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Pedieis

(142 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Πεδιεῖς; Pedieîs). Town in the upper Cephisus valley in eastern Phocis whose location is pinpointed as being near Palio Thiva, 5 km north-northeast of modern Tithorea. However, this location has also been suggested for Neon [6]. P. lay on the right bank of the river where traces of the wall ring have been preserved. P. was destroyed by the Persians in 480 BC (Hdt. 8,33) and laid waste by the Boeotians in 395 BC (Hell. Oxy. 18(13),5). In 360 BC it appeared in the list of those paying contributions towards the rebuilding of the temple of Delphi (CID II 5 Z. 55f.). Daverio Rocchi, G…

Tarphe

(48 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τάρφη/ Tárphē). City in eastern Locris (Hom. Il. 2,533); according to  Str. 9,4,6  the original place name of Pharygae (cf. Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.; s. v. Φαρύγαι; s. v. Θρόνιον). Location unknown. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography E. W. Kase et al., The Great Isthmus Corridor Route, vol. 1, 1991, 88.

Tethronion

(104 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τεθρώνιον; Tethrṓnion). City in eastern Phocis (Hdt. 8,33; Plin. HN 4,8) on the northern edge of the valley of the upper Cephis(s)us [1], 20 stadia from Drymus [1], 15 stadia from Amphicaea (Paus. 10,33,12); presumably to the northeast of modern Amphikleia or on a hill 5 km to the south of modern T. with ancient remains of city walls. In 480 BC destroyed by the Persians (Hdt. 8,33; Paus. 10,3,2), in 208 BC occupied by Philippus [7] V (Liv. 28,7,13). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography N. D. Papachatzis, Παυσανίου Ἑλλάδος Περιήγησις, Bd. 5, 1981, 431  Müller, 5…

Cynus

(168 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κῦνος; Kŷnos). Town of Opuntian  Locris (Hom. Il. 2,531; Scyl. 60; Lycoph. Alexandra 1147; Ptol. 3,15,9; Plin. HN 4,27; Hecat. in Steph. Byz. s.v. Κ.; Mela 2,3,40) and ship mooring place (ἐπίνειον; epíneion, emporium) of  Opus (Paus. 10,1,2; Str. 9,4,2; Steph. Byz. loc. cit.; Liv. 28,6,12). The settlement covered the peak of the hill, known as modern Palaiopyrgos or Pyrgos after the ruins of the ancient walls and after a medieval tower that juts out over the little bay on the northern tip of the plain of Ataland…

Neon

(631 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Νέων; Néōn). [German version] [1] Military official under Chirisophus Lacedaemonian from the perioeci town of Asine [3], subordinate commander (ὑποστράτηγος/ hypostrátēgos) of Chirisophus [1] in the campaign of the younger Cyrus [3] against Artaxerxes [2]. After Chirisiphorus' death, N. commanded the Lacedaemonian contingent. After Xenophon had relinquished command at Byzantium, N. hoped for supreme command, and opposed the decision to place the mercenary army in the service of the Odrysian King Seuthes (Xen. An. 6,4,23f.; 7,2,1-2; 7,3,7; [1. 350]). Schmitz, Winfried (Bi…

Korykion Antron

(162 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κωρύκιον ἄντρον; Kōrýkion ántron). A grotto (Quaternary period) with two chambers, named after Apollo's daughter Corycia (Paus. 10,6,3), on the northern side of Parnassus (on a height of 1,360 m) above Delphi (today's Sarandavli). The cavern, which Str. 9,3,1 and Paus. 10,32,2 regarded as most beautiful, was used by the neighbouring population as a place of refuge (in the Persian invasion of 480 BC, Hdt. 8,36,2), but primarily, as a cult site from as early as the end of the 8th cen…

Macynia

(144 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μακυνία, Μακύνεια; Makynía, Makýneia, ethnicon Μακυνιεύς; Makynieús). Coastal town in west Locris north-west of Antirrhium in the region of Mamakou, possibly on the Paleokastro, at a short distance from Taphiassus (modern Klokova; Str. 10,2,4; 6; 21; Plin. HN 4,6; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.); remains of the city walls (from about the 4th/3rd cents. BC), probably built after the incorporation of M. into the Aetolian League (in 338 BC; Aetolians). According to Plut. Quaest. Graec. 15, who cites…

