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(103 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Παραίβιος; Paraíbios). Mythical slave or owner of a farm, whose story was told to the Argonautsby Phineus [1], thereby proving his visionary powers (Apoll. Rhod. 2,456ff. with scholia): P.' father had felled a tree, in spite of the pleas of the hamadryad who lived in it, thus bringing ill fortune on himself and his descendants. Phineus recognized the cause and placated the nymph with an altar, whereupon she became Phineus' friend and provider [1. 222f. n. 3]. On P. in art, see [2]. Dräger, Paul (Trier) Bibliography 1 U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Hellenistische D…


(405 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἀνάγκη; Anánkē). The word attested in Homer as an abstract term (‘compulsion’) develops significance as a philosophical term from the pre-Socratics onwards [1. 5 ff.; 2. 147 ff.; 3. 103 ff.]: Thales (A 1, DK 71, 12 f.) preserves the oldest Greek speculation, ‘to bring to expression with ananke, i.e. natural necessity, the power which is active mechanically behind all phenomena and which compels the divine primal principle to appear in its multitudinous forms’ [1. 6]; ananke is frequently equated with εἱμαρμένη ( heimarménē) (e.g. Heraclid. A 5). The pe…


(175 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Φρόντις; Phróntis). [German version] [1] Son of Phrixus and Chalkiope, daughter of Aietes Son of Phrixus and Aeetes' daughter Chalciope [2], brother of Argos [I 2], Melas [2] and Cytissorus (Hes. Cat. 255; Apollod. 1,83). On Phrixus’ death the sons return to Hellas (Apollod. 1,120; Apoll. Rhod. 2,1141ff.) or remain in Colchis (Val. Fl. 5,460ff.). Only in Apoll. Rhod. 4,70ff. does Ph. play a role, when Medea calls to him as the youngest of Phrixus’ sons to help her escape and he responds. Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Helmsman of Menelaus Son of Onetor, helmsman of Menelau…


(288 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Τυρώ; Tyrṓ). The daughter of Salmoneus and Alcidice, famed for her very white skin (from tyrós, cheese) and her magnificent head of curls (cf. Hom. Od. 2,119 f.; Hes. Cat. 30,25; Pind. Pyth. 4,136, cf 109; Soph. fr. 648; Diod. Sic. 6 fr. 6,5; 7,2). After her parents were killed by Zeus, T. who had opposed her father's sacrilege, is taken to Thessalia to her uncle Cretheus and his wife Sidero. Here Poseidon, assuming the shape of the river god Enipeus, fathers her twins Neleus [1] and Pelias; At…


(412 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μινυάδες, Latin also Minyeïades/singular Minyeïas or Minyeïdes/singular Minyeïs). The three daughters of Minyas, whose names were Leucippe (Leuconoë), Arsippe (Arsinoë [I 2]) and Alcathoë [1] (Alcithoë). Their myth, which is missing in Apollodorus, is found with variants in Ov. Met. 4,1ff., 389ff., Plut. Mor. 299e-300a (Qu. Gr. 38), Antoninus Liberalis 10 and Ael. VH 3,42. According to Antoninus Liberalis, who follows Nicander (Heteroioumena, B. 4) and Corinna (fr. 665 PMG), the Minyade…


(1,282 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μήδεια/ Mḗdeia, Lat. Medea). Born in Aea/Colchis (M. Αἰαίη: Apoll. Rhod. 3,1136) as the daughter of Aeetes, who was the son of Helios and the brother of Circe, and the Oceanid Idyia (Hes. Theog. 956ff., 992ff., Apollod. 1,129) or Hecate (Diod. Sic. 4,45,3). Sister of Chalciope [2] and Apsyrtus [1] (Apollod. 1,83.132), betrothed to Styrus (Val. Fl. 5,257f.), wife of Jason [1] and by him the mother of Medeius (Hes. Theog. 1001) or Mermerus and Pheres (Apollod. 1,146). Subsequently s…


(158 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Συμπληγάδες sc. πέτραι; Symplēgádes, sc. pétrai: 'clashing sc. rocks'), also synormádes (Sim. fr. 546 PMG), sýndromoi (Pind. P. 4,208-211), Cyaneae [1] (Eur. Andr. 864 f.), syndromádes (Eur. Iph. T. 422) or Plēgádes (Apoll. Rhod. 2,596). Gateway of rocks in the myth of the Argonauts at the transition from the real world into the mythical one (return through the Planctae , with which they were often confused, e.g. Hdt. 4,85,1). The Argo is the first ship to successfully pass through, with Hera's (and Athena's) help, a…


