amyntor Son of Amyn…

Tibareni

(151 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τιβαρηνοί/ Tibarēnoí). People (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 204; Xen. An. 5,5,2; Scymn. 914; Mela 1,106; Plin. HN 6,11; Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 124; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τιβαρηνία) of Scythian descent (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 159) on the southern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos I.), neighbouring the Mossynoeci to the east and the Chalybes to the west and south; Cotyora was in their region. Under Darius [1] I and Xerxes, the T. were part of the 19th Satrapy (Hdt. 3,94) and served in Xerxes' army i…

Uranopolis

(169 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Οὐρανόπολις/ Ouranópolis). [German version] [1] City on Acte City on Acte (Athos I), founded by Alexarchus, the younger brother of Cassander; according to Plin. HN 4,37 and Str. 7a,1,35, it is to be found on the isthmus of Acte. U. can be connected with the extensive ruins south-west of the modern Ierissos, the extent of which agrees with the size of the city given by Str. loc cit. (30 stadia). U. was probably built c. 315 BC, minted its own coins according to a standard uncommon in Macedon at the time, but does not appear to have lasted long and may have merged wit…

Zenobia

(1,365 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ζηνοβία; Zēnobía). [German version] [1] Wife of Radamistus, 1st cent. AD The wife of the Armenian king Radamistus is the heroine of an episode in Tacitus (Ann. 12,51): when her husband was forced to flee to Iberia in AD 54, she was apparently unable to cope with the hardships of the journey due to her pregnancy and supposedly asked to be killed. Injured by her husband and thrown into the Araxes, Z. was rescued and brought to Radamistus' rival Tiridates [5] I, who treated her honourably. These events were …

Lampetia

(181 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] [2] (Pol. 13 in Steph. Byz. s.v. Λαμπέτεια/ Lampéteia; Λαμπέτης/ Lampétēs, Lycoph. Alexandra 1068 [promontory, modern Capo Súvero]; Liv. 29,30,1; 30,19,10; Plin. HN 3,72; Clampetia, Mela 2,69; Geogr. Rav. 4,32; 5,2; Clampeia, Tab. Peut. 7,1). Harbour town in Bruttium ( Bruttii) near modern Amantea. Conquered by the Romans in 204 BC, probably deserted since then. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 928. [German version] [1] Daughter of Helios and the nymph Neaera (Λαμπετίη; Lampetíē). Daughter of Helios and the nymph Neaera. As a girl s…

Pisatis, Pisa

(362 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πισάτις/ Pisátis, Πίσα/ Písa). Region and city or two terms for one region in westernPeloponnesus. The question of the historicity of the city P. is controversial today [1] just as in antiquity (Str. 8,3,31) and often answered in the negative (Str. l.c.). The earliest mention gives the name Πίσα/ Písā (, cf. Pind. Ol. 2,3; 3,9; Pind. Nem. 10,32), in Attic literature Πῖσα/ Pîsa (, Eur. IT 1; Eur. Hel. 386; Hdt. 2,7, with long /i/); the classical ethnikon is always Πισάτης/ Pisátēs (Pind. Ol. 4,11; Eur. IT 824), and since the Hellenistic Period Πισαῖος/ Pisaîos (cf. Paus…

Morgantina

(369 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Μοργαντίνα, Μοργαντίνη/ Morgantína, Morgantínē; Latin Morgentia, Murgantia). City of the Siculi in Sicily, some 15 km northeast of Piazza Armerina (Serra Orlando). Pottery finds attest to an immigration of Italic settlers in the 11th cent. BC (cf. Str. 6,1,6; 2,4). The development of the city of M. began in about 560 BC with a settlement of Greeks on the modern Cittadella (578 m). In 459 BC Ducetius conquered the city (Diod. 11,78,5) and destr…

Gela

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Palermo, Dario (Catania)
This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization (Γέλα; Géla) [German version] A. History City on the south-west coast of Sicily, named after the river Gelas, at the mouth of which G. lies. G. was founded as a Dorian colony with the name ‘Lindioi’ by Antiphemus of Rhodes and the Cretan Entimus forty-five years after the founding of  Syracusae (Thuc. 6,4,3), in other words in 690 BC. Herodotus also names as founder Gelon of Telos (Hdt. 7,153), an ancestor of the tyrant o…

