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Crumerum

(129 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Military camp and vicus on the Danube embankment road east of Brigetio in Pannonia superior, now Nyergesújfalu (Komárom, Hungary). The site was established at the end of the 2nd cent, and in the 2nd/3rd cents. was the base for the cohors V Callaecorum Lucensium (CIL III 3662-3664), in the 4th cent. for the equites promoti (Not. Dign. Occ. 33,30). Rebuilt in the period of Constantine and fortified with corner turrets (It. Ant. 246,2; 266,8; Not. Dign. Occ. 33,9,30; CIL III 3662-3666, 10602; Κοῦρτα in Ptol. 2,11,5; 15,4). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography C. Patsch, s.v. …

Sopianis

(211 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia | Rome ( Sopianae). Roman settlement in Pannonia inferior (It. Ant. 231; 264; Amm. Marc. 28,1,5; ILS 3795), modern Pécs in Hungary, situated at the starting point of significant roads into the Pannonian Limes zone: north of Carnuntum, Arrabona, Brigetio and Aquincum, southeast of Mursa, Sirmium and Singidunum. There were strong commercial relationships with Italy (imported metal goods, ceramics). Its economic upturn attracted…

Hieron Stoma

(153 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Ἱερὸν Στόμα; Hieròn Stóma). The most southerly branch of the Danube estuary (Str. 7,5,1; 8,6,1; Ptol. 3,10,2), also known by the name of  Peuce (Luc. 3,202; Plin. HN 4,79; Ptol. loc. cit.; Mart. 7,7,1; Amm. Marc. 22,8,46; Geogr. Rav. 4,5,13), in Scythia Minor, modern district of Tulcea in Romania. Of the seven branches of the estuary in the Danube delta the Hieron Stoma (HS) carried the largest amount of water into the sea. The HS was dedicated to St. George by the Christians and pu…

Mursa

(230 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia Roman colony from the time of Hadrian (CIL III 3279; 3560) and a military base in Pannonia Inferior (It. Anton. 131; Tab. Peut. 6,2), modern Osijek (in Croatia). M. probably lay on both sides of the lower Dravus (Drava), where there was a river crossing. Of the officials of the colony decuriones (CIL III 3288; 10305; 15141), VI viri (CIL III 15145), an augur (CIL III 3291 = 10267) and a flamen (CIL III 3288) are recorded. M. was known for its ceramics and as a trading ce…

Tapae

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Daci, Dacia Town at which L. Tettius [II 2] Iulianus was victorious over the Daci in 88/9 AD (Iord. Get. 10,12; Τάπαι, Cass. Dio 67,10,2; 68,8,1). It was from there that Trajan set out on his first campaign against the Daci in 101 AD. The identification of T. is uncertain (between Tibiscum and Sarmizegetusa or the 'Iron Gate'). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography J. Dobiáš, The History of Czechoslovacian Territory before the Appearance of the Slavs, 1964, 171 f., 176 (Czech).

Pathissus

(110 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] The biggest left-hand Sarmatian tributary of the Danube, the modern Tisa (Tisza, Theiß), which flows through the Ukraine, Romania, Slovakia, Hungary and Serbia and into the Danube near Acumincum (the modern Stari Slankamen) in Pannonia inferior (Plin. HN. 4,80; Parthiscus: Amm. Marc. 17,13,4; cf. Str. 7,5,2). The Latin name Tisia only appears in late-antique sources (cf. Iord. Get. 33). The river constituted a serious obstacle with its wide bed and its swampy environment. The area between the P. and the Danube was settled primar…

Oescus

(332 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Right bank tributary of the Danube in Moesia inferior Right bank tributary of the Danube in Moesia inferior (Plin. HN 3,149; Tab. Peut. 8,1: Escus; Hdt. 4,49: Σκίος/ Skíos; Thuc. 2,96,4: Ὄσκιος/ Óskios), modern Iskăr (Bulgaria). Burian, Jan (Prague) [German version] [2] Roman town This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia Roman town (Ptol. 3,10,10: Οἶσκος Τριβαλλῶν/ Oîskos Triballôn, cf. 8,11,6; Tab. Peut. 8,1: Escus), modern Gigen (Bulgaria), near the confluence of the O. [1] with the Danube. O. is to…

