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Alpenus

(81 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Ἀλπηνός, Ἀλπηνοί; Alpēnós, Alpēnoí).   Kome (Hdt. 7,176) or   polis (Hdt. 7,216) on the coastal plain of eastern  Locris, which is towered over by the rock formation Melampygos; at the eastern exit of  Thermopylae, where the Anopaia path branches off (Hdt. 7,215 f.; 229; cf. Aeschin. Leg. 132 f.). Badly damaged during the earthquake in 426 BC (FGrH 85 Demetrius of Callatis fr. 6). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography Müller, 292 f. Pritchett 4, 1982, 159-162 F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 202.

Tritea

(106 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τριτέα/ Tritéa; Τρίτεια/ Tríteia). Town in the east of western Locris (Locri [1]; Thuc. 3,101,2; Steph. Byz. s.v. Τρίτεια; SEG 25, 590), probably at modern Pendeoria near Galaxidi, with remains of a ring wall. A breed of hunting dog was named after T. (Hesych. s.v. Τριτῆς γενήεν). There are frequent mentions of inhabitants of T. in inscriptions at Delphi. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'ouest, vol. 1, 1952, 51 f., 145-149, 211; vol. 2, 1952, passim  J. Bousquet, C. Vatin, La Convention Chaleion-T., in: BCH 92, 1968, 29-36  G. …

Abae

(254 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles (Ἄβαι, Ἀβαί; Ábai, Abaí). Situated in eastern  Phocis on a rocky outcrop at the edge of the plain which borders the pass of  Hyampolis (about 2.5 km distance) near the modern Exarchos, on the road from Orchomenus to Opus (Paus. 10,35,1-5). Name derived from its Argive founder  Abas (Paus. loc. cit.). Seat of an oracle of Apollo (Hdt. 1,46; 8,27; 33; 133; Paus. loc. cit.; Str. 9,3,13; Diod. Sic. 16,58,3-6; Syll.3 552); fortress on the access to Phocis from  Locris Opuntia and  Boeotia (D…

Boagrius

(65 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Βοάγριος; Boágrios). River in eastern Locris (also called Manes), at times a raging torrent, discharges into the sea near Thronium (Str. 9,4,4; Plin. HN 4,27; Ptol. 3,15,10-11; cf. Hom. Il. 2,533; Lycoph. Alex. 1146). Its course was changed considerably by the earthquake of 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J. M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Opountian Lokris, 1990, 167-179.

Cirphis

(137 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κίρφις; Kírphis). Mountain ridge south of Arachova in Boeotia, extending from the plain of Cirrha in the west to the Schiste in the east (Str. 9,3,3; FdD 3, 4, 280 c 24), where its highest peak rises (Xerovouni, 1503 m: cf. Pind. Hyporchemata d 5,4; b 3,11) and together with Mount Parnassus divides east and west Locris (Str. 9,3,1). It is uncertain if these references indicate the existence of an inhabited centre of the same name, whose location should be assumed near the modern v…

Stiris

(103 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Στῖρις/ Stîris, Στιρίς/ Stirís). City in Eastern Phocis on the route from Chaeronea over the Helicon [2] to Delphi (Paus. 10,35,8), remains at modern Paleochori (monastery of Agios Nikolaos). In the 3rd cent. BC border conflicts with Panopeus (SEG 42, 479), in the middle of the 2nd cent. BC sympoliteía with Medeon [1] (Syll.3 647). Inscriptions: IG IX 1,32-57. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography F. Schober, Phokis, 1924, 40f.  Philippson/Kirsten 1, 438  N. D. Papachatzis, Pausaniu Hellados Periegesis, vol. 5, 1981, 441f.  J. Fossey, The Ancient To…

Larymna

(188 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Λάρυμνα; Lárymna). Harbour town in eastern Locris, on the Gulf of Euboea [1]. Remains of fortifications near modern L., from Mycenaean, archaic and classical times as well as the Roman Imperial period, testify to the continuity of settlement and reconstruction after the destruction by Sulla (86 BC: Plut. Sulla 26,4). On the ancient road between L. and Bazaraki, near the church of Agios Nikolaos, are the ruins of an early Christian basilica. The ancient settlement was located on the hill of Bazaraki c. 2.5 k…