Celossa

(49 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κηλῶσσα; Kēlôssa, Str. 6,8,24; Κηλοῦσα; Kēloûsa, Xen. Hell. 4,7,7; Κηλοῦσσα; Kēloûssa, Paus. 2,12,4), modern Megalovouni. Mountain range between Phlius and Argos (1273 m), with an Artemis sanctuary [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography 1 M. Th. Mitsos, Inscriptions of the Eastern Peloponnesus, in: Hesperia 18, 1949, 75.

Taurus

(850 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Southern Anatolian coastal mountain range Southern Anatolian coastal mountain range, today the Toros Dağları; it extends from Caria and Lycia in the west (Western T. with the Bey Dağları, 3086 m), through Cilicia (Middle T. with the Kalı Dağ, 3734 m), from where the Amanus branches off to the south-east and the Anti-T. to the north, while the main range stretches north-east to the Ararat highlands (Inner and Central Eastern T. with Ararat, 5165 m), beyond which a further Anti-T. (Ou…

Noarus

(78 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νόαρος/ Nóaros). River flowing north into the Ister [2] (Danube) in the territory of the Scordisci (and navigable there) (Str. 7,5,2). Between the N. and the Margus [1] (Str. 7,5,12) was the land of the ‘Great Scordisci’. On the discussion of the identification of the N. (Drina, Korana, Mur, Raab, lower reaches of the Sava) cf. [1; 2]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 E. Polaschek, s.v. Noaros, RE 17, 783-785 2 J. Fitz, s.v. Noaros, KlP 4, 142.

Hieron oros

(147 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἱερὸν ὄρος; Hieròn óros). [German version] [1] Holy mountain Holy mountain, name of a mountain range on the  Propontis, modern Tegirdağ. Religious centre of the  Thraci (Str. 7, fr. 55). The fortress of the Odrysae bearing the same name (Xen. An. 7,1,14) was situated there. Cotys I entrenched himself there in 362 BC at the time of the revolt of Miltocythes (Dem. Or. 23,104). Philip II conquered H. in 346 (Dem. Or. 9,15; Aeschin. Leg. 2,82f.; 3,73f.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography C. Danov, Altthrakien, 1976, 122f. [German version] [2] Foothills on the south …

Cithaeron

(139 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Κιθαιρών; Kithairṓn, Latin Cithaeron). A mountain range that is still forested (1407 m, Hagios Elias) to the north of the  Isthmus of Corinth and separating Boeotia on the north from the Megaris in the south-west and Attica in the south-east; the Pastra mountains (1025 m), the Skurta plateau (between 540 and 570 m) and the Parnes adjoin the C. in the east. Important connecting routes from and to Boeotia led over passes that were secured by fortifications and watch-towers (Hdt. 9,38f…

Strongyle

(98 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Στρογγύλη/ Strongýlē). Volcanic island in the north east of the Aeoliae Insulae (12,6 km2, 924 m high; Ptol. 3,4,16; Mela 2,120), present-day Stromboli. The island was named (S.: 'the round') after the form of the volcano, which has been active from Antiquity (Str. 6,2,11; cf. Thuc. 3,88,2; Diod. Sic. 5,7,1; App. B Civ. 5,105). The island has been settled from c. 3000 BC. In mythology, it was considered to be the seat of Aeolus [2] (Plin. HN 3,94) or Hephaestus (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4,761). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e pol…

Lysimeleia

(98 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] (Λυσιμέλεια λίμνη; Lysiméleia límē). According to Thucydides (6,101,1ff.; 7,53,2), L. refers to the southern part of the swamp area in the alluvial plain of Syracusae between the necropolis of Fusco, the Anapus and the north-western edge of the Great Harbour in the confluence region of minor watercourses (modern Canale Regina and Canale Pisimotta); cf. Theoc. 16,84, (Syracusae as ‘great city on the waters of the L.’). Identification of the L. with the swamp of Syrako is nevertheless contentious [1. 1f. and n. 10f.]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Drögemüller, Hans-P…