(156 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Τῖφυς/ Tîphys). Son of Hagnias, from Siphae, the port of Thespiae, Argonaut and helmsman of the Argo (Apollod. 1,111; Apoll. Rhod. 1,105-110 and 1,401 f.; Val. Fl. 1,481-483; Orph. A. 122-126). T. leads the launch (Apoll. Rhod. 1,381-393), urges departure ( ibid. 1,522 f.), steers safely out of harbour ( ibid. 1,559-562) and takes the ship unharmed into the Bosporus [1] ( ibid. 2,169-176) and through the Symplegades ( ibid. 2,573-606). After his death from illness among the Mariandyni, Ancaeus [2] (Apollod. 1,126; Apoll. Rhod. 2,854-898; Val. Fl…


(302 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μινύαι; Minýai). Mycenaean-period tribe with a highly developed culture (domed tombs, palace, dyke works on Lake Copais [1. 127ff.]), living both in Boeotia (chief town Orchomenus [1], with the epithet Minyeïos, Hom. Il. 2,511; Hom. Od. 11,284; Hes. fr. 257,4; founded out of Iolcus: Apoll. Rhod. 3,1093ff.) and in southern Thessaly ([1. 139ff.; 2. 205ff.; 3. 243ff.] place name Minya, IG IX 2, 521; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μινύα; M. in Iolcus: Sim. fr. 540 PMG; founded by M.: Demetrios Skepsios fr. 51 Gaede; Strab. 9,2…


(695 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
(Μέλας/ Mélas). [German version] [1] Brother of Oeneus Son of Porthaon (Portheus) and Euryte in Calydon [3], brother of Oeneus, Agrius [1], Alcathous [2], Leucopeus and Sterope (cf. Hom. Il. 14,115ff.; Apollod. 1,63). M.'s eight sons were killed by Tydeus for pursuing their uncle Oeneus (Apollod. 1,76 = Alcmaeonis fr. 4 EpGF). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Phrixus and Chalciope Son of Phrixus and Chalciope [2], the daughter of Aeetes, brother of Argus [I 2], Phrontis and Cytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83). In the older myth M., like Argus, prob…

Calais and Zetes

(355 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Κάλαϊς, Ζήτης; Kálaïs, Zḗtēs). Boreads, wind gods, the winged sons of  Boreas and  Oreithyia, brothers of Cleopatra and Chione [1]. Sent by their father from Thrace (Pind. Pyth. 4.179-183), they become members of the  Argonauts (Apollod. 1.111; 3.199; Apoll. Rhod. 1.211-223; Ov. Met. 6.712-721). In Salmydessus they free the blind prophet  Phineus, who is married to Cleopatra, from the  Harpies. In the fight, C. and Z. were initially supposed to die, like the Harpies (Apollod. 1.122; 3.199 [1. 2291; 2. 104ff.]). However, divine intervention rescues both la…


(1,398 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Ἀργοναῦται; Argonaûtai). [German version] A. Participants Argonauts is the general descriptive term for the group of heroes (also called Minyae), mainly belonging to the pre-Trojan generation, who were sent by Pelias under Jason's leadership on the Argo to fetch the fleece of the ram on which Phrixus and Helle had once fled. Even the most ancient sources identify the Golden Fleece with the Argonauts myth, although originally the two groups of myths probably had nothing done with each other. Altogethe…


(294 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Αἶα). Mythical island of exploration in the Oceanus (in the land of the Aethiopeans: Mimn. fr. 5 Poetae Elegiaci Gentili/Prato), in which Helios has a thalamos for his rays, originally the goal of Jason (Mimn. fr. 10). In A. (etymologically, ‘Earth, Land’ [1. 22, 39]) is the city of Aeetes, the ‘husband of A.’ (Mimn. fr. 10, cf. Pherecyd. fr. 105). Knowledge that the Pontus is an inland lake resulted in A. being shifted to the river (Phasis) connecting it with the sea (Hes. fr. 2…


