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Shtern oyfn dakh

(3,122 words)

Author(s): Gal-Ed, Efrat
Titel des ersten, 1929 in Bukarest erschienenen Bandes von Gedichten Itzik Mangers (1901–1969), die in einer modernistischen Synthese Aspekte der jiddischen und allgemeinen europäischen Kultur in der Inszenierung des Lokalen verbinden. Mangers Werk ist durch einen innovativen Umgang mit Stoffen der jüdischen Tradition gekennzeichnet, deren Inhalte er oft entnationalisierte und in universelle Symbolik überführte. Es entsprach damit der Vision einer jiddischen Moderne, wie sie für einen jiddisch-s…

Ibn al-Wardī

(207 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Sirād̲j̲ al-Dīn Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar , S̲h̲āfiʿī scholar, d. in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 861/September-October ¶ 1457. He is said to be the author of the K̲h̲arīdat al-ʿad̲j̲āʾib wa-farīdat al-g̲h̲arāʾib , a sort of geography and natural history without any scientific value. In spite of the authorities mentioned in the introduction (al-Masʿūdī, al-Ṭūsī, Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, al-Marrākus̲h̲ī), the K̲h̲arīda is merely a plagiarism of the Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-funūn wa-salwat al-maḥzūn of Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn Aḥmad b. Ḥamdān b. S̲h̲abīb al-Ḥarrānī al-Ḥanbalī, who lived in Egypt circa 732/1332. The work has neverth…


(22 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Malay), an amulet, more particularly a written amulet. The word is of Arabic origin = ʿazīma [see Ḥamāʾil ]. (Ed.)


(155 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a valley near to Mecca, a short distance from the road to al-Ṭāʾif, cited, especially in old poetry, because the tomb of Abū Rig̲h̲āl [ q.v.] was traditionally located there. The correct reading of the toponym is not however certain, with variation between al-Mag̲h̲ammas, al-Mug̲h̲ammis and al-Mug̲h̲ammas. The latter form seems to be the most plausible, for it denotes a spot covered with scrub and bushes in which it is possible to hide, and, according to a tradition, it was there that the Prophet would go asid…


(608 words)

Author(s): Ambros, E.G. | Ed.
, the pen name ( mak̲h̲laṣ ) used by a number of Ottoman poets whose poetry is known to date mainly through the samples found in med̲j̲mūʿa s and ted̲h̲kire s. Judging by these, they are all poets of secondary importance at best. Two should be singled out. 1. Maḥmūd Efendi of Gelibolu (Gallipoli), known as Ḳara Maḥmūd (or Ḳara Ḳāḍī-zāde according to Beyānī). A mülāzim of S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām Abu ’l-Suʿūd Efendi [ q.v.], he first became a müderris . After being dismissed from a position with a daily salary of forty aḳče s, he was appointed in 984/1576 to the S̲h̲āh Ḵh̲ūbān medrese


(103 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, the form found in mediaeval Indo-Muslim sources for a town of northwestern India, in the 12th century geography of Kas̲h̲mīr by Kalhaṇa called Udabhānda, now marked by the settlement of Hund some 9 km/15 miles north-east of Attock [see at́ak ] in Pakistan. It was the capital of the powerful Hindu-S̲h̲āhī dynasty of Indian princes who opposed Sebüktigin and his son Maḥmūd of G̲h̲azna in the late 4th/10th and early 5th/11th centuries, until Maḥmūd finally vanquished Rād̲j̲ā D̲j̲aypāl; for further details, see hindū-s̲h̲āhīs . (Ed.) Bibliography See that for hindu-s̲h̲āhīs, to which s…

Iskandar Ḵh̲ān b. D̲j̲ānī Beg

(137 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ruler in Transoxania, from his capital Buk̲h̲ārā, of the Turco-Mongol S̲h̲ībānid [ q.v.] or Abu ’l-Ḵh̲ayrid dynasty, ruled 968-91/1561-83. Iskandar was in fact a weak and ineffective ruler. Real power was in the hands of his son ʿAbd Allāh, who had shown his ability against rival families in Transoxania as early as 958/1551 and who became the greatest of the S̲h̲ībānids; after his father’s death he was to reign unchallenged for a further sixteen years [see ʿabd allāh b. iskandar ]. For the course of events in these decades, see s̲h̲ībānids and R.D. McChesney, EIr art. Central Asia . vi. In th…