Narona

(519 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Limes | Moesi, Moesia Town (Mela 2,57; Plin. HN 21,40; Itin. Anton. 338,4; Tab. Peut. 6,4) on the Naro (Norino) atop a flat hill in the midst of swampy land in the lower Naro valley near modern Vid, northwest of Metković/Croatia. A prehistoric settlement is assumed; the population and place name were Illyrian. In the 5th/4th cent. BC, Greek settlers joined and founded a trading station near N. ( empórion, Scyl. 24; cf. Theopompus FGrH 115 F 129). In the 2nd/1st cent., settlers from Italy followed. Aft…

Interamnium

(24 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Road station in the Sybaris valley in Lucania (Tab. Peut. 7,1; Geogr. Rav. 4,34). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 918.

Thospitis Limne

(146 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Θωσπῖτις λίμνη/ Thōspîtis límnē). Lake in Armenia. Str. 11,14,8 regards the TL and the Arsenḗ límnē (modern Lake Erçek) to the east as a unit (cf. also Dionys. Per. 988). Separate lakes are recognized there by Ptol. 5,13,7 ( Ársissa límnē) and Plin. HN 6,128 ( lacus Thospites, lacus Aretissa); the modern Lake Van in eastern Anatolia, a basin without outflow, 1648 m above sea-level with a water surface area of approximately 3574 km2 and a maximum depth of 451 m. Ancient authors knew that the water had an extremely high soda content and only a single s…

Namnetae

(163 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] ( Namnetes, Plin. HN 4,107). A Celtic people on the right bank of the lower Liger (modern Loire), which separated them from the Pictones (Str. 4,2,1). Their territory was between the Liger, Vilaine and Semnon (Ille-et-Vilaine). Their capital was Condevincum, in whose modern name of Nantes the name of the N. survives (Ptol. 2,8,9: Κονδιούϊγκον/ Kondioúïnkon; 2,8,6 erroneously Σαμνῖται/ Samnîtai), and their chief port was Portus Nemetum (Tab. Peut 2,2; cf. CIL XIII 3105). At the time of Caesar they were allied with the Veneti (Caes. Gall. 3,9,10).…

Selenes oros

(45 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σελήνης ὄρος; Selḗnēs óros). "Mountains of the Moon, from which the lakes of the Nile receive melt water" (Ptol. 4,9,3) - according to the coordinate data in Ptol. l.c. probably modern Kilimanjaro (5895 m elevation) in northeastern Tanzania. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Prote

(191 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρωτή/ Prōtḗ). The only island off the western coast of Messenia apart from Sphacteria (Scyl. 45; Plin. HN 4,55; Ptol. 3,16,23; Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.; ethnicon: Πρωταῖος/ Prōtaîos), today still Proti, whose small west-facing harbour on its southern side offered north-bound seafarers protection from the Etesiai (cf. Pol. 5,5,3; 6); cf. the numerous inscriptions on the craggy eastern coast of the island with petitions for a good voyage  (IG V 1, 1533-1588; SEG 11,1005-1024a; 14,337-345; from the 6th cent. BC …

Salpia

(285 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in Daunia (Str. 6,3,9: Σαλαπία/ Salapía; Plin. HN 3,103: Salapia; It. Ant. 314,7; Tab. Peut. 6,3; Geogr. Rav. 5,1; Guido, Geographia 22). It was established twice; the first site was where remains are to be found on the road from Zapponeta to Torre Pietra, on the Ionios Kolpos northwest of the salterns of Margherita di Savoia on the Lago di Salpi (drained in the modern period). Despite various foundation myths (founded by Trojans, Lycoph. 1129; different account in Vitr. De arch. 1,4,12, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἐλπία; Str. 14,2,10), it was most probably a pure…