Anchiale

(384 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Ἀγχιάλη; Anchiálē). [German version] [1] Cretan nymph Cretan nymph, mother of the Idaan  Daktyloi Tities and Cyllenus (birth myth in Apoll. Rhod. 1,1129-31) and, as lover of Apollo, mother of Oaxes also, the founder of the Cretan city of Oaxus (Serv. ecl. 1,65). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] (Anchialos) City on the western coast of Pontus This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Christianity | Moesi, Moesia (Anchialus; Ἀγχίαλος; Anchíalos) City on the western coast of Pontus, present-day Pomorije, founded by and dependent on  Apollon…

Aquincum

(196 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Commerce | Legio | Limes | Pannonia Originally a settlement of the  Aravisci; the military and administrative centre of  Pannonia inferior, on the right bank of the Danube, with camp and canabae (Ptol. 2,15,4; It. Ant. 254,7; Amm. Marc. 19,11,8; Not. Dign. occ. 33,54; Sidon. Apoll. Carm. 5,107), governor's residence of the beginning of the 2nd cent. AD; the modern Budapest, third district. In AD 124 municipium Aelium, AD 194 colonia Aelia Septimia. The legio II adiutrix was stationed here c. AD 114. Architectural …

Scordisci

(228 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Celtic tribe with Illyrian and Thracian elements. They originally settled in the northern central Balkans (Str. 7,5,12) - the 'Greater S.' to the east of the Noarus as far as the Margus [1] (modern Morava), and the 'Lesser S.' on the right bank of the latter. To the south the territory of the S. extended as far as the sources of the Margus. The precise boundaries of the tribal territory, however, are hard to ascertain; in the 1st cent. BC its nucleus was at the confluence of the Savus and the Danube. About the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC the S. and other Celtic tribes …

Breuci

(88 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Plin. HN 3,147; Suet. Tib. 9,2; Str. 7,5,3; Ptol. 2,15,3: Βρεῦκοι; Breûkoi). Illyrian tribe, settling in Pannonia Inferior along the lower reaches of the Save, subjugated by the Romans between 12 and 10 BC; the B. took part in the Pannonian revolt of AD 6 to 9. From then on, the B. were recruited as Roman auxiliaries -- eight cohortes Breucorum are attested for the imperial period. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography A. Graf, Übersicht der ant. Geogr. Pannoniens, 1938, 15 TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 40.

Maezaei

(189 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Μαιζαῖοι; Maizaîoi, Ptol. 2,16,5; Μαζαῖοι; Mazaîoi, Str. 7,5,3; Cass. Dio 55,32,4; Mazaei, Plin. HN 3,142; Maezei in inscriptions). Tribe to the north of Dalmatia near the Dalmatian-Pannonian border. According to Plin., Ptol. and Cass. Dio, it belonged to the Dalmatini, according to Str. to the Pannonii. The Pannonian origin of the M. is more probable although they were attached to the conventus Salonitanus (‘legal district of Salona’). Their extensive area was subjugated by the Romans in 12 BC. They formed a peregrine tribal district that was administered by a praef…

Marsonia

(83 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Fort and settlement in Pannonia inferior on the river Savus and on the road from Siscia to Sirmium, modern Slavonski Brod in Croatia. The road starting at Siscia bifurcated north of Marsonia; the northern branch led to Sirmium via Cibalae, the southern branch via Marsonia and Saldis. In late antiquity, auxilia ascarii are mentioned as the garrison of Marsonia (Not. Dign. Occ. 32,43). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography M. Fluss, s.v. M., RE 14, 1981 TIR L 34, Budapest, 1968, 78.