(2,273 words)

Author(s): C.C. Berg-[Ed.]
(a.), with Ṣiyām , maṣdar from the root s-w-m; the two terms are used indiscriminately. The original meaning of the word in Arabic is “to be at rest” (Th. Nöldeke, Neue Beiträge zur sem. Sprachw ., Strassburg 1910, 36, n. 3; see previously, S. Fränkel, De vocab. ... in Corano peregrinis, Leiden 1880, 20: “quiescere” ). The meaning “fasting” may have been taken from Judaeo-Aramaic and Syriac usage, when Muḥammad became better acquainted with the institution of fasting in Medina; This is the sense of the word in the Medinan sūras. Origin ofthe rite. That fasting was an unknown practice …


(73 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), the name of the fifteenth metre in Arabic prosody [see ʿarūd ]. It comprises, in each hemistich, four feet made up of one short and two longs ( faʿūlun ). A certain number of licences are possible, in particular, the omission of the fourth foot, the shortening or even the cutting out of the third syllable of a foot, etc. (Ed.) Bibliography M. Ben Cheneb, Tuḥfat al-adab 3, Paris 1954, 87-93.


(88 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(p., lit. “palace-curtain”), the term applied in the sources for the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs and the Rūm Sald̲j̲ūḳs to the great tent carried round by the sultans, regarded, with the čatr or miẓalla [ q.v.], as one of the emblems of sovereignty. It is described in such sources as Rāwandī, Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn and Ibn Bībī as being red, the royal colour, and as having internal curtained compartments forming rooms. (Ed.) Bibliography İ.H. Uzunçarşılı, Osmanlı devleti teşkilâtina medhal, Istanbul 1941, 31, 37, 121 Sukumar Ray, Bairam Khan, Karachi 1992, 232.

Ḳubbe Wezīri

(130 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t.) “vizier of the dome” was the name given, under the Ottomans, to the members of the imperial Dīwān ( dīwān-i hümāyūn [ q.v.]) who came together on several mornings each week around the Grand Vizier in the chamber of the Topkapi Palace called Ḳubbe alti̊ because it was crowned by a dome. The ḳubbe wezīrleri were the ḳāḍī-ʿaskers [ q.v.] of Rumelia and Anatolia, the ḳāḍī of Istanbul, the defterdār [see daftardār ], the nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲l [ q.v.], the ag̲h̲as of the Janissaries, the commander of the cavalry and, when he happened to be in the capital, the ḳapudan pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. This institution wa…


(266 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or D̲j̲andār, the name given to certain guards regiments serving the great Sald̲j̲ūḳs and subsequent dynasties. Attached to the royal household, they provided the sovereign’s bodyguard, and carried out his orders of execution. Their commander, ¶ the amīr d̲j̲āndār , was a high-ranking officer; some of them are reported as becoming atābaks [ q.v.]. Under the Sald̲j̲ūḳs of Rūm, they formed an élite cavalry guard, and wore their swords on a gold-embroidered baldric. At the accession of ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn Kayḳobād I in 616/1219 he is said to have had a bodyguard of 120 d̲j̲āndārs (Ibn Bībī, El-Evāmi…


(469 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Arabic term for a man whose foot-joints can be heard cracking when he walks, but often found as a proper name in the first days of Islam and particularly among the Tamīmīs; the last to bear this name seems to have been al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ b. Ḍirār al-Tamīmī, chief of police for ʿĪsā b. Mūsā [ q.v.], governor of Kūfa from 132/750 to 147/764 (Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, ii, 465; al-Ṭabarī, iii, 131, 347). Among those who bore this name, apart from al-Ḳaʿḳāʿ b. ʿAmr [see the following article] and the poets cited by al-Marzubānī ( Muʿd̲j̲am , 329-30), especially noteworthy was the Co…