Orneae

(183 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὀρνε(ι)αί/ Orne(i)aí). Small city c. 120 stadia to the northwest of Argos [II 1], surrounded by the Lirkion, Durmiza and Megalovouni mountain ranges, probably not at Kastro, 3 km to the south of Jimnon on the eastern slopes of the Durmiza mountains (traces of a Mycaenaean town, tower from the Classical period), but rather on a hill (550 m) in the upper valley of the Inachus [2], 2·5 km west of Sterna (remains of a ring wall; [2. 188f.]). O. was an independent polis (cf. Hom. Il. 2,571; Paus. 10,18,5), but from the 5th cent. BC a dependency of Argos as a períoikoi

Ietae

(174 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἰεταί; Ietaí). Sicilian town near San Giuseppe Iato and San Cipirello on Monte Iato (852 m), 30 km south-west of Palermo ( Sicily with map). The site was settled from the 8th cent. BC by the  Elymi or  Sicani; about 550 BC, construction of a temple to Aphrodite which was renovated in the 4th cent., and destroyed in AD 50. In the Hellenistic era, among other things, a theatre, an agora with stoa, bouleuterion, podium temple, and living quarters (mosaics, paintings) were built; only…

Mossynoeci

(166 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μοσσύνοικοι; Mossýnoikoi). People in the Paryadres mountains to the south of the Black Sea coast between Cerasus and Trapezus (Hekat. FGrH 1 F 204f.; Xen. An. 5,4,2; 5,1; Apoll. Rhod. 2,1016ff.; Diod. 14,30,5-7) to the east of the Tibareni and Chalybes, from time to time with a large sphere of influence (to the south: Strab. 11,14,5; to the west: Xen. An. 5,5,1). Under Darius I and Xerxes, the M. belonged to the 19th satrapy (Hdt. 3,94; 7,78), in Xenophon's time they were independ…

Solus

(211 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Punic Wars (Σολοῦς/ Soloûs, Σολόεις/ Solóeis, Latin Soluntum). City on the northern coast of Sicilia at Cannita near modern Santa Flavia about 20 km to the west of Palermo (burial finds from the 6th cent. BC). Like Motye and Panormus S. was one of the bases to which the Phoenicians, under pressure from Greek colonists, retreated at the turn from the 8th cent. BC to the 7th (Thuc. 6,2,6). Dionysius [1] I captured the city in 397 BC, and after a…

Hispania, Iberia

(5,486 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg) | Untermann, Jürgen (Pulheim/Köln) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
I. Geography and history [German version] A. Name Since the 1st cent. AD, H. has referred more and more to the entire Iberian Peninsula. Although the name Hispania is only attested since the time of the 2nd Punic War (218-201 BC; Liv. 21,2; Enn. Ann. 503), it is the oldest of all, because it is derived from Phoenician í-shephanním, ‘rabbit coast’ (according to a new interpretation ‘land of metal plates’). A further name was Ophioussa (‘land of the snakes’; Avien. 148; 152; 172; 196), which was probably coined by the Phocaeans when they came into contact with some reg…

Mutustratum

(165 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μυτίστρατον; Mytístraton/ Lat. Mutustratum). Town of the Siculi in Sicily. According to the distribution of coin finds (from the period of Timoleon, HN 158), probably located near Marianopoli (30 km west of Henna [1] (modern Enna)). At the beginning of the 1st Punic War, M. was besieged for seven months by the Romans without success. The Romans suffered great losses (Diod. Sic. 23,9,3) and only conquered the town in 258 BC. After the withdrawal of the Carthaginian garrison and the c…

Glauce

(354 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Γλαύκη; Glaúkē). [German version] [1] Nereide Nereid (Hom. Il. 18,39; Hes. Theog. 244; Hyg. Praef. 8), whose name describes the glossy blue as well as comparable colour shades of the sea (Hom. Il. 16,34; Hes. Theog. 440) and whose masculine counterpart is  Glaucus. G. is also represented as a nymph at various locations (Paus. 8,47,2f.; Tzetz. Theogony 100-102). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Spring nymph, bride of Jason Spring nymph in Corinth, equated by some authors with the daughter of the local king  Creon, who otherwise is called  Creus…