Phocis

(1,395 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Φωκίς/ Phōkís, Φωκεῖς/ Phōkeȋs). [German version] I. Geography A region in central Greece shaped by far-flung mountain ranges ( c. 1615 km2). Parnassus and Kirphis separate the eastern plain -- which is crossed by the Cephisus and borders east on the Callidromus up to Kopais - from the western plain which extends along the Gulf of Corinth up to the Bay of Cirrha, in the northeast borders on Doris, Thessaly and East Locris and in the west on Locris Ozolis. Phocis is one of the most seismically active regions in Gre…

Physcus

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Φύσκος/ Phýskos). [German version] [1] Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes (Str. 14,2,4; 29; 5,22; Ptol. 5,2,11: Φοῦσκα/ Phoûska; Stadiasmus maris magni 272), deme of the polis of Lindus in Rhodes [1. 792; 2. no. 51]. Ancient remains of a Classical and Hellenistic fortress are on Asar Tepe, 2 km to the northwest of Marmaris, above an excellent natural harbour on the bay. Inscriptions: [1. 2-5; 2. no. 1-7, 57]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 P.M. Fraser, G.E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954 2 C. Blinkenberg, K.F. Kinch, Lindos, …

Castalia

(253 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κασταλία; Kastalía, Lat. Castalia). Spring in  Delphi, dedicated to Apollo and the Muses, located at the exit of the gorge of the Phaedriades, its waters discharging into the river Pappadia; according to a -- geologically incorrect -- ancient assumption, the spring was fed by the Cephissus [1], which flows on the opposite slope of Mount Parnassus (Paus. 10,8,9f.; schol. Pind. Paean 6,5; POxy. 5, 841). In literature, C. is often used synonymously with  Delphi. The Castalian water, wh…

Cachales

(71 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Καχάλης; Kachálēs). Tributary to the Cephisus river in Phocis, today called Kakorrema, flowing below the mountain fortress of Tithorea. C. was the source of the city's water supply (Paus. 10,32,11). The Greek name C. means ‘impetuous, noisy river’ (cf. καχλάζειν; kachlázein, ‘to make noise, to roar’). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography H. v. Geisau, s.v. Kachales, RE 10, 1456 N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ελλάδος Περιήγησις 5, 1981, 424 n. 1.

Locri, Locris

(4,613 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Musti, Domenico (Rome) | Del Monaco, Lavinio (Rome)
(Λοκροί, Λοκρίς; Lokroí, Lokrís). [1] Region in Greece [German version] A. Geography Locris comprised two regions in central Greece, separated from one another by two mountain ranges ( Parnassus, Callidromus and the valley of the Cephis(s)us): 1) Western L. with the plain south of the Gavia Pass from Amphissa to the Gulf of Corinth, bordered by the slopes of Parnassus and Corax; it extended to the west in a narrow coastal strip across the promontory Antirrhium and bordered on Aetolia, Doris, Phocis, Delphi and the hierà chṓra of the Apollo sanctuary. 2) Eastern L. comprised the s…

Lilaea

(206 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Λίλαια; Lílaia, Ptol. 3,14,4; Λίλαιον; Lílaion, schol. Pind. Pyth. 1,121). City in Phocis at the Cephisus sources (Hom. Il. 2,523; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 385; Str. 9,2,10; Paus. 10,35,5); named after the daughter of the river god Cephisus (Paus. 10,33,4); cf. the coins of L. [1. 17f.]; HN 339; 343). L. lies on the north-eastern slope of the Parnassus in a strategically favourable position on the traffic axis between the upper Cephisus valley and the Pleistus valley, c. 33 km from Delphi (Paus. 10,33,2). Finds come from the prehistoric to the Late Helladic a…