Idrīs b. al-Ḥusayn

(185 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. Abī Numayy , Abū ʿAwn , S̲h̲arīf of Mecca in the early 11th/17th century. He was born in 974/1566, and became S̲h̲arīf and governor of the Ḥid̲j̲āz in 1011/1602-3 after his brother Abū Ṭālib and in conjunction with his nephew Muḥsin. This division of power ended, however, in a fierce internal family dispute, apparently over Idrīs’s retinue and followers ( Ḵh̲uddām ), and in 1034/1624-5 the family deposed Idrīs from the governship of the Ḥid̲j̲āz in favour of Muhsin. The conflict was resolved by a truce, during the time of which Idr…

al-ʿAbbās b. Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn

(452 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, eldest son of Aḥmad b. Ṭūlūn [ q.v.]. When the latter set off for the conquest of Syria, he entrusted the government of Egypt to al-ʿAbbās, his designated heir, but al-ʿAbbās was very soon persuaded to take advantage of his father’s absence to supplant him. Warned by the vizier al-Wāsiṭī, Ibn Ṭūlūn got ready to return to Egypt, and his son, after having emptied the treasury and got together considerable sums of money, went off with his partisans to Alexandria, and then to Barḳa. As soon as he got back…

Maʾāt̲h̲ir al-Umarāʾ

(211 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name of a celebrated Persian collection of biographies of Muslim Indian commanders from the reign of the Mug̲h̲al Emperor Akbar (963-1014/1556-1605) till the time of its author, Ṣamṣām al-Dawla Mīr ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ S̲h̲āh-Nawāz K̲h̲ān Awrangābādī (1111-71/1700-58). Born at Lahore, he soon settled in the Deccan in the service of the first Niẓām of Ḥaydarābād [ q.v.], Niẓām al-Mulk Āṣaf-Ḏj̲āh. and filled offices in Berār [ q.v.] and then as Dīwān or chief minister of the Deccan. His policy in the latter post aimed at checking the growing influences in that state …


(311 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(Rīda, Rēda) is the name of a number of places in ʿAsīr, in the Yemen and in Ḥaḍramawt. The word rayd (pl. aryād/ruyūd ) means a ledge of a mountain, resembling a wall, or a resting upon ledges of mountains (Lane, Lexicon , s.v.). At least in Ḥaḍramawt, it is the term for the centre of the territory of a Bedouin tribe, which is generally a depression in the rocky plateau (D. van der Meulen and H. von Wissmann, Hadramaut , some of its mysteries unveiled, Leiden 1932, 22, n. 1). There are several places of this name ( Rēda) in Hadramawt: Raydat al-Ṣayʿar, Raydat Arḍayn, Raydat al-ʿIbād, Raydat …


(623 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(also ḥaramgāh , zanāna , etc.), a term applied to those parts of a house to which access is forbidden, and hence more particularly to the women’s quarters. In ancient Arabia women seem to have enjoyed some measure of personal freedom, though the use of the veil was not unknown, especially in towns. It became commoner after the advent of Islam, with the adoption, on the one hand of a stricter code of sexual morality, on the other of a more urban way of life. The provisions of t…


(77 words)

Author(s): Ed.
Abū Saʿīd Yūsuf b. Muḥammad al-Ṭāʾī, ʿAbbāsid commander of the middle decades of the 3rd/9th century, who presumably derived his professional nisba from service along the Byzantine frontiers ( t̲h̲ug̲h̲ūr [ q.v.], sing, t̲h̲ag̲h̲r ; al-Samʿānī, Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābād, iii, 136-7, gives two scholars with this same nisba, connected respectively with Tarsus and Adana). Nothing is known of him beyond the fact that he was the patron of his fellow-Ṭāʾī, the poet al-Buḥturī [ q.v.]. (Ed.)

Sīdī Ballā

(261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh Ibn ʿAzzūz al-ḳuras̲h̲ī al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī al-Marrākus̲h̲ī , a cobbler of Marrakesh to whom thaumaturgic gifts were attributed and who died in an odour of sanctity in 1204/1789. His tomb, situated in his own residence at Bāb Aylān, has been continuously visited because of its reputation of curing the sick. Although he had not received a very advanced education, Ibn ʿAzzūz nevertheless succeeded in leaving behind an abundant body of works, dealing mainly with my…
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