Ruscino

(192 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] River in the Pyrenees River with its source in the Pyrenees (Pyrene [2]) which flows past R. [2] into the Mediterranean (Str. 4,1,6: Ῥουσκίνων/ Rhouskínōn; Pol. apud Ath. 8,332a: Ῥόσκυνος/ Rhóskynos; Ptol. 2,10,2: Ῥουσκίων/ Rhouskíōn; Avien. Ora maritima 567: Roschinus). Plin. HN 3,32 calls the river Tetum (Mela 2,84: Telis); modern Têt. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Celtic oppidum (Ῥουσκίνων/ Rhouskínōn). Celtic oppidum in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages (Ptol. 2,10,9: Ῥουσκινόν/ Rhouskinón) on the R. […

Sipylus

(102 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σίπυλος/ Sípylos). Mountain range in Lydia (modern Manisa Dağı), extending between the Hermus [2] and Smyrna and about 30 km inland. Lake Saloe, in which the city of S. and its predecessor Tantalis are supposed to have been submerged, are presumed to be on the mountain range of S. (Plin. HN. 2,205; 5,117; Paus. 7,24,13; Tantalus). At the S. some 100 m above the Hermus valley, near two Hittite graffiti there is a rock sculpture the interpretation of which has been discussed since Antiquity [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 B. André-Salvini, M. Salvini…

Tyraeum

(71 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τυραῖον; Tyraîon). City on the Royal Road from Sardis to Susa near Philomelium (Xen. An. 1,2,14; Artem. in  Str. 14,2,29: Τυριαῖον; Plin. HN 5,95: Tyrienses; Anna Komnene, Alexias 3,211 f.) in the area of modern Ilgın. On his march against his brother Artaxerxes [2] II in 401 BC, Cyrus [3] the Younger also passed through T. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography W. Ruge, s. v. T. (1), RE 7 A, 1800-1802  Belke/ Mersich, 409f.

Mare Nostrum

(941 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (μεγάλη θάλασσα/ megálē thálassa, Mediterranean). Because of various earth movements that are still ongoing (rising, sinking; formation of numerous islands, e.g. the archipelago between Greece and Anatolia and Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, the Balearic Islands; still active volcanoes and earthquakes) the appearance of the Mare Nostrum (MN) changed constantly (connections to the various adjoining seas, e.g. the Atlantic, the Miocene seas in the northern foothills of the Al…

Nesactium

(94 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Settlement in Istria at modern Vizac̆e, approx. 8 km north-east of modern Pula/Croatia (Plin. HN 3,129). Suburb of the Histri on a bank with a sanctuary dated to 1,000 BC; conquered by the Romans in 177 BC (Liv. 41,11,1: oppidum Nesattium). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography K. Mihovilić, Rezultati sondanog istraivanja u sjevernoj bazilici u Nezakciju (1977 godine), in: Histria Archaeologica 15/6, 1984/5, 5-29  M. Zaninović, Apsorus, Crexa e Nesactium. Badò sulla rotta marittima adriatica, in: Quaderni dell' Antiquità di Venetia 10, 1994, 179-188  V.Ved…

Athenion

(484 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀθηνίων; Athēníōn). [German version] [1] Peripatetic rhetorician in Athens Peripatetic rhetorician in Athens (different from  Aristion [1. 341-343]), only known from the polemic party of  Posidonius (FGrH 87 fr. 36). Sent from Athens to  Mithridates VI in 88 BC, taken up by him among his φίλοι ( phíloi, friends), he won the support of the people with Mithridates' support and had as στρατηγὸς ἐπὶ τὰ ὅπλα ( strategòs epì tà hópla) a decisive influence on Athenian politics (‘tyrant’). A failed raid on Delos seems to have ended his political career. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliogra…