(157 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Χαλκιόπη; Chalkiópē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Chalcodon Daughter of Chalcodon (king of the Abantes: Hom. Il. 2,541) or of Rhexenor; second wife of Aegeus before Medea (Apollod. 3,207; Schol. Eur. Med. 673). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Sister of Medea Daughter of Aeetes and Idyia; sister of Medea, wife of Phrixus, mother of Argos, Mela, Phrontis and Kytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83; Herodor FGrH F 39; Apoll. Rhod. 2,1148ff.); in Pherecydes (FGrH F 25) she is called Euenia (also C. and Iophossa; cf. Hes. fr. 255 M-W; Ac…


(124 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Κρηθεύς, as ke-re-te-u already Mycenaean). The son of  Aeolus [1] and Enarete (Apollod. 1,51), founder and ruler of  Iolcus. After the death of his first wife  Sidero, he married his ward Tyro, the daughter of his brother  Salmoneus and the mother of Pelias and  Neleus with Poseidon, with whom he begat  Aeson [1], Phere and  Amythaon (Hom. Od. 11,235ff.; Hes. fr. 30,29ff.; Apollod. 1,90ff.; 96); Val. Fl. 5,476ff. also makes  Athamas a son of C.; Pind. Nem. 5,26 speaks of a daughter…


(139 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἄκαστος). Son of Pelias and Anaxibia (cf. Apollod. 1,95), probably an Argonaut from the beginning (Apollod. 1,112). A. institutes games to commemorate his dead father and expels Jason and Medea from Iolcus (Apollod. 1,144), of which he becomes king (Apollod. 3,164; cf. Diod. 4,53,1; Hyg. Fab. 25,5). Absolves Peleus of the murder which Astydameia, wife of A. (in Pind. this is Hippolyte) is vainly trying to bring about, then slanders him to A.; A. leaves Peleus unarmed in Pelion, w…


(2,023 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἰάσων; lásōn). [German version] [1] Leader of the Argonauts Thessalian hero from  Iolcus, leader of the  Argonauts, participant in the Calydonian Hunt (Apollod. 1,68), son of  Aeson [1] and Polymela (Hes. Cat. 38-40; Apollod. 1,107) or  Alcimede (Pherecydes 3 F 104 FGrH; Apoll. Rhod. 1,47); brother of  Promachus (Apollod. 1,143); with  Hypsipyle, he fathered  Euneus [1] (Hom. Il. 7,468) and Nebrophonos (Apollod. 1,115), and with  Medea, he fathered Medeus (Hes. Theog. 1001),  Mermerus [3] and Pheres (Apollod. 1,146). Having been raised by  Chiron (Hes. Cat. 40), I. lives…


(405 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μαχάων; Macháōn). In Homer, M., like his brother Podalirius, is the son of Asclepius and like him is a ‘good physician’ and commander of 30 ships from Tricca, Ithome and Oechalia (Hom. Il. 2,729ff.) in Thessaly [1. 47ff.; 2. vol. 2, 17ff.; 3. vol. 1, 225ff.]; he cures Menelaus, who has been wounded by Pandarus, with herbs that Asclepius obtained from Chiron (Hom. Il. 4,192ff.); M. himself is wounded by Paris with an arrow (ibid. 11,505ff.) and revived by Hecamede with a mixed drin…


(164 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἕλλη; Héllē). Daughter of  Athamas and  Nephele, fled with her brother  Phrixus on a golden ram from her stepmother Ino and drowned in the sea, which from then on has been called  Hellespont (Pind. fr. 189; Aesch. Pers. 69f.) (Apollod. 180-182; Ov. Fast. 3,851-876; Hyg. Fab. 1-3; her tomb on the Chersonesus: Hdt. 7,58,2). Valerius Flaccus (5,476ff.; 2,611) associates H. and Phrixus more closely with the  Argonauts, by making Athamas the son of  Cretheus, rather than his brother, a…


(190 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Αἰήτης; Aiḗtēs). King of Aea/Colchis, son of Helios and Perse(is), brother of Circe, Pasiphae and Perses. Spouse of Idyia or Asterodeia (or Eurylytes: Naupact. fr. 6-7 EpGF), father of Chalciope (whom he married to Phrixus), of Medea, of Apsyrtus/Phaethon (as well as of Circe and Aegialeus in Diod. Sic. 4,45,3 and Dion. Scyt. fr. 20 Rusten): Hom. Od. 10,138 f.; Hes. Theog. 956 ff.; Apollod. 1,83, 129, 147; Apoll. Rhod. 3,240 ff. A. tries to kill Jason for the Golden Fleece, since his power depends on its possession (Val. Fl. 5,236 ff. = Diod. Sic.…
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