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Siberis

(61 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Σίβερις). Right-hand tributary of the Sangarius, dangerous because of its flooding (Procop. Aed. 5,4,1-3), also called Hieros flumen  (Plin. HN 5,149), modern Kirmir Çayı (otherwise still in [1]). From the 1st until the 3rd cent. AD it formed the border between Bithynia and Galatia (Plin. loc.cit.). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 W. Ruge, s. v. Hieros flumen, RE 8, 1589. Belke, 224.

Eudoxias

(77 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Εὐδοξιάς; Eudoxiás). City of Galatia II, named after the wife of Arcadius or the daughter of Theodosius II, probably Hamamkarahisar (Arslani [1. 447-464]) at the foot of the  Dindymum ([2. 129] incorrectly attributes this area to Germia); documented to have been a bishopric from 451 onwards (Hierocles, 698,2). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 M. Waelkens, Germa, Germokoloneia, Germia, in: Byzantion 49, 1979 2 Mitchell 2. K. Belke, Germia und E., in: W. Hörandner et al., Byzantios. FS H. Hunger, 1984 Belke, 163.

Gorbeus, Corbeuntus

(81 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Γορβεῦς, Κορβεῦντος; Gorbeûs, Korbeûntos). Residence of Castor the Elder, the tetrarch of the Tectosages, who was murdered here along with his wife by his father-in-law  Deiotarus; the latter destroyed the castle and large parts of the settlement (Str. 12,5,3). Later a road station (Ptol. 5,4,6; It. Ant. 143,2; 205,9); SE of Oğulbey, 29 km south of Ankara. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 171 K. Strobel, Die Galater 2, 1998.

Cyzistra

(39 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium (Κύζιστρα; Kýzistra). Town and Byzantine fortress in the Cappadocian strategia of Cilicia (Ptol. 5,6,15), the modern Zengibar Kalesı, 56 km south-south-west of  Caesarea. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 219f.

Ekkobriga

(152 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts Central town of the north-western  Trocmi tetrarchy, a fortified settlement of the Trocmi and a joint posting station for the roads to Ancyra and Tavium (Tab. Peut. 9,5: Eccobriga; It. Ant. 203,6: Ecobrogis), modern Kalekişla east of Sulakyurt [1. 148-151; 2. 28]. E. consisted of a steeply rising castle mount and an extensive walled lower town; scattered finds indicate settlement into the Byzantine period. The name of this obviously Celtic new foundation is derived from briga (‘fortified high place’), and can m…

Nicaea

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νίκαια; Níkaia). [German version] [1] Naiad Naiad, daughter of the Phrygian river god Sangarius and the goddess Cybele. As a huntress, N. spurns love and remains a virgin. In Memnon of Heracleia, she does not yield to Dionysus and so he resorts to a ruse and turns into wine the spring from which N. is accustomed to drinking. She becomes drunk and falls asleep. Dionysus overpowers her in her sleep and fathers with her 'satyrs and others' (Memnon FGrH 434 F 41, 8f.). In Nonnus, Dion. 15,169-16,405, the…

Dascusa

(138 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Δασκοῦσα; Daskoûsa). City and fortress on the Euphrates limes in Cappadocia (strategia Melitene) on the border to Armenia minor (Plin. HN 5,84; 6,27; Oros. 1,2,23; Ptol. 5,6,19; 21 erroneously distinguishes D. and Dagusa), later counted as part of Armenia II, on the Satala-Melitene road (It. Ant. 209,3), located near Ağın, Elazığ. In the 4th cent., the Ala Auriana is stationed there (Not. Dign. Or. 38,22). Fortified settlement hill and late-antique fortress (Pağnık Öreni) [1; 2; 3]. The military camp was established in AD 80/82 [4]. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Biblio…

Symposium

(32 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] Fortress in Cappadocia probably built after 363 AD, modern Kaleköy at Şerefiye; possibly identical with the In Medio road station (It. Ant. 212,8). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 288 f.

Nyssa

(56 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium (Νύσσα/ Nýssa). Old Anatolian settlement and city in the Cappadocian strategy of Morimene (Ptol. 5,6,23), today Büyük-/Küçükkaletepe north of Harmandalı. In AD 372, Gregorius [2] became bishop of N. The city declined as early as the 9th cent. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 246-248.

Ariarathia

(51 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Ἀριαράθεια; Ariarátheia). Town in  Cappadocia, strategia of Sargarausene, modern Pınarbaşı (former Aziziye), founded by Ariarathes IV. Documented as a suffragan diocese from AD 431. Under Constantine incorporated into  Armenia minor. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography F. Hild, M. Restle, Kappadokien (TIB 2), 1981, 151 G. Hirschfeld, s. v. Ariarath(e)ia, RE 2, 815.