Naupactus

(1,246 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Achaeans, Achaea | Peloponnesian War (Ναύπακτος/ Naúpaktos, Latin Naupactus). [German version] I. Location Coastal town in West Locris (Locrians [1]), about 9 km from the strait of Rhion and Antirrhion, protected by a promontory of the Rhigani mountains (cf. Scyl. 35; Str. 9,4,7; 10,2,3; Plin. HN 4,6; Ptol. 3,14). The plains to the east and west of N. were very fertile but exhausted by olive and grain cultivation. The chṓra of Naupactus ( Naupaktía) included most of the coastal plain (Pol. 5,103,4) and ascended …

Boundaries

(1,694 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(ὅρος/ hóros, μεθορία/ methoría; Latin finis, limes). [German version] I. Subjective and objective frontier perception The earliest evidence for the perception of the topographical dimensions of frontier zones predates the concept of the state. In Greece, differences in burial rites, cults of the dead and of heroes and the territorial distribution of crafted goods since the Iron Age point to actions motivated socially and subjectively, defining ethnically coherent communities or peoples as distinct from others…

Amphissa

(444 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Ἄμφισσα; Ámphissa). Largest town of western  Locris (Paus. 10,38,4; Str. 9,3,4. 4,7 f.; from the Middle Ages called Salona, nowadays once again A.), located in the north of the fertile plain of  Crisa (Str. loc. cit.) c. 15 km north-west of  Delphi, where the road from western Locris joined that from Doris and Delphi. Both the desire of this wealthy agrarian town to expand into the Crisaean plain, and its key strategic position in central Greece are possible reasons for it…

Crisa

(523 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κρίσα). City in West Phocis (Κρίσα: Hom. Il. 2,520; Hecat. FGrH 1 F 115a; Pind. Isthm. 2,18; Soph. El. 180; Str. 9,3,3; Paus. 10,37,5; Plin. HN 4,7; Frontin. Str. 3,7,6; schol. Pind. Pyth. 1 hypoth.; Ptol. 3,14,4; Hsch. s.v. Κ.; Κρίσσα/η: Hom. H. Apollon 282; Eust. in Hom. Il. 526; Κίρσα: Alc. fr. 121 D.), toponym of the alluvial plain bounded in the SE by Cirphis and Parnassus (Κρισαῖον πεδίον: Hdt. 8,32; modern plain of Itea) on the bay of the Corinthian Gulf. C. lies on a rock…

Hyampolis

(397 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Ὑάμπολις; Hyámpolis). City of eastern  Phocis, modern Bogdanou on the plateau of Kalapodi. In antiquity, it was the main access from northern Greece into the Cephisus valley (Hdt. 8,28; Paus. 10,1,11) through Thermopylae and the plains of Opus. The acropolis of H. is located on a hill where the passage leading to the plains of Exarchus joins the valley ( Abae, distance c. 2,5 km), crossed by the road to Orchomenus. The name is derived etymologically from Hyántōn pólis (Paus. 10,35,5; Str. 9,2,3; 9,3,15); mentioned in the catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,51…

Drymus

(271 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Δρυμός; Drymós). [German version] [1] City at the foot of the Callidromon (Δρυμαία; Drymaía). City situated at the foot of the Callidromon, in the northern foothills of the central Cephissus valley, c. 1.5 km south-east of Drymea (in antiquity Nauboleís, Paus. 10,33,12; cf. Hom. Il. 2,518); set ablaze by the Persians (480 BC, Hdt. 8,33), destroyed by Philip II (346 BC Paus. 10,3,2) and conquered by Philip V (207 BC, Liv. 28,7,13), still mentioned in late antiquity (Hierocles, Synekdemos 643; Not. Episc. 737-762). Well-preserved wal…

Mychus

(57 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Μυχός; Mychós). Easternmost harbour of Phocis (Str. 9,2,25; 3,13; the place name refers to the remoteness of the location) below the Helicon on the Gulf of Corinth, probably nearby modern Boulis in the Bay of Zálitzan (neolithic finds). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J.M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Eastern Phokis, 1986, 11, 91f.

