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(531 words)

Author(s): Peppel, Matthias
[German Version] (“world citizenship”), first attested in the cynic Diogenes of Sinope, who, asked about his origins, described himself as kosmopolitēs: citizen of the cosmos (from the Greek: κόσμος/ kósmos, “world,” and ¶ πολίτης/ polítēs, “citizen”; D. L. VI 63). Borrowed from the French cosmopolite (Ger. Weltbürger), it became a prog rammatic term of the Enlightenment in the 18th century, primarily through the work of C.M. Wieland. As a somewhat diffuse concept that requires a world-state or refers only to worldlines…


(4,012 words)

Author(s): Peppel, Matthias | Slenczka, Notger | Figal, Günter
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Fundamental Theology – III. Philosophy I. History of Religion The Greek noun logos (λόγος/ lógos), which is derived from the verb λέγειν/ légein, “to say, to speak,” designates the human faculty of speech and ability to reason, usually in combination, as well as numerous individual aspects such as: sentence, topic, oration, prose, teaching, judgment, cause, conclusion, and reason. In its earliest attestations logos refers to an “oration,” whose deceptive effects are frequently emphasized (Hom. Od. I 56) – thus in the personific…

Nomos (Lex)

(618 words)

Author(s): Peppel, Matthias
[German Version] The Greek noun νόμος/ nómos, derived from the verb νέμειν/ némein, “to pasture, allot”; probably originally an oxytone meaning “pasture” [Hom. Il. 6.511]) denotes the norms prevailing within a group of living beings. Depending on its setting and claims, nomos can mean custom, order, convention, or law (Law and legislation). The sense of a habitat is particularly evident in the plural (“conventions, customs” [Hes. Theog. 66]). According to Hesiod ( Theog. 902), nomos, the way of life given by Zeus, takes concrete form among humans as justice (δίκη/ díkē; Works and Days 2…