Ancyra

(470 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Theatre | Byzantium | Zenobia | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Limes | Pergamum | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Patricius | Rome | Rome (Ἄνκυρα; Ánkyra). City and fortress in  Galatia, modern Ankara. Anchors feature in legends, explaining the origin of the name (Paus. 1,4,5; Steph. Byz. s. v. A.; anchor as the city's symbol). Its origins lay in the prehistoric/ Hittite period; a Phrygian centre from the 8th to the 6th cents. BC (foundation myth: Paus…

Sangarius

(233 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Σαγγάριος/ Sangários). River in Asia Minor, modern Sakarya, c. 520 km long, source (according to Str. 12,3,7; cf. 12,4,4; 5,3) 150 stadia from Pessinus (according to Liv. 38,18,8 at mons Adoreus) in Phrygia (Phryges). The headwaters of the upper course collect the water of the Phrygian highlands. In the prehistoric era, the southern river system of the S. was more significant; it carried away the precipitation from the area around Ilgın in the south to Yunak and today has left evidence of itself in a heavily…

Germia

(65 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Γέρμια; Gérmia). Town on the northern edge of the Dindymon in Galatia II, modern Gümüşkonak (previously Yürme; different [1]); attested from 553 as a suffragan diocese, then as an archdiocese.  Eudoxias Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 M. Waelkens, Germa, Germokoloneia, G., in: Byzantion 49, 1979, 447-464. K. Belke, G. und Eudoxias, in: W. Hörandner, Byzantios. FS H. Hunger, 1984, 1-11 Belke, 166-168, 247 Mitchell II, 129.

Iuliupolis

(131 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Ἰουλιούπολις; Ioulioúpolis). Originally Gordiou Kome, settlement in Galatia where the road from Nicaea to Ancyra crossed over the  Scopas (Procop. Aed. 5,4). Home of the dynast Cleon, who defected to Augustus in 31 BC. The settlement was named I. in his honour and extended to become a city (Str. 12,8,9; Plin. HN 5,143). After 25/4 BC it belonged to Bithynia (Plin. HN 5,149), from the time of Diocletian to the province of Galatia, then to Galatia I. Also called Basilaion (Basileon)…

Ladon

(581 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Λάδων; Ládōn). [German version] [1] Dragon The dragon referred to in Apoll. Rhod. 4,1396, elsewhere referred to only as a ‘serpent’ ( óphis, drákōn), who guards the apples of the Hesperides (as also mentioned on Probus in Verg. G. 1,244); he has a hundred heads and many voices. Mythographers have him either be descended directly (as a chthonic beast) from Gaia (as is Typhon) or from related monsters (Phorcys and Ceto, the parents of Echidna and grandparents of the Lernean Hydra in Hes. Theog. 333-335; Echidna and…

Tavium

(168 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Ḫattusa | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Celts | Pompeius | Patricius also Tavia, Tabia (Τάουιον/ Táouion, Ταβία/ Tabía; Old Anatolian Tawinija), city in Galatia at modern Büyüknefes. Centre, settled since the Chalcolithic period, which had acquired wider significance by the early Bronze Age. Important cult city of the Hittite Empire, significant centre in the 1st millennium BC. From 274/272 BC onwards a speedily Hellenized centre of the Trocmi a…

Syceon

(62 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Συκεών/ Sykeṓn, Σικεών/ Sikeṓn). Place in Galatia (Proc. Aed. 5,4,1) where the road from Nicaea [5] to Ancyra crosses the Siberis, about 10 km to the south-southwest of modern Beypazarı, as a road station Fines Galatiae (Tab. Peut. 9,4, but incorrectly Fines Cilicie). Saint Theodorus lived and worked in S. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 228 f.  S. Mitchell, Anatolia, vol. 2, 1993, 122-150.

Cappadocia, I.

(1,327 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin)
(Καππαδοκία; Kappadokía). Region and kingdom in Asia Minor [German version] A. Geography and population C. (Str. 12,1f.) extends from the Taurus to the Black Sea coast; its western border to Paphlagonia and Phrygia, later also to Galatia, is at the Halys (and Lake Tatta); in the south-west, it borders on Lycaonia, in the east on Colchis, Lesser Armenia, and the upper reaches of the Euphrates, in the south on Cilicia and Commagene. The entire region is seen as an ethnic-linguistic entity, part of the Luwian-sp…

Nora

(375 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Town on the Capo di Pula on the south coast of Sardinia This item can be found on the following maps: Sardinia et Corsica | Theatre | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni (Νώρα; Nṓra). Town on the Capo di Pula on the south coast of Sardinia, approx. 20 km south of Cagliari. N. is regarded as the oldest town on the island (Paus. 10,17,5; Solin. 4,1; on its location cf. Itin. Anton. 85,2f.; Tab. Peut. 4,1). After a pre-colonial phase (cf. Phoenician inscriptions CIS I 144 c. 800 BC; [1. 1]), N. was founded by the Phoenicians in the mid 7th cent. BC. The Phoenician …

Mithridatium

(123 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Μιθριδάτιον; Mithridátion). Hellenistic fortress at the point where the Alaca Çayı breaks through the basin of Alaca towards the north, modern Gerdekkaya (north east Galatia; formerly usually erroneously identified with Kerkenes Dağı). Two rock tombs of the 3rd cent. BC; outer settlement until well into the Byzantine period. Fortress of the Trocmi, given by Pompey in 65/4 BC, with the surrounding territory, to Brogitarus (Str. 12,5,2); ori…

Bi­thynia

(1,312 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Βιθυνία; Bithynía). [German version] A. Geographical location Region and kingdom in north-western Asia Minor, with a Thracian population. Its core territory (Str. 12,3,2f.; 12,3,7; 4,1-10; [2; 3. 190ff.]) lies between the  Bosporus [1] and the area around the lower  Sangarius, from the Black Sea Coast to the Gulf of Cius, Lake Ascania and the Kapıorman Dağları range. The northern coastal region up to the Kales formed the original territory of  Thyni(a)s, inhabited by the related tribe of the  Thyni, …