Phlygonium

(148 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Φλυγόνιον/ Phlygónion). Phocian town. Whether it was located in the north-west of the small plain of Tséresi is uncertain; the remains of the fortifications on the hill of Palaiokastron have been attributed to it. P. was among the cities destroyed in 346 BC at the instigation of Philippus [4] II (Paus. 10,3,2); the name P. also appears in the reports of the treasurers of Delphi after 324/3 (CID II 108 l. 10). In c. 140 BC (FdD III 2, 136), P. and Ambryssus, probably as part of a sympoliteía , together established the borders of their territory with that of Delphi. Daverio Rocchi…

Daphnus

(113 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Δαφνοῦς; Daphnoûs). Port of the Locri Epicnemidii (Str. 9,3,17; Plin. HN. 4,27), today known as Agios Konstantinos, situated on the coastal plain of Longus on the Euboean Gulf. From the time of the first Sacred War ( c. 590 BC) the entire coastal strip belonged to the Phocians (Scyl. 61; Str. 9,3,1), who secured an access to the Aegean Sea via D. After the third Sacred War D. was returned to Locris in 346 BC. It was destroyed by an earthquake in 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J. M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Opountian Lokris, …

Anticyra

(374 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Ἀντίκυρα; Antíkyra). [German version] [1] Settlement on the southern bank of the river  Spercheus Settlement on the southern bank of the river  Spercheus, in 480 BC still the location of its mouth into the sea (Hdt. 7,198), near the modern village of Komma. Originally, A. was part of the  Achaean Phthiotis, then fell to the  Malians in the Peloponnesian War (431 to 404 BC), and from about 280 BC, it was a member of the  Oeteaen league.  Ephialtes, who in 480 BC had betrayed to the Persians the way around The…

Daulis, Daulia

(256 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Δαυλίς , Δαυλία; Daulís, Daulía). City in eastern Phocis, c. 1 km south of modern Davleia. Its location on one of the foothills of the Parnassus made access to it naturally difficult and gave it strategic importance because both the narrow pass between the lower and upper Cephissus valley as well as the road from  Chaeronea to  Delphi could be controlled by it (Hell. Oxy. 13,5; Liv. 32,18,7). Etymologically, its name is derived from …

Parapotamii

(231 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Παραποτάμιοι; Parapotámioi). Originally a peasant settlement on the eastern bank of the Cephis(s)us [1] in Phocis, c. 7 km north of Chaeronea near the modern Belesi, later fortified to protect the mountain pass between Parnassus and Hadylium which connected the upper Cephissus Valley with the Copais region (Hom. Il. 2,522; Paus. 10,33,7; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 385). It is possible that Theopompus' (ibid.) proposed interpretation of the settlement as a colony ( katoikía) may have been linked to the settlement of the river valley by Minyans from Orchomen…

Calliarus

(112 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Καλλίαρος, τὰ Καλλίαρα; Kallíaros, tà Kallíara). Listed as one of the east Locrian towns in Homer's ship catalogue (Hom. Il. 2,531), deserted at the time of Strabo (Str. 9,4,5; Hsch. s.v. C.); it took its name from the surrounding plain, etymologically derived from the eponymous hero in Steph. Byz. s.v. C. (= Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 13). The localization of C. near Skala Atalandis, the finding place of pottery from the Early and Middle Helladic as well as the Mycenaean period, is uncertain. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography W. A. Oldfather, s.v. K. (1) and (2…

Molycrium

(185 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μολύκρειον/ Molýkreion). Corinthian colony in the foothills of Antirrhium, at a point dominating the strait between the Gulf of Patras and the Gulf of Corinth; its exact location is unknown. Sources: Thuc. 2,84,4; 3,102,2: Μ.; 2,86,2: Ethnikon Μολυκρικός; Pol. 5,94,7: Μολυκρία; Str. 8,2,3: Ethnikon Μολύκριος; 9,4,8; 10,2,21: Μολύκρεια; Plin. HN 4,6: Molycria; Ptol. 3,15,3: Μολυκρία; Ps.-Scyl. 35: Μολύκρεια; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μολυκρία. Occupied by Athens around 460 BC, conquered in 426 by the Spartans under Eurylochus (Thuc. 3,102,…
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