Mediolan(i)um

(673 words)

Author(s): Heucke, Clemens (Munich) | Polfer, Michel (Ettelbrück) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Et al.
(Μεδιολάν[ι]ον/ Mediolán[i]on). [German version] [1] Modern Milan This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Italy, languages | Pilgrimage | Regio, regiones | Rome | Batavian Revolt The modern city of Milan. It was founded in the early 4th cent. BC by the Insubres (Liv. 5,34,9) at the juncture of several Alpine valleys in the Padus/Po plain (Pol. 2,34,10); in 222 BC, it was captured by Cn. Scipio; it was later to become the most important city of that region (Pol.…

Brigetio

(136 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Legio | Limes | Pannonia | Pertinax Important Roman settlement (1st -4th cent. AD; municipium, later colonia); legion camp on the right bank of the Danube in Pannonia inferior, now Szöny/Komárom (Hungary). The legio I adiutrix was stationed in B. As the counter fort Celamantia (now Iža/Komárne in Slovakia) on the left bank of the Danube, B. was a strong military base in the defence against the tribes settling beyond the Danube. In B. Emperor Valentinian I died in 375 du…

Savus

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Σάουος; Sáouos). Right-hand tributary of the Danube in the south of  Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,128; 147 f.; Ptol. 2,16,1 f.; 3,9,1;  Str. 4,6,10; Geogr. Rav. 4,20), modern Sava (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia). In its middle and lower reaches it was navigable. On its banks there were important communications nodes (Neviodunum, Siscia, Sirmium, Singidunum). S. was also worshipped as a river deity (CIL III, 4009). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 33 Tergeste, 1961, 65  TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 100.

Osi

(132 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Illyrian (?) tribe (Tac. Germ. 28,3; 43,1; Osones: Itin. Anton. 263,7), related to the Aravisci, living to the east of the Marcomanni but west of the Hercynia Silva. The O. were tributary to the Sarmates or the Quadi. They originally lived northeast of the bend in the Danube near Vác, not far from the river Ipel' in central Slovakia. In 10/9 BC, they became part of the Roman sphere of influence (ILS 8965). Probably before the end of the Marcomanni War in 180 AD they migrated to Pannonia, in the area between Savaria and Aquincum (Itin. Anton. 263,7). From this period a praepos( itus…

Troesmis

(255 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia (Τροσμής/ Trosmḗs). Roman legionary camp and civilian city (Ov. Pont. 4,9,79; Tab. Peut. 8,3; Not. Dign. Or. 39,23; 39,31; Geogr. Rav. 4,5,19;  Procop. Aed. 4,11) in Moesia Inferior (Scythia Minor; Moesi), modern Igliţa (in the municipality of Turcoaia in the Romanian county of Tulcea). The Getae were the original settlers; the Romans advanced into the region in 29/27 BC and fortified their position c. AD 15. Before AD 112 the legio V Macedonica was deployed by Oescus [2] to take over military protecti…

Neviodunum

(173 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia Small Roman town in Pannonia Superior (Νοοϊόδουνον/ Nooïódounon, Ptol. 2,14,4; Itin. Anton. 259; ILS 4189: Neviod(unensium servus), also CIL III 3919; 46,16), modern Drnovo in Slovenia (district of Brez̆ice), originally a Celtic settlement in the neighbourhood of the Latobici. In the Roman period N. gained significance as a node on the road from Emona to Siscia. A branch leading northwest connected N. with Celeia. Near N. there was a crossing over the Sava. In the Flavian period N. became a municipiu…

Poetovio

(591 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Legio | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia | Pilgrimage Roman settlement in Pannonia superior, from the time of Diocletianus in Noricum Mediterraneum, modern Ptuj in Slovenia. The obviously Illyrian place name is documented in various alternative forms (CIL V 4371; VI 2552; 32561: Petovio; CIL XVI 155: Petabio; CIL VI 2579; 32515: Petavio; CIL XI 1016: Poetavio; Amm. Marc. 14,11,19: Potabio; Codex Theod. 12,1,78: Patavio; Ptol. 2,14,4; Zos. 2,46: Ποτόβιον/ Potóbion; Priscus fr. 8: Παταβίων/ Patabíōn). The…
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