Tolistobogii

(362 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Τολιστοβόγιοι/ Tolistobógioi). Celtic tribe (Syll.3 591: Tolistoágioi) which, together with the Trocmi and led by Leonnorius, passed through Thracia in 279/8 BC and into Byzantium where Nicomedes [2] recruited them as allies [1.236-252]). After 275/4 BC the T. took possession of northwest Phrygia. Until 189 BC Gordium was their municipal centre and their territory extended from the Axylos in the south to the Bolu basin, and eastwards over the Ankara-Haymana region (Galatia; [2]). At th…

Tolastochora

(57 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Τολαστοχόρα; Tolastochóra). Town in Galatia (Ptol. 5,4,7; Tab. Peut. 9,5) at a crossing over the former southern main tributary of the Sangarius from Lake Ak (River Gökpınar) at modern Gökpınar in the southwestern border region of the Tolistobogii. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 236.

Diocaesarea

(118 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Διοκαισάρεια; Diokaisáreia). [German version] [1] Temple settlement Temple settlement around the Zeus sanctuary of Olba in Cilicia Tracheia, which became an independent town under Tiberius and later a diocese (suffragan of Seleucia on the Calycadnus). Archaeological finds: generous extension of the settlement with city walls, colonnade street, aqueduct, theatre, temple of Tyche; during the early Byzantine period the temple of Zeus was converted into a three-aisled colonnaded basilica. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography Hild/Hellenkemper, s.v. D. [German version] [2] …

Tectosages

(783 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Τεκτόσαγες/ Tektósages). [German version] I. Overview Sub-tribe of the Volcae, a Celtic group of peoples, referred to as Volcae T., who probably originated in the low mountain ranges from Thuringia to northeastern Bavaria ( circum Hercyniam silvam, Caes. B Gall. 6,24,1-4) ([1. 172-179]; differing: [4]). In the 4th cent. BC, the majority group of the Volcae were caught in a migration-dynamic in which a part of them, dominated by the T., moved across the Danube region into southeastern Europe. Another group of the T. adopted strong…

Cratea

(128 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Κράτεια, Κράτια). City in Bithynia, known today as Gerede, newly founded as Flaviopolis in the Flavian period (end of the 1st cent. AD). It was the main city of the South Paphlagonian border area in the Gerede Basin and was annexed to Galatia in c. 275/4 BC, and in 179, annexed to Paphlagonia (Land of Gaizatorix; Str. 12,3,41). In 6/5 BC, it became  Bithynia et Pontus and was part of Paphlagonia under Diocletianus (late 3rd cent. AD), later part of Honoria. Documented as a diocese since AD 342/3. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibl…

Prusa, Prusa ad Olympum

(588 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Προῦσα, Προῦσα πρὸς Ὀλύμπῳ τῷ ὄρει/ Proûsa, Proûsa pròs Olýmpōi tôi órei). City in Bithynia, on the northern slopes of Olympus [13] in Mysia (Str. 12,4,3), modern Bursa. A Prusias who is supposed to have fought Croesus  (Str. ibidem), the Bithynian king Prusias [1] I (Arr. FGrH 156 F 29) and Hannibal [4] (Plin. HN 5,148; [1. 1103 f.] accordingly dates the foundation to 188 or 187 BC) have been named as founders. Coins show the official tradition of foundation by Prusias I, who created it as…

Blucium

(71 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Βλούκιον; Bloúkion, Blucium). Residential castle of Deiotarus I (Str. 12,5,2; Cic. Deiot. 17). Archaeological finds: necropolis, settlements near Karalar [1; 2]. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 R. O. Arık, Karalar Hafriyatı, in: TTAD 2, 1934, 103-167 2 T. Saatçı, in: Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi 1986 Yıllığı, 30-33; 1987 Yıllığı, 19-22. S. Mitchell, Blucium and Peium, in: AS 24, 1974, 61-75 K. Strobel, Die Galater, 2, 1997.

Axylos

(61 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Axylos terra). Treeless grass steppe south of the upper  Sangarius between Emir Daǧları and  Tatta (Tuz Gölü) -- an area characterized by pasture farming in the border zone of Phrygia and Galatia with Lycaonia, (Liv. 38,18,4), cf. Str. 12,6,1). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography K. Strobel, Galatien und seine Grenzregionen, in: Asia Minor Studies 12, 1994, 29-65, here: 54ff., 59.

Mocis(s)us

(86 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Μωκισ(σ)ός/ Mṓkis(s)ós, also Mocesus, Iustinianupolis). Town in Cappadocia, which was rebuilt around 520 AD by Iustinianus I as a mountain stronghold (Procop. Aed. 5,4,15); present-day Viranşehir, to the south of Aksaray. It was probably relocated again at the end of the 7th cent. and was still a metropolitan seat in the 14th cent. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography A. Berger, Survey in Viranşehir (M.), in: Araştırma sonuçları toplantısı 13, 1996, 109-126; 14, 1997, 27-41; 15, 1998, 227-237  Hild/Restle, 238f.  W. Ruge, s.v. M., RE 15, 2514f.

Trocmi

(345 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Τρόκμοι/ Trókmoi, Latin Trocmi). Celtic tribe, which, together with the Tolistobogii and led by Lutarius, passed through Thracia (Thracians) in 279/8 BC into the territory of Byzantium; they were recruited by Nicomedes [2] I as allies [1.236-264]. The east Galatian region around central and lower Cappadocia which was won over to support the Pontic kings (probably 274/3 BC) became the home of the T. It was divided into four tribal principalities (tetrarchies with centres of power in …

Cataonia

(87 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Καταονία; Kataonía). Region and strategia in south-eastern Cappadocia between Taurus and Antitaurus, bordering on Cilicia, Commagene, and Melitene (Str. 11,12,2; 12,1,1-2,4), originally a Luwian-speaking region; in 301 BC, it fell to Seleucus I, probably as a dowry of Stratonice for Ariarathes III of Cappadocia; in AD 17, it became part of the province of Cappadocia, belonged to  Armenia Minor under Diocletian, to Armenia II in AD 386, and to Armenia III in AD 536. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. K., RE 10, 2478f. Hild/Restle, 202.

Libyssa

(68 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Λίβυσσα; Líbyssa, also τὰ Βουτίου; tà Boutíou). Town on the north coast of the Gulf of Izmit on the river Libyssus (Λίβυσσος; Líbyssos, modern Tavsançıl Deresi); nearby was the monument of Hannibal (Arr. FGrH 156 F 28; Plin. HN 5,148; Tzetz. Chil. 1,803ff.). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Th. Wiegand, Zur Lage des Hannibalgrabes, in: MDAI(A) 27, 1902, 321-326 W. Ruge, s.v. L./Libyssos, RE 13, 203.

Cappadox

(48 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Καππάδοξ; Kappádox). Tributary of the  Halys, modern Delice Irmağı (upper course: Karanlık/Boğazlıyan Çayı, north-eastern tributary: Kanak Çayı); rising in northern Cappadocia, the C. is the main river of eastern Galatia. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. K., RE 10, 1919f. K. Strobel, Die Galater, 1, 1996.

Comana

(251 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
This item can be found on the following maps: Hellenistic states [German version] [1] City in Cataonia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Education / Culture (Κόμανα; Kómana). City in  Cataonia (Str. 12,2,3), Hittite Kummanni; temple state of the goddess Ma-Enyo (Artemis Tauropolios;  Enyo; Roman  Bellona). Bishopric as early as the Severian period (2nd/3rd cents AD); today's Şar. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. Komana, RE 11, 1127f. Hild/Restle, 208f. [German version] [2] C. Pontica This item can be found on the foll…

Aegosages

(167 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Αἰγοσάγες/ Aigoságes). Celtic tribe recruited by Attalus [4] I in 218 BC for the battle against Achaeus [5] in Thracia and taken to Asia Minor (Pol. 5,77 f.; 5,111,1-7; [1. 233, 243]). In Aeolia (Aeolians [2]) and Mysia, Attalus I operated successfully with the A. who, however, started a mutiny at the Macestus due to a lunar eclipse. Attalus kept his word to the A. and settled them at the Hellespontus where they proceeded to plunder the surrounding cities and finally occupied Iliu…

Dadastana

(124 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Δαδάστανα; Dadástana, also Dabastana). Town in Galatia on the border with Bithynia, c. 20 km west of Nallıhan on the road from Nicaea to Ancyra [2. 31, 106f.]; belonged to Bithynia from the time of Augustus, from that of Diocletian to the prov. Galatia I (Amm. Marc. 25,10,12) [1. 160]. The emperor Jovian died here on 17 February, AD 364, on his way home from the Persian war. Here, a corps belonging to the usurper Procopius went over to Valens in 365 (Amm. Marc. 25,10,12; 26,8,5). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 Mi…

Hypius

(90 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Ὕπιος; Hýpios). [German version] [1] River in Asia Minor ( Hyp(p)ius). River, modern Melen Çayı, which flows from Lake Daphnusis (modern Efteni Gölü) to the Black Sea; the upper reaches of the H. are identical to the Küçük Melen Çayı (differently [1]). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) [German version] [2] Mountain range in Asia Minor ( Hypius mons). Mountains north of  Prusias on the H. (Plin. HN 5,148; differently [1]). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 L. Robert, A travers l'Asie Mineure, 1980, 11-106. K. Belke, Paphlagonien und Honorias, 1996, 217f. W. Ruge, s.v. H., RE 9,…

Castor

(571 words)

Author(s): Geus, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Κάστωρ; Kástōr). [German version] [1] see Dioscuri see  Dioscuri Geus, Klaus (Bamberg) [German version] [2] C. of Rhodos Greek historian, 1st cent. BC Greek historiographer of the first half of the 1st cent. BC, whose vita in Suda s.v. is confused with that of the homonymous Galatian dynast, author of Chronicle in six books from Belus ( Baal) and  Ninus (2123/2 BC) on until the restructuring of the Near East by Pompey (61/0 BC), with lists of kings and officials from Assyria, Sicyon, Argus, Athens, Alba and Rome. The structure of his many-stra…

Apamea

(592 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig)
(Ἀπάμεια; Apámeia). [German version] [1] City in  Bithynia This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Pergamum | Education / Culture City in  Bithynia, 1 km south-east of present-day Mudanya on the Sea of Marmara; founded by Colophon; originally Brylleion; from shortly after 330 BC Myrleia. From 433/32 BC attested as belonging to the  Delian League; at the end of the 4th cent. BC under the rule of Mithridates II of Cius; for a time in the 3rd cent. BC a member of the koinon of Athena Ilias. In 202 BC conquered by Philip V and delivered to Prusias I; newly founded as A…

Bithynia et Pontus

(1,011 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum)
[German version] A. Roman period Roman double province (after Diocletian, 284-305, only Bithynia) with  Nicomedia as its capital. In 74 BC the death of Nicomedes IV [2;7]; M. Iunius Iuncus, proconsul Asiae, is given the task of securing the kingdom as a Roman province; in the autumn of 74 the province of Bithynia is conferred upon the incumbent consul M.  Aurelius Cotta and Asia and B. established as a unitary customs zone (SEG 39, 1180 = AE 1989, 681 [1;4]). The 3rd Mithridatic war began in early 73 [2; 4; 7; 8]; Mithridate…

Caesarea

(992 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
[German version] [1] Main town of Cappadocia, modern Kayseri This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Byzantium | Christianity | Zenobia | | Alexander | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Limes | Limes | Pompeius | Rome | Rome (Καισάρεια; Kaisáreia, Iranian or cuneiform Mazaka). Main town of  Cappadocia (Str. 12,2,7-9), modern Kayseri. [German version] I. Early History to Roman Times C. succeeded the nearby ancient centre of Kaniš (Kültepe;  Asia Minor), although that was still of importance in Hellenistic and Roman time…

Camulianae

(75 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Καμουλιαναί; Kamoulianaí, Kamuliana). Settlement on the road from Caesarea/Mazaka to Tavium in Cappadocia, possibly the modern Kermer. Its name is not of Celtic origin (different view in [1. 197f.]); as a place of pilgrimage (image of Christ, translation to Constantinople in AD 574), it became a town under the name of Iustinianopolis; documented as a diocese from AD 553 into the 13th cent. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 Hild/Restle. W. Ruge, s.v. K., RE 10, 1844.

Nymphaeum

(1,502 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
I. Sanctuary [German version] A. Etymology and definition The word νυμφαῖον/ nymphaîon is first attested in the 4th cent. BC, on Delos (IG XI,2,144, A l. 91). It originally designated a sanctuary of the nymphs. A nymphaeum is first attested in Itanus on Crete in the 3rd cent. BC together with a water reservoir (ILS 9458). The Latinised form nymphaeum is first found in Pomponius Mela (first half of the 1st cent. AD, Mela 2,3), for a nymph sanctuary in Chersonessus. Conversely, Plinius (HN 35,151) used the word nymphaeum to describe a well with a statue in it (Corinth). The modern t…

Prusias

(948 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Προυσίας/ Prousías). [German version] [1] P. I, the Lame King of Bithynia from 230 BC Son of Ziaelas and king of Bithynia c. 230-182 BC. P. gave support to Rhodes after the earthquake of 227 (Pol. 5,90,1) and in alliance with it fought Byzantium, but was unable to keep his conquest (Pol. 4,47-52). In 216 he destroyed the Celtic Aegosages (Pol. 5,111; [1. 43]). Characteristics of his policy were friendship with Macedonia and enmity with Pergamum. In the first of the Macedonian Wars [A] he fought by agreement with Phi…

Nicomedia

(1,111 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Byzantium | Christianity | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Limes | Natural catastrophes | Pergamum | Pompeius | Patricius | Rome | Rome (Νικομήδεια/ Nikomḗdeia, Latin Nicomedia). [German version] I. From the foundation to the death of Nicomedes IV Town at the northeast end of the gulf of Astacus or N., modern İzmit or Kocaeli. Founded and named by Nicomedes [2] I in 264/3 BC as the capital of the Bithynian kingdom (Memnon FGrH 434 F 12; Arr. FGr…

Argaeus

(103 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] [1] Son of Ptolemy I (Ἀργαῖος; Argaîos). Son of Ptolemy I (and of Eurydice?); murdered by Ptolemy II (because of a conspiracy?) after 282 BC. PP 6, 14489. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography C. Habicht, Argaeus, Ptolemy II. and Alexander's corpse, AHB 2,4, 1988, 88-89. [German version] [2] Volcanic massif in Cappadocia (Ἀργαῖος, also Ἀργαῖον ὄρος; Argaîon oros). Erciyes Daǧı, highest volcanic massif in  Cappadocia (3917 m) south of Kayseri. Volcanic peak of the same name (modern Hasan Daǧı) in south-west Cappadocia (3268 m). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography…

Archelais

(102 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae Town in south-western  Cappadocia; the modern Aksaray. Founded after 36 BC by the last Cappadocian king  Archelaus [7] in place of the old centre Garsau(i)ra (as κωμόπολις, komópolis: Str. 12,2,6 with 14,2,29). Elevated by the emperor  Claudius to the status of Colonia Claudia Archelais; from the 4th cent. AD governed as a colonia or civitas Colonia. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography D. French, Latin Inscr. from Aksaray (Colonia Archelais in Cappadocia), in: ZPE 27, 1977, 247-249 F. Hild, M. Restle, Kapp…