Himeras

(83 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of two rivers in Sicily which, rising not far from one another in opposite directions on S. Salvatore (1910 m) near Polizzi (modern Imera Settentrionale, Imera Meridionale), were regarded as a single river and as the north-south central line of the island, although the eastern half of the island, thus divided, is almost twice as big as the western half. Evidence: Pol. 7,4,2; Liv. 24,6,7; Str. 6,2,1; Mela 2,119; Vitr. De arch. 8,3,7; Sil. Pun. 14,233. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Neapolis

(2,079 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Νέα πόλις/ Néa pólis, Νεάπολις/ Neápolis, ‘New City’). [German version] [1] Town on the northern coast of the Aegean This item can be found on the following maps: | Macedonia, Macedones | Moesi, Moesia Town on the northern coast of the Aegean to the west of the mouth of the Nestus river, across from the island of Thasos, modern Kavalla (Str. 7a,1,36; Ps.-Scyl. 67), probably a Thasian colony but the exact period of foundation is unknown. Early in the 6th cent. BC, autonomous silver coinage modelled on that of Eretria [1] (HN 196…

Gaeson

(81 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Γαίσων; Gaísōn). Small river on the southern slopes of the Mycale mountains (Samsun Dağı), cf. Hdt. 9,97; Mela 1,87 ( Gaesus); Plin. HN 5,113 ( Gessus). Scolopoeis (Σκολοπόεις) with a temple of the Eleusinian Demeter was located at the G.; it was the location of the battle between Greeks and Persians in 479 BC (Hdt. 9,97). A lake named after the river (Γαισωνὶς λίμνη; Gaisōnìs límnē, Ath. 7,311e) is also to be located in the vicinity. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Orontes

(657 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ὀρόντης/ Oróntēs, MSS; Ὀρόντας/ Oróntas, OGIS 264,4; Ἀροάνδης/ Aroándēs, OGIS 390ff.). Armenian satraps and kings: O. [1-6]; the river O. [7]. [German version] [1] Relative of the Armenian royal family Relative of the royal family. After initial antagonism with Cyrus [3] the Younger, O. became his follower, and was subsequently convicted of treason and executed (Xen. An. 1,6; 9,29). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] O. I Persian governor of Armenia Son of the Bactrian Artasyras. As the Persian governor of Armenia, he married Rhodogune, the daughter of…

Isindus

(30 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἴσινδος; Ísindos, Ἴσινδα; Ísinda). Place name ocurring with these two name forms only in Steph. Byz. s.v. Isindos as a town in  Ionia. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Amyntas

(921 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἀμύντας; Amýntas). [German version] [1] Macedonian king (end of 6th cent. BC) First historically verifiable king of Macedonia, friend of the  Peisistratids. Upon Darius' appearance in Europe he became his vassal-satrap and was rewarded with an expansion of his territory and the marriage of his daughter to a member of the  Achaemenids. His son  Alexander [2] invented a novelistic history (Hdt. 5,17 ff.), in order to make this credible for the Greeks. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Borza, 98 ff. E. Badian, Herodotus on Alexander I of Macedon, in: S. Hornblower (ed.), G…

Sebaste

(121 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σεβαστή/ Sebast ). City in Phrygia, founded under Augustus by means of synoikismós (involving, i.a., Διοσκωπητεῖς/ Dioskōpēteís, probably also Φλημεῖς/ Phlēmeís; [1. 85 f. no. 16]) on the eastern edge of the valley of the Sinder (Σινδρός/ Sindrós, coins HN 684; modern Banaz river) (IGR IV 635; 682 l. 18). Hellenistic wall remains at modern Selçikler, 2 km to the southwest of Sivaslı (cf. name!) suggest that a polis already existed there. A portion of the ancient road to the east of Selçikler has been discovered. Bishopric in Late Antiquity (Hierocles, Synekdemos 6…

Apuli, Apulia

(385 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Oscan tribe between the Daunii and the  Frentani (Str. 6,3,8); after the establishment of Roman rule (Liv. 8,25; 37; 9,12 ff.; 20,4 ff. for 317 BC) they gave their name to the territory from the Adriatic (with the Diomedeae insulae, today Isole Tremiti) to the  Appenninus, with the Bradanus (today Brádano) flowing into the Gulf of  Tarentum, from the  Tifernus to  Calabria. Mesozoic limestone and dolomite determine the soil on   mons Garganus (today Monte Gargano with the Montenero 1012 m), and their topsoil does on the Apulian pl…