Alpenus

(81 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Ἀλπηνός, Ἀλπηνοί; Alpēnós, Alpēnoí).   Kome (Hdt. 7,176) or   polis (Hdt. 7,216) on the coastal plain of eastern  Locris, which is towered over by the rock formation Melampygos; at the eastern exit of  Thermopylae, where the Anopaia path branches off (Hdt. 7,215 f.; 229; cf. Aeschin. Leg. 132 f.). Badly damaged during the earthquake in 426 BC (FGrH 85 Demetrius of Callatis fr. 6). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography Müller, 292 f. Pritchett 4, 1982, 159-162 F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 202.

Tritea

(106 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Τριτέα/ Tritéa; Τρίτεια/ Tríteia). Town in the east of western Locris (Locri [1]; Thuc. 3,101,2; Steph. Byz. s.v. Τρίτεια; SEG 25, 590), probably at modern Pendeoria near Galaxidi, with remains of a ring wall. A breed of hunting dog was named after T. (Hesych. s.v. Τριτῆς γενήεν). There are frequent mentions of inhabitants of T. in inscriptions at Delphi. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography L. Lérat, Les Locriens de l'ouest, vol. 1, 1952, 51 f., 145-149, 211; vol. 2, 1952, passim  J. Bousquet, C. Vatin, La Convention Chaleion-T., in: BCH 92, 1968, 29-36  G. …

Abae

(254 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles (Ἄβαι, Ἀβαί; Ábai, Abaí). Situated in eastern  Phocis on a rocky outcrop at the edge of the plain which borders the pass of  Hyampolis (about 2.5 km distance) near the modern Exarchos, on the road from Orchomenus to Opus (Paus. 10,35,1-5). Name derived from its Argive founder  Abas (Paus. loc. cit.). Seat of an oracle of Apollo (Hdt. 1,46; 8,27; 33; 133; Paus. loc. cit.; Str. 9,3,13; Diod. Sic. 16,58,3-6; Syll.3 552); fortress on the access to Phocis from  Locris Opuntia and  Boeotia (D…

Boagrius

(65 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Βοάγριος; Boágrios). River in eastern Locris (also called Manes), at times a raging torrent, discharges into the sea near Thronium (Str. 9,4,4; Plin. HN 4,27; Ptol. 3,15,10-11; cf. Hom. Il. 2,533; Lycoph. Alex. 1146). Its course was changed considerably by the earthquake of 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20). Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography J. M. Fossey, The Ancient Topography of Opountian Lokris, 1990, 167-179.

Cirphis

(137 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Κίρφις; Kírphis). Mountain ridge south of Arachova in Boeotia, extending from the plain of Cirrha in the west to the Schiste in the east (Str. 9,3,3; FdD 3, 4, 280 c 24), where its highest peak rises (Xerovouni, 1503 m: cf. Pind. Hyporchemata d 5,4; b 3,11) and together with Mount Parnassus divides east and west Locris (Str. 9,3,1). It is uncertain if these references indicate the existence of an inhabited centre of the same name, whose location should be assumed near the modern v…

Stiris

(103 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
[German version] (Στῖρις/ Stîris, Στιρίς/ Stirís). City in Eastern Phocis on the route from Chaeronea over the Helicon [2] to Delphi (Paus. 10,35,8), remains at modern Paleochori (monastery of Agios Nikolaos). In the 3rd cent. BC border conflicts with Panopeus (SEG 42, 479), in the middle of the 2nd cent. BC sympoliteía with Medeon [1] (Syll.3 647). Inscriptions: IG IX 1,32-57. Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) Bibliography F. Schober, Phokis, 1924, 40f.  Philippson/Kirsten 1, 438  N. D. Papachatzis, Pausaniu Hellados Periegesis, vol. 5, 1981, 441f.  J. Fossey, The Ancient To…
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