Mariandyni

(262 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Μαριανδυνοί; Mariandynoí). Originally a Plāïc-speaking (Paphlagonian) population in northern Anatolia, overlayered by groups of Thracian descent. Area of settlement: to the east of the watershed between the lower Sangarius and Hypius [1], to the south of the coastal area Thyni(a)s (up to Kales), to the west of the Caucones in the area of the lower Billaeus and the Paphlagonian area on the middle Ladon, to the north of Abant and Köroğlu Dağları (Str. 8,3,17; 12,3,4). Subjugated by …

Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …

Gallus

(209 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[I] (Γάλλος; Gállos). [German version] [1] River in Bithynia River in Bithynia, modern Mudurnu Çayı, rises near Modrene (modern Mudurnu) in Phrygia Epictetus (Str. 12,3,7; [2], differently [1]) and flows into the lower course of the  Sangarius. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) [German version] [2] Small river through Pessinus Small river that originally flowed through  Pessinus to the  Sangarius [3]. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 W. Ruge, s.v. G., RE 7, 674 2 S. Şahin, Stud. über die Probleme der histor. Geogr. Kleinasiens, in: EA 7, 1986, 125-151 3 Belke, 165f. …

Pant(e)ichium

(67 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Παντ(ε)ίχιον; Pant(e)íchion). Harbour town and fortress south-east of Calchedon in the border region of Nicomedeia, the modern Pendik; already inhabited in Early History. According to Procop. Goth. 3,35,4, Belisarius owned a country estate there. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography F.K. Dörner, s.v. P., RE 18, 779f.  R. Janin, Constantinople Byzantine, 21964, 502  Id., Les églises et les monastères des grands centres byzantins, 1975, 8, 52ff., 62.

Proseilemmenitae

(100 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Προσειλημμενῖται; Proseilēmmenîtai). Inhabitants of the territory of Proseilemmene in the frontier region between Lycaonia and Galatia, originally part of Phrygia Megale, between Karaca Dağ, Paşa Dağı and Tuz Gölü (Tatta Limne); assigned in 25/4 BC as a regio attributa ('associated region') to the urban area of Ancyra, in the Antonine period (late 2nd/early 3rd cents. AD) organized into the urban community of Cinna (Ptol. 5,4,10; [1. 56 f., 59 f.], pace [2. 55, 148]). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 K. Strobel, Galatien und seine Grenzregionen, in: E.…

Nazianzus

(71 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Ναζιανζός/ Nazianzós, orig. Nadiandós). Settlement in Cappadocia, later in the province of Cappadocia II (Hierocles, Synekdemos 700,5), modern Bekârlar, 30 km east of Aksaray; from AD 325 it is recorded as a bishopric, in the 11th century a metropolitan seat and in the 14th cent. it is described as deserted. Gregorius [3] was bishop here in 382-3. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 244f.  W. Ruge, s.v. Nazianzos, RE 16, 2099-2101.

Nakida

(61 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Hittite Naḫita). Important pre- and early historical settlement and Byzantine fortified city [1], modern Niğde. After the destruction of Tyana in AD 833 it took on the function of capital of southern Cappadocia. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography F. Prayon, Kleinasien vom 12.-6. Jahrhundert v.Chr. (TAVO Beiheft B 82), s.v. N. Hild/Restle, 243f.  B. Radt, Anatolien, vol. 1, 1993, 140-143.

Lycus

(2,142 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Λύκος; Lýkos). Mythology and religion: L. [1-9], historical persons: L. [10-13], rivers: L. [14-19]. [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno [1] (Ps.-Eratosth. Katasterismoi 23), only Apollod. 3,111 mentions his translation to the Islands of the Blessed, possibly to differentiate him from L. [6], with whom he is connected by Hyg. Fab. 31, 76 and 157 in spite of the descent from Poseidon. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Prometheus and Celaeno Son of Prometheus and Celaeno [1], on whose tomb in th…

Arabissus

(68 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity (Ἀραβισ(σ)ός; Arabis(s)ós). Town in  Cappadocia; the modern Afşin (formerly Yarpuz), near the confluence of three tributary sources of the Pyramus (It. Ant. 210,11). At the end of the 4th cent. headquarters of the legio XII Moderatiana. Mentioned from AD 381 as a suffragan bishopric. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography F. Hild, M. Restle, Kappadokien (TIB 2), 1981, 144 f.

Askania Limne

(62 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Ἀσκανία λίμνη; Askanía límnē). Ascanian Lake, also known as Lake  Nicaea in  Bithynia (modern İznik Gölü); the name was applied to the lake and the surrounding region, the western part of which was taken as belonging to Mysia, the eastern one to Phrygia (Str. 12,4,5; Plin. HN 5,40,8). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. A., RE 2, 1610.

Cappadocia, II.