Leucae

(222 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Λεῦκαι; Leûkai). [German version] [1] Town on the east coast of the Laconian Gulf Perioikoi town ( períoikoi ) on the east coast of the Laconian Gulf, neighbouring Acriae (Pol. 5,19,8; Liv. 35,27,3), probably on the north-eastern edge of the plain of Leuce mentioned by Str. 8,5,2. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 7, 1991, 143-146; 8, 1992, 157-159 A. J. B. Wace, F. W. Hasluck, South-Eastern Laconia, in: ABSA 14, 1907/8, 162f. [German version] [2] City in Ionia City in Ionia, on the northern shore of the Gulf of Smyrna on a raised promontory with two harbour b…

Paryadres

(128 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Παρυάδρης/ Paryádrēs, Lat. Pariades, Parihedri montes). Part of the Alpide belt in the region of Pontus and Armenia, which may be roughly identified with the eastern part of the North Anatolian border range (Karadeniz Dağları, with the Kaçkar Dağı, 3937 m) and the Alborz (with the Damāvand, 5604 m). In the north, the P. slopes down over a narrow coastal plain to the Pontos Euxeinos (river valleys: Halys, Iris [3]); to the south, it slopes down along the earthquake-prone North Anatolia…

Meris

(141 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (ἡ μερίς; merís, ‘part, portion’, Verb μερίζειν; merízein). As a term in Greek administrative language, meris describes any type of systematic division and is used e.g. generally in Hellenistic administrative practice, especially e. g. in the Ptolemaic-Roman administration of Egypt in which the Arsinoite nomós [2] was divided into three merídes (OGIS 177,8 f., 2nd cent. BC). There is another interpretation in the territorial administrative classification in Egypt which describes it as the smallest element in the series nomós, tópos [1], kṓmē (B.), meris and henc…

Pyrrhichus

(105 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (Πύρριχος/ Pýrrhichos). Lacedaemonian inland town of the períoikoi in the south of the Taygetus. In the Roman Imperial period, P. was a member of the League of Eleutherolakones (Paus. 3,21,7; 3,25,1-3). Remains dating to the Imperial period can be found at modern P. (villa with site of thermae). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. S. Forster, Southwestern Laconia, in: ABSA 10, 1903/4, 160  C. Le Roy, s. v. P., PE, 746  D. Musti, M. Torelli (ed.), Pausania, Guida del…

Carnion

(62 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Doris (Strasbourg)
[German version] (Καρνίων; Karníōn). Tributary of the Gatheatas, modern Xerilas; the Gatheatas rises on the north-western slopes of the Taygetus and discharges into the Alpheius [1] south of Megale Polis (Paus. 8,34,5; Callim. H. 1,24). Plin. HN 4,20 mentions, possibly erroneously, an otherwise unknown Arcadian town of the same name. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Meyer, Doris (Strasbourg) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 3, 288f.

Grumentum

(91 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | | Coloniae Town in Lucania ( Lucani) where the Sora (modern Sciaura) flows into the Aciris (modern Agri) (cf. Str. 6,1,3; Ptol. 3,1,70); ruins 1.5 km east of Grumento. Place of fierce battles in the 2nd Punic War (Liv. 23,37,10; 27,41,3) and in the Social War (cf. App. B Civ. 1,41). Municipium, tribus Pomptina ( regio III). Pliny speaks of the good wine from Lagarina near G. (HN 14,69). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Manthurea

(75 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Μανθ(ο)υρέα; Manthouréa/Manthyréa). The name given both to the south western part of the eastern Arcadian plain near Tegea and to a deme of Tegea (Μανθυρεῖς; Manthureîs). In M. there was originally a cult of Athena Hippia which Tegea adopted at the time of Augustus along with the cult image. Evidence: Paus. 8,44,7; 45,1; 47,1; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. M., RE 14, 1255f.
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