(639 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] Roman province in central and eastern Asia Minor, with Caesarea [3] as its capital. After the death of  Archealus [7] I in AD 17, the kingdom of  Cappadocia was annexed in 18/19 under the command of Q. Veranius, a legate of Germanicus (Tac. Ann. 2,42,4). The province with an auxiliary garrison was under the administration of a procurator (Tac. Ann. 12,49; Cass. Dio 57,17,7); under Cn. Domitius Corbulo (55-61 and 63-65/66) and L. Iunius Caesennius Paetus (61-63), it was united with  Galatia. In 70/71, the Legio XII Fulminata was transferred to Melitene (Joseph BJ 7,1…

Preietus

(86 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Πρείετος/ Preíetos). Port and episcopal city in Bithynia (Bithynia et Pontus), on the southern coast of the Bay of Astacus or Nicomedia, probably near modern Karamürsel, named after the Bithynian god of war P., who had one of his main cult sites there (Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos, De thematibus 1,27: Πραίνετος/ Praínetos; Tab. Peut. 9,2: Pronetios; Plin. HN 31,23: Brietium). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography F. K. Dörner, s. v. Preietos (2), RE 22, 1832-1835  Id., Inschriften und Denkmäler in Bithynien (IstForsch 14), 1941, 37-40, 65-67, no. 39-42.

Germa, Germokoloneia

(87 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | | Coloniae (Γέρμα κολωνία, Γερμοκολώνεια; Gérma kolōnía, Germakolṓneia). Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Germenorum, founded between 25/24 and 21/20 BC; at the crossing of the roads Ancyra - Dorylaeum/Ancyra - Pessinus. Attested as a suffragan diocese until the 12th cent. Ruins near modern Babadat. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography H. v. Aulock, Die röm. Kolonie G., in: MDAI(Ist) 18, 1968, 221-237 Belke, 168f. Mitchell I, 87-90, 151f., 155 M. Waelkens, G., Germokoloneia, Germia, in: Byzantion 4…

Zama

(397 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Z. Regia City in Africa Proconsularis This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Punic Wars City in Africa proconsularis, probably modern Seba Biar [1. 416 f.; 2. 321-326; 3. 325 f.; 4; 5. 251 f.; 6. 42 f.]. It was near Z. - at Naraggara - that the decisive battle between Hannibal [4] and P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio was fought in 202 BC [1. 417-420] (Punic Wars II). In the war with Iugurtha (111-105 BC), Z. was attacked by Q. Caecilius [I 30] Metellus (Sall. Iug. 56 f.). No later tha…

Anastasioupolis

(69 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Ἀναστασιούπολις; Anastasioúpolis). Town in  Galatia, remains near Dikmen Hüyük. Originally called Lagania, a station on the pilgrim route; recorded as a suffragan diocese from AD 451. Renamed after  Anastasius I (AD 491-518). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography K. Belke, M. Restle, Galatien und Kappadokien (TIB 4), 1984, 125 f. S. Mitchell, Anatolia. Land, Men and Gods in Asia Minor, vol. 2, 1993, 126 f., 129 f. W. Ruge, s. v. A., RE 12, 454.

Neocaesarea

(605 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen)
(Νεοκαισάρεια/ Neokaisáreia, Lat. Neocaesarea). [German version] [1] Town in Pontos This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Byzantium | Christianity | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Limes | Rome | Rome A town in Pontus at the southern foot of the Paryadres near present-day Niksar, at the junction of the east-west route from the Amnias valley and up the Lycus valley via the Comana Pontica [2]-Polemonium road [4; 5; 6.Vol. 1, 17-57]; it is mentioned for the first time in Plin. HN. 6,8. N.'s history is traceable vi…

Vegistum

(78 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Celts (Ueteston, Οὐέτεστον). Town in Galatia on the southern edge of the territory of the Tolistobogii (Ptol. 5,4,7; Tab. Peut. 9,5: Vetissus), about 8 km to the west-northwest of modern Sülüklü. Regionally organised in the Roman period as δῆμος Οὐητισσέων/ dêmos Uētisséōn (MAMA 7, 363); numerous inscriptions survive from the region around V. (MAMA 7, 311-401). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 242  E. Kirsten, s. v. V., RE 8 A, 2437-2439.

Sozopetra

(49 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Σωζόπετρα/ Sōzópetra, also Ζιζόατρα/ Zizóatra, Ζάπετρα/ Zápetra; in Arabic sources Zibaṭra or Zubaṭra). City in Cappadocia in the strategia of Lauiansene, which borders on Syria (Ptol. 5,7,10), modern Doğanşehir (formerly Viranşehir), 56 km to the southwest of  Melitene. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 286 f.  E. Honigmann, s.v. S., RE 3 A, 1256.

Basilica Therma

(44 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Βασιλικὰ Θέρμα, Θέρμα, Θέρμαι Βασιλικαί; Basilikà Thérma, Thérma, Thérmai Basilikaí). City in Cappadocia, in the border region to East Galatia, today Sarıkaya (previously Terzili Haman). Thermal spa, documented as a diocese since AD 451. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 156f.

Scopas

(1,000 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Σκόπας/ Skópas). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Paros, mid 4th cent. BC Sculptor from Paros, active in the mid 4th cent. BC, working mostly in marble and very occasionally in bronze. In the opinion of the ancient world, S. was one of the most important masters of Greek sculpture. Written records ascribe to him approximately 25-30 individual works and major projects, which should probably be allotted to several sculptors with the same name of different generations. The extant pediment sculptures from th…

Garsaura, Garsauira

(62 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Γαρσάουρα, Γαρσαύιρα; Garsáoura, Garsaúira). Main town of the Cappadocian strategia Garsauritis, modern Aksaray; refounded by  Archelaus [7] as  Archelais (later colonia Claudia Augusta; in Str. 12,2,6 called κωμόπολις). From AD 325 to the 14th cent. attested as a bishopric. The original name was preserved (in the Seljuq period Aqsarā). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Hild/Restle, 205f. Mitchell 1, 95f.

Pessinus

(1,059 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Zenobia | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Celts | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Pergamum (Πεσσινοῦς; Pessinoûs). Town in Phrygia, later part of Galatia. Temple-state with a famous sanctuary of Cybele/Mater Magna (Str. 10,12; 12,5,3), crossed by the sacred creak Gallus [2], which has buried the town area with its silt deposits; modern Ballıhisar. The territory of P. reached the mountain of Dindymum in the north, including its north-eastern slopes up…

Cinna, [1]

(77 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Κίννα, also Κίνα; Kínna, Kína). Town in the province of Galatia, modern Karahamzalı; in Antonine times (2nd cent. AD), the district of Proseilemmene was organized as a municipality ( Proseilemmenitai); attested as a diocese of Galatia I possibly as early as AD 325, then into the 12th cent. AD. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 198 Mitchell 1, 96 K. Strobel, Galatien und seine Grenzregionen, in: E. Schwertheim (ed.), Forsch. in Galatien (Asia Minor Stud. 12), 1994, 59.

Hadrianopolis

(637 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Belke, Klaus (Vienna) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Ἁδριανόπολις; Hadrianópolis). [German version] [1] City in Paphlagonia Caesarea (Καισάρεια…

Helenopolis

(65 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] Place at the exit of the Gulf of Astacus in Bithynia, originally Drepanon, modern Altinova. Birthplace of  Helena [2], elevated to a city in her honour by Constantine [1] and extended by Justinian (Amm. Marc. 26,8,1; Procop. Aed. 5,2). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography R. Janin, Les églises et les monastères des grands centres byzantins, 1975, 97f. W. Ruge, s.v. Drepanon (4), RE 5, 1687.

Tembris

(57 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Τέμβρις/ Témbris, also Témbros, Thýmbris, Tembrógius; modern River Porsuk). Left bank tributary of the Sangarius (Liv. 38,18,8; Plin. HN 6,4; HN 681). It rises in the Dindymum to the south of modern Kütahya, flows first to the north and then turns eastwards past Dorylaeum. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 232  W. Ruge, s. v. T., RE 5 A, 433.

Kerkenes Dağı

(219 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] Mountain massif south of Sorgun, in the Hittite period probably the cult mountain Daḫa near Zippalanda (Kuşaklı Höyük). After 600 BC building of the city of Pteria, the largest prehistoric city of Anatolia ( c. 2.5 km2 densely built up): layout to plan with grand administrative and military complexes, later condensing of the existing area; clay brick superstructure of the city wall ( c. 7.5 km long) probably not completed for political reasons; numerous tumuli. New centre of the Phrygian empire - that was restricted because of the Lydian expa…

Melaina Akra

(35 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Μέλαινα Ἄκρα/ Mélaina Akra). Bithynian foothills to the east of the northern end of the Bosporus, modern Kara Burun. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. Melaina Akra (2), RE 15, 387.

Mons Magaba

(83 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] Mountain massif near Ancyra, onto which the Tectosages and Trocmi retreated from the Romans in 189 BC; the Galatae were defeated with their Paphlagonian and Cappadocian allies in the foothills (Liv. 38,24-27); today a lush outcrop (Kale/Doğandere Tepe) of the Elma Dağı-Massif (incorrect [1. 53f.]; reference to the mons Modiacus west of Ancyra at Fest. 11 cannot be correct). Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography 1 Mitchell 1. W. Ruge, s.v. M., RE 14, 287  K. Strobel, Die Galater 2, 1999  Belke, 207.

Faustinupolis

(105 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (Φαυστινούπολις; Phaustinoúpolis, colonia Faustinopolitanorum). Originally the village of Halala, 24 km south-east of Tyana; the modern Başmakcı. Here died in AD 176  Faustina the Younger [3] (SHA Aur. 26,4; 9), for which M. Aurelius elevated F. to the status of colonia. Attested since 431 as a bishopric. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography M. H. Ballance, Derbe and F., in: AS 14, 1964, 139-145 R. P. Harper, s.v. F., PE, 326 Hild/Restle, 258f. T. Drew-Bear, Inscriptions de Cappadoce, in: J. DesCourtils (…

Calchedon

(726 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Byzantium | Christianity | Diadochi and Epigoni | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Oracles | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Delian League (Καλχηδών; Kalchēdṓn, also Chalkedon; Lat. Calchedon, Calcedon, Chalcedon). [German version] I. Prehistory to Roman Period Prehistorical settlement area on the south-eastern entrance into the  Bosporus (map); in c. 685 BC, the harbour town was founded as a Megarian colony; modern Kadıköy. Its territory extended along the e…

Mnizus

(47 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
[German version] (Μνίζος/ Mnízos). Way station, later a town, on the road from Nicaea to Ancyra (Cod. Theod. 9,40,16; 9,45,3), 8 km to the west of modern-day Ayaş. It was a suffragan bishopric from AD 451 until sometime in the 12th cent. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography Belke